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by: Brian Mueller


Marketplace > Rice University > Earth Science > ESCI 107 > OCEANS AND GLOBAL CHANGE
Brian Mueller
Rice University
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This 88 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brian Mueller on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESCI 107 at Rice University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/225052/esci-107-rice-university in Earth Science at Rice University.

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Date Created: 10/19/15
httpWwwgcri00rgCONSEQU ENCESWinter96sunclimatehtml Judith Lean and David Rind The Climate System Solar Radiation and the Earth39s Energy Balance Martin Visbeck A The E is the star located at the center of our planetary system It is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium In the Sun39s interior a thermonuclear fusion reaction converts the hydrogen into helium releasing huge amounts of energy The energy created by the fusion reaction is converted into thermal energy heat and raises the temperature of the sun to levels that are one hundred times larger that of the earth39s surface The solar heat energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic waves enebaling the trasnfer of heat trough radiation Luminosity L0 Solar Evolution The Sun was In and yet the Ear uch dimmer in its youth th was not frozen 2 4 6 Age Billion Years Figure 2Van39ations in solartotal radiation incident on the Eanh in watts per square meter on different time scales a Recorded daytoday changes for a period ofseven months at atime ofhigh solar activity The largest dips ofup to 03 persist for about arnonth and are the result oflarge sunspot groups that are carried across the face ofthe Sun with solar rotation b Observed changes for the eenyear period overwhich direct measurements have been made showing the 11year Schmbe cycle ofamplitude about 01 percent c A reconstruction of Wriations in solar radiation since about 1600 based on historical records of sunspot e measured variations in MC and 139Be a Recorded daytoday changes for a period of seven months at a time of high solar activity The largest dips of up to 03 persist for about a month and are the result of large sunspot groups that are carried across the face of the Sun With solar rotation 1364 g t 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 The quantity and quality of light from the Sun varies on time scales from milliseconds to billions of years During recent sunspot cycles the total solar irradiance has changed by about 01 with the sun being brighter at sunspot maximum Some of these variations most certainly affect our climate but in uncertain ways http sciencemsfcnasag0Vsslpads0larimagesTOTALJRRADIANCEWIDEGIF What is quotThe Solar Cyclequot Every 11 years the sun undergoes a period of activity called the quotsolar maximumquot followed by a period of quiet called the quotsolar minimumquot During the solar maximum there are many sunspots solar ares and coronal mass ejections all of which can affect communications and weather here on Earth httpwwwsunspotcyclecomcycle One way we track solar activity is by observing sunspots Sunspots are relatively cool areas that appear as dark blemishes on the face of the sun They are formed when magnetic eld lines just below the sun39s surface are twisted and poke though the solar photosphere The twisted magnetic eld above sunspots are sites where solar ares are observed to occur and we are now beginning to understand the connection between solar ares and sun spots Sunspots appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun Temperatures in the dark centers of sunspots drop to about 3700 K compared to 5700 K for the surrounding photosphere They typically last for several days although very large ones may live for several weeks Sunspots are magnetic regions on the Sun with magnetic eld strengths thousands of times stronger than the Earth39s magnetic eld Sunspots usually come in groups with two sets of spots httpsciencemsfcnasagovsslpadsolarsurfacehtm YYYYYYYY w W N f I I IDf X L Hf The sunspot itself the dark region on the sun doesn39t by itself affect the earth However it is produced by a magnetic field and that magnetic field doesn39t just stop it comes to the surface and expands out above the surface quot Hot material called plasma near a sunspot interacts with magnetic fields and the plasma can burst up and out from the sun in What is called a solar are Energetic particles Xrays and magnetic fields from these solar ares bombard the earth in What are called geomagnetic storms b r Prediction August 2002 Predicting the behavior of a sunspot cycle is fairly reliable once the cycle is well underway about 3 years after the minimum in sunspot number occurs httpsciencemsfcnasagovsslpadsolarpredicthtm I y le 23 SunspotvNuber Predi on August 2005 r w T w r v I V 2000 2002 2004 2006 NASANSSTCHathaway Predicting the behavior of a sunspot cycle is fairly reliable once the cycle is well underway about 3 years after the minimum in sunspot number occurs httpsciencemsfcnasa govsslpadsolarpredicthtm The sun appranching snlar maximum Ea rl lir 1 99 Late 1999 souncE ECIH13IquotE5 IquotHAEA SUHSF39EIT NUMBER EDD El 15385 IEIEIIII The I liln ll l EVEN MIME Tl HM 1mm 1mm 15211 11 1134 ll 13 mm 1m l Elli n t I 3 Vein 394 23 tr I I p 13 Waffl v gh39w393quot i a 39 439 M h f 53516311 l a 323 m 3 395 393 n v 39 39 e w L V J 3quot 3911quot V r 53 2vy 39n39 1 39 39 3 e 399 in gig5 a I r Di 1quot Pr 11 quotquotig rwa x a w 1 w e 391 3 a g fs39 n f iii 34 am w u 7 1quot 543 s v a v Mr ao r a 0 r 25 A39Ps 39 y ra 4 6 win aquot P fut9 Myquot r 3 or a gj39gwgd 395 M39 7 y 145 rr39 a Jr J Figure 1 Annual averages of the socalled sunspot numbera measure of how many spots appear on the Sunduring the present century SUNSPOTNUMBER mu 7 7 m M n A mvwWKM MMRAWMmhn 1 n 176n 177a 17nn 179a 1nnn 1n1n 1nzn 1nan 1nan 1n DATE 19H 196 197a 193a 199a znnn zn1n znzn znan znan 2n DATE Yearly Nnmhel 1510sz l l Hl l l quot ll l l ll l M Mum Li 7 l Wu mllh Hll ull lll l M ll wlll Sunspat Numbel ll M H l l ll ll ll ll H W l l l mm a m mlm l l llll l M H lw m lmm l th ll y v ll a ll l l Ule l l l V 0 l x L x l J l J U x 16 163 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 N50 2000 The Maunder Mmlmum DATE Early records of sunspots indicate that the Sun went through a period of inactivity in the late 17th century Very few sunspots were seen on the Sun from about 1645 to 1715 Although the observations were not as extensive as in later years the Sun was in fact well observed during this time and this lack of sunspots is well documented This period of solar inactivity also corresponds to a climatic period called the quotLittle Ice Agequot when rivers that are normally icefree froze and snow fields remained yearround at lower altitudes There is evidence that the Sun has had similar periods of inactivity in the more distant past The connection between solar activity and terrestrial climate is an area of on going research 39 jearlyjpg The Effect of Sunspots on the Earth39s Climate Even though sunspots are darker cooler regions on the face of the sun periods of high sunspot activity are associated with a very slight increase in the total energy output of the sun Dark sunspot areas are surrounded by areas of increased brightness known as pages Some parts of the solar spectrum especially ultraviolet increase a great deal during sunspot activity Even though ultraviolet radiation makes very little contribution to the total energy that comes from the sun changes in this type of radiation can have a large effect on the earth39s atmosphere especially the energy balance and chemistry of the outer atmosphere Though the connection between sunspot activity and the earth39s climate is still being debated it is known that a period of unusually low sunspot activity from 1645 1715 called the Maunder Minimum coincided with a period of long cold winters and severe cold temperatures in Western Europe often called the quotLittle Ice Agequot From 1645 to 1715 there was a drastically reduced number of sunspots This period of reduced solar activity which was first noticed by G Sporer and was later investigated by EW Maunder is now called the Maunder Minimum This period of time was also unusually cold on earth and it has been referred to as the quotLittle Ice Agequot This has led to some speculation that sunspot activity may affect the earth39s climate Similar periods of low solar activity seem to have occurred during the Spoerer Minimum i420 1530 the Wolf Minimum 1280 1 340 and the Oort minimum 1010 1050 Solar astronomers label solar cycles from one minimum to the next and assign them numbers starting at one with the 1755 1766 cycle Hi iFSE EiFiEii Ti g r I 39 3 ligg g i 575 1 39VVquotIT3 F 5j3 if 39 7 V 39 7quot x 39 39 P isisngceabout l oobased w br 39 htn galadang the70 ye gvMau crv n H 1 vstirqated V aa ons are ionfglafger 21mph m g f f gm V 1 i Hit1M Ham 1 2gaEHGENTJaHmL3El 5 L i t EDDIE diAilongerreoord orgasm activityquot based on postulated changes in solar radiation that are derived from measured variations in 14C and lOBe Am PL H 7 mwv Tl Luagf f u u 3 mgwwf l l f J H H wazxnwon n1quot EKWJ y n A K quot H quotA L pcthQSvyunu g z2wlSkCL I u i mi N lt 31 My 4f pg ww En aurasIa Mirnafwd Mam snags inmme was Mun by m an m Elm 3955 3mm En aunr lm ll 1 MM quotThe earth has a protective cocoon of magnetic eld called the magnetosphere and it normally protects us from the magnetic particles of the solar wind and the other energetic particles in the solar wind But during a coronal mass ejection we actually have a chunk of the sun that breaks away and hits the earth39s magnetosphere and disturbs it and this disturbance shows up as auroraequot rm NASA lllumalimi Elli lm HalIii liagmwwhare and its Interamunl wlljll I39IIE sum As far as we can currently tell variations in the sunspot cycle seem to have far less impact on the earth39s climate than human actions such as burning fossil fuels or clear cutting forests do However more research into sunspots needs to clone Figure 3 Trends in the natural and human in uences that are thought to have modified the Earth39s climate during the past four centuries Compared are annual averages of a estimates of the solar total radiation from Fig 2c b variations in the amount of volcanic aerosols derived from an index of known eruptions and c the averaged estimate of the Earth39s surface temperature shown in cm M t dw S t w wfm g y baweC a0 0 n S aUCSgt m mm f1 rfltqnbo l uaemom waS 06 gdhmanmecemameltce m 1n1WU 1a atSnIu M ldgmmegmavh tlmonwm 6 6 V6 t a f mmmcmy1m nmeW momW Weemwmmwdoeb2 mem anmmlcpmwmglmmnmm 41 3 12 u 1 a 4 u 1 n A u w a s 1 advm ice14 we Scalar Tatai ama n Figure 5 A comparison of reconstructed solar total radiation solid blue line with two curves of Northern Hemisphere NH summer temperature in black for the period since 1600 The shorter run of temperature shown as a dashed line is taken from direct meteorological measurements that commence in about 1850 The solid black line is a longer and less certain reconstruction of NH temperature derived primarily from treering data that has been scaled to match the direct instrumental data during the period of overlap The temperature curves are in lt gtC and show departures from an arbitrary mean value All data have been averaged over ten years Periods in which different climate forcing mechanisms appear to have predominated are distinguished by shading Properties of Solar radiation The Sun is located at the center of our Solar System at a distance of about 150 X 106 kilometers from Earth With a surface temperature of 5 7 80 K the energy ux at the surface of the Sun is approximately 63 X 106 Wm2 what law of radiative transfer do we use to calculate this number This radiative ux maximizes at a wavelength of about 05 pm can you show that this is true based on the laws of radiative heat transfer which is at the center of the visible part of the spectrum Solar radiation on Earth As the Sun39s energy spreads through space its spectral characteristics do not change because space contains almost no interfering matter However the energy ux drops monotonicaly as the same total radiated energy spreads over the surface of an ever growing sphere As the radiation reaches the outer limit of the Earth39s atmosphere several hundred kilometers over the Earth39s surface the radiative ux is approximately 1360 Wm2 P EA RSO N Prom 1lt 390 Hall EarthSun Relations Summer N H h IIN Hemisphere emisp ere Ecliptic plane I39 Autumn Earth39s revolution around the sun showing the changing seasons and changing length of day Adapted from Berner amp Berner FMEEMH warergm Englewuod Cliffs Prentice Hall inc 1981 MWle lllbulbn D W ra Std mm a We TW 91 5 WWW Baedmwnmunsmmn Averaged over a Jll 24hour period the amount of incoming radiation varies with latitude and season as 39n Note that the gure combines the effect of the change in incidence angle with latitude and time of year and the number of hours of sunlight during the day At the poles during solstice the earth is either exposed to sunlight over the entire 24 hours day or is completely hidden from the Sun throughout the entire day This is why the poles get no incoming radiation during their respective winter or more than e maximum radiation at the equator during their respective summer Effect of orbit39s shape The radiation at the top of the atmosphere varies by about 35 over the year as the Earth spins around the Sun This is because the Earth39s orbit is not circular but elliptical with the Sun located in one of the foci of the ellipse The Earth is closer to the sun at one time of year a point referred to as perihilion than at the quotoppositequot time a point referred to as aphelion The timeofyear when the Earth is at perihilion moves continuously around the calendar with a period of ZlOOOyears At present it occurs in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere winter The annual average radiative solar ux at the top ot the Earth39s atmosphere l360 Wmz is sometimes referred to as the Solar Constant because it has changed by no more than a few percent over the recent history of the Earth last few thousand years There are however important variations in this ux over socalled quotgeologicalquot time scales to which the Earth glaciation cycles are attributed Autumnal Equlnox Sept 23 Wuuer Solstice Dec 22 Autumnal Eqmrmx Sam 23 Perihelion July 4 17 Modi cation of the timing of aphelion and perihelion over time A today B 11500 years into the future rc Turn It dctcrmlnad by balancing 601001v 0 4 mm TTmh39l a IIMIM a1 a mumA a mauuunn mum rmwc mCI gt Thurman givcn by 01 209 27 gt ATS a5 0 100m Black End Emisaiun cums 91 h 51m and Earth t t t t t Solar radiation occurs over awide range o owever the energy orsolarradiation is not divided evenly over all mvelength but as shows is rather sharply centered on the wavelength band of022 micrometers pm As can be seen from hi range includes ultraviolet radiation UV which encompasses the range 39 39 le md39at39on sim tsmled by 2 mar dl ln Radiative PM In wtmil nmt 07iim and in rared ration IR which encompasses the range 07100 pm i W Electromagnetic Spectrum s 2 Far Near 2 E Vacuum xra S Radiowaves Microwaves fm d f 6quot ultras am ir S quot re red 3 g violet 9 m V 5 IIIIIIIIIII I I I I 107 109 I0quot l0393 10 5 10 I0395 115quot 30 73 1103 3xl0 5 3on 7 3xl0 9 3xl0quotquotm Effect of Earth s spherical shape If the Earth Were a disk With its surface perpendicular to the rays of sunlight each point on it Would receive the same amount of radiation an energy ux equal to the solar constant However the Earth is a sphere and aside from the part closest to the sun Where the rays of sunlight are perpendicular to the ground its surface tilts with respect to the incoming rays of energy With the regions irthest away aligned in parallel to the radiation and thus receiving no energy at a l As the angle ofincidence11ncreasesvnsolatvon decreases x degrees latitude away from subsolar pomt A cos x e A A A ADEL7 C05 X The tilt of the Earth39s axis and the seasons If the axis of Earth was perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and the direction of incoming rays of sunlight then the radiative energy ux would drop as the cosine of latitude as we move from equator to pole However as seen in the Earth39s axis tilts at an angle of 2350 with respect to its plane of orbit pointing towards a x point in space as it travels around the sun Once a year on the Summer Solstice on or about the 21st of June the North Pole points directly towards the Sun and the South Pole is entirely hidden from the incoming radiation Half a year from that day on the Winter Solstice on or about the 21st of December the North Pole points away from the Sun and does not receive any sunlight while the South Pole receives 24 hours of continued sunlight During Solstices incoming radiation is perpendicular to the Earth surface on either the latitude of Cancer or the latitude of Capricorn 2350 north or south of the equator depending on whether it is summer or winter in the Northern Hemisphere vm Sh slics Mus Surface m Mm Denmy Lacs gavny amp velacxty Augean Surface temperature sttancefxam the Sun 5372 km 5 xxxnkaz 5 974x1n kg 23 hs mm 365 25 days 1 496xle m Consolmagno Guy J and Martha w Schaefer 1994 Wurlrl39s Apart A szthnnkin Planaary Sciences Englewood cuffs NJ Prenuce Hall The effective temperature of Earth is about 255 K or 18 quotC With this temperature the radiation Will be centered on a wavelength of about 11 pm Well Within the range of infrared IR radiation Averaged over all seasons and the entire Earth the surface temperature of our plane is about 288 K or 15 7C This difference is the effect of our atmosphere or more precisely the heat absorbing components ofour atmosphere This effect is traditionally referred to as the greenhouse effect referring to the Warming of garden plots by covering them With a glass enclosure COMPOSITION OF EARTH39S ATMOSPHERE BV NUMBER OF MOLECULES Z Major constituents N2781 02209 ACtWe mmor constituents H20104o c0210035 03 0000007 CH2 0 00017 N20 0 00003 ch39s 0 00000014 H20 liq ice0002 aerosols000000002 lnactwe mmor constituents Ar093 Ne0001o He 000052 Kr 000010 a wth 11 iiojoi r 39 r 39 39 39 0 radiaiion some or the minor components are errocu39vo ab sorbers Particularly ammo is water Vapor which absorb effectively in the IR wavelength range A BLACK BODY CURVES EARTH 1139111111111111 1 010150203 05 1 111111 152 3 5 WAVELENGTH p 11 11111111 101520 30 50 100 on 13 3 mow new so Nagg 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 3 3 WJFDZ Eti z 3 quot2 H2 rnlnllnn 2 3 W21 Nz g EH2 quot2 10 1 H30 H 1114 little or Because the atmosphere is almost transparent to sunlight most of it is absorbed at the surface some is re ected as we saw earlier from the surface and by clouds and other light particles suspended in the air When the surface warms and emits IR radiation this radiation can not freely escape into space because trace gases such as water vapor absorb it These gases and their surrounding air warm up emitting radiation towards the Earth39s surface as well as upward towards space half is emitted up and half down This effectively traps part of the IR radiation between ground and the lower 10 km of the atmosphere The surface temperature then rises above the effective temperature calculated above Te The effect is similar to that of a blanket that traps the body heat preventing it from escaping into the room and thus keeps us warm on cold nights Solar energy enters the atmosphere some is reflected This energy is absorbed by the Earth and reradiated back to space at longer wavelengths Greenhouse gases absorb this energy and reradiate much of it back to the surface much like an insulating blanket The second cyclical variation results from the fact that as the Earth rotates on its it wobbles like a spinning top changing the orbital timing of the and see Figure 7y2 below This effect is known as the The precession of the equinox has a cycle of approximately 23000 years According to illustration A the Earth is closer to the sun in January and farther away in July at the present time Because of precession the reverse will be true in 11500 years and the Earth will then be closer to the sun in July illustration B This means of course that if everything else remains constant 11500 years from now seasonal variations in the Northern Hemisphere should be greater than at present colder winters and warmer summers because of the closer proximity of the Earth to the sun The first cyclical variation known as controls the shape of the Earth39s orbit around the sun The orbit gradually changes from being elliptical to being nearly circular and then back to elliptical in a period of about 100000 years The greater the eccentricity of the orbit ie the more elliptical it is the greater the variation in solar energy received at the top of the atmosphere between the Earth39s closest and farthest approach to the sun Currently the Earth is experiencing a period of low eccentricity The difference in the Earth39s distance from the sun between perihelion and aphelion which is only about 3 is responsible for approximately a 7 variation in the amount of solar energy received at the top of the atmosphere When the difference in this distance is at its maXimum 9 the difference in solar energy received is about 20 The third cyclical variation is related to the changes in the tilt of the Earth39s axis of rotation over a 41000 year period During the 41000 year cycle the tilt can deviate from approximately 225 to 245 degrees At the present time the tilt of the Earth39s aXis is 235 degrees When the tilt is small there is less climatic variation between the summer and winter seasons in the middle and high latitudes Winters tend to be milder and summers cooler Warmer winters allow for more to fall in the high latitude regions When the atmosphere is warmer it has a greater ability to hold water vapor and therefore more snow is produced at areas of or Cooler summers cause snow and ice to accumulate on the Earth39s surface because less of this frozen water is melted Thus the net effect of a smaller tilt would be more extensive formation of glaciers in the polar latitudes Periods of a larger tilt result in greater seasonal climatic variation in the middle and high latitudes At these times winters tend to be colder and summers warmer Colder winters produce less snow because of lower atmospheric temperatures As a result less snow and ice accumulates on the ground surface Moreover the warmer summers produced by the larger tilt provide additional energy to melt and evaporate the snow that fell and accumulated during the winter months In conclusion glaciers in the polar regions should be generally receding with other contributing factors constant during this part of the obliquity cycle The Thin Blue Veil GNiDOCSATMi DEFINITION OF ATMOSPHERE The gaseous mass or envelope surrounding a celestial body especially the one surrounding the earth and retained by the celestial body39s gravitational field SPHERES ON THE EARTH important to understand global change ATMOSPHERE the gaseous mass or envelope surrounding a celestial body especially the one surrounding the earth and retained by the celestial body39s gravitational field GEOSHERE the soils sediments and rock layers of the Earth39s crust both continental and beneath the ocean floors HYDROSPHERE the water on or around the surface of a planet BIOSPHERE the part of the earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life NOOSPHERE the quotsphere of human thought it is composed of all the interacting minds on Earth Formation of the Atmosphere The Earth39s atmosphere was formed by planetary degassing a process in which gases like carbon dioxide water vapor sulphur dioxide and nitrogen were released from the interior of the Earth from volcanoes and other processes Life forms on Earth have modified the composition of the atmosphere since their evolution ATMOSPHERIC LAYERS Innosphere Amara Meanaphere Trnpupause Troposphere Stratusphere T IiilTEi1 ili3iif t4 394 Al ffiulj I slain v at in The troposphere is the atmospheric layer closest to the planet and contains the largest percentage of the mass of the total atmosphere It is characterized by the density of its air and an average vertical temperature change of 6 degrees Celsius C per kilometer IiiImmith l lgy l vapul content in the troposphere decrease rapidly with altitude Water vapor plays a major role in regulating air temperature because it absorbs solar energy and thermal radiation 39om the planet39s surface The troposphere contains 99 quotA of the water vapor in the atmosph re Water vapor concentrations vary with latitudinal position They are greatest abovet tropics where they may be as high as A a ecrease toward the polar regi All weather phenomena occur within the troposphere although turbulence may extend into the lower portion of u L 1 L quotregion of mixingquot and is so named because ofvigorous convective air currents within the layer i uu39u mn frgydira The upper boundary ofthe layer ranges in height 39om 8 km in high latitudes to the summer and lowest in the winter A narrow zone called the tropopause L AL i r ithin r r 39 39L39 stratosphere The stratosphere is the second major strata of aIr In the atmos re e 39d phe 0 rea es graduallyto 200220 degrees Kelvin K at the lower boundary of the stratopause 50 km which is marked by a decrease in temperature Because the air temperature in the stratosphere increases with altitude it does not cause convecti n has a stabilizing effect on atmospheric conditions in the region Ozone plays the major role in regulating the thermal regIme ofthe stratosphere as water n low Temperature increases with ozone concentration Solar energy is converted to kinetic energy when ozone molecules absorb ultraviolet radiation resulting in heating of the stratospher Meteorological distribution of oz nre enl 39 39 the stratosphere does production conditions strongly affect the one r llalu pneue 39 39 39 regions of and occurs at higher latitudes than The ozone layer is located at an altitude between 2030 km Approximately 90 A ofthe ozone in the atmosphere resides int re Ozone concentration in r 0 approximately 004 parts per million by volume in the troposphere Ozone absorbs the bulk of solar ultraviolet radiation in wavelengths from 290 nm 320 nm These wavelengths are harmful to life because they can be absorbed by the nucleic acid in cells Increased penetration of ultraviolet radiation to an environmental consequences pp 39 solar a host of 39 Iirha a httpdaacgsfcnasagovCAM PAIGNDOCSATMCHEMozoneformationhtml Mesosphere Radiosonde 75 km 1 5 g 5 a o The mesosphere a layer extending from approximately 50 km to 80 km is characterized by decreasin temperatureswhich reach 190180 K at an altitude ofBO km lnthis region concentrations of ozone an wa r troposphere or stratosphere With increasing distance from Earths surface the chemical composition of air t on altitude and the atmosphere becomes enriched with lighter gases At ve 39 39 es the residual ses begin to stratfy according to molecular mass because of gravitational separation Thermosphere The thermosphere is located above the mesosphere and is separated from it by the mesopause transition layer The temperature in the thermosphere generally increases with altitude up to 10001500 K This increase in temperature is due to the absorption of intense solar radiation by the limited amount of remaining molecular oxygen At an altitude of 100200 km the major atmospheric components are still nitrogen and oxygen At this extreme altitude gas molecules are widely separated Ionosphere Aurora M esosphere AURORA V Th errriospher 139 Attitude km quot39llllllllli Auroras are beautiful undulating sheets of light in the nearpolar sky They are caused by gases that become excited after being hit by solar particles Most auroras are 100 to 250 km above the ground AURORA PLASMA A plasma is an extremely hot gas that is composed of freefloating ions atomic nuclei stripped of some electrons making the ions positively charged and free electrons negatively charged A plasma behaves much differently than a neutral gas and is considered the fourth state of matter A plasma conducts electrical currents Stars are composed of plasma The exosphere is the most distant atmospheric region 39om Earth39s surface The p er boundary ofthe layer extends to heights of perhaps 960 to 1000 km and is relatively unde ned The exosp ere is a transitional zone between Eart 39s atmosphere and interplanetary space I Atmnsphere is divided irth 4 hermal I Minde ka 40 ayes spheres zu m39ogam n L j 39 1mb m E Y gt STRAT DEEHEFIE 10 quotlb 30 V v Tm mum mum 1 1m 3 E E E at cm i i Stabsphere 21 quot 7 39Era ems f 39 Tropnsphere E 7 39 r r r 1m 211 2521 43 Te mpemtme Kelvin T C TK 27315 Wi Jul 3 3 211 HE F Atmdsphere quot 1 n T E I L a I quot limit V i 133 l I Air Pressure At sea level the air pressure is about 147 pounds per square inch As your altitude increases for example if you climb a mountain the air pressure decreases At an altitude of 10000 feet the air pressure is 10 pound per square inch and there is less oxygen to breathe Tap tilr the Atmosphere Welght ef the air In the enlumn applies a preseure tn paelnt I Surface At ILl nit Area Pressure inches 11 a 175 23 5 9 7 295 3 5 Yhermosphae 9a se Mesosphere 70 y E summers E 25 lt 30 V 19 20 12 ID 75 Tmpasphere Imazmb 1 am 1 2 mo am am Pressure mb httpzllwww uwspedugeo facutyheywoodGEOG 1 O1airstruc slttratopause tropopause Magnetosphere free protons 3 electrons concentrated in Van Allen Radiation Belts Exosphere free helium atoms Thermosphere free electrons concentrated auro ra e MESOSPI IEI E trace dust Stratosphere concentration of Ozone and Sulnhides in Ozone Layer 39 Troposphere holds i39 39it of gaseous mass including nearly LL water particulates and WE THER CE Average composition of the atmosphere up to an altitude of 25 km Gas Name Chemical Formula Percent Volume Nitrogen N2 7808 Oxygen 02 2095 Water H20 0 to 4 Argon Ar 093 Carbon Dioxide CO2 00360 Neon Ne 00018 Helium He 00005 Methane CH4 000017 Hydrogen H2 000005 Nitrous Oxide N20 000003 Ozone 03 0000004 Role of variable gases Carbon Dioxide C02 traps thermal energy quotGreenhouse Effectquot consumed by plants in photosynthesis accumulates with a fossil fuel combustion b devegetation and c ocean pollution Water Vapor H20 traps thermal energy quotGreenhouse Effectquot increases near liquid water supplies increases at higher temperatures Ozone 03 traps thermal energy quotGreenhouse Effectquot concentrated in lower stratosphere blocks most UV and shorter wavelength radiation apparently decreasing due to CFC catalysts Particulates suspended solids including carbon smoke soot dark in color water ice crystals light in color silica dioxide dust light in color various salts amp oxides ocean spray pollution various coloring organic materials spores poHen various coloring Significance of Particulates block incoming sunlight condensation nuclei originate mostly at ground surface 31mg rCJ S ll E mumpm jai E U tilda mm A 3 LT WFW E 5333333 Harm 35 FEET 3 Falls Wt Latitude m 1338 Wadsworth Publishing CompanyIITF hiiucle 1mm ch Molecula mun7 1m Seplunbenm 1m Dnlmnn am nu u Ozone Depletion by Chlorine cla Ozone February 1992 February was m w m Mgh he Greenhuuse Effect S me 5393 adminquot Same a39f the if lll39 il39Ed i5 m mmd by the radiatiun EliSEE thwu h Earth and the F 399 atmsphem the Mmmpher and same is abde and reemitted in all directium by greeuhause gas mulecubes The effect of this is m warm the Eanh39a surface and the l wer atmmphere S lar m iati li passes I rang the chear atmmphere Inirarred radian5n 39 g 39itted frgm the J lh39 amp t a What is the correct order of atmospheric layers from bottom to top 1 Stratosphere Mesosphere Troposphere Thermosphere Exosphere 2 Stratosphere Troposphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Exosphere 3 Stratosphere Troposphere Thermosphere Mesosphere Exosphere 4 Troposphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Thermosphere Exosphere 5 Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Exosphere Which layer of the atmosphere contains the ozone layer Exosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Thermosphere Troposphere In which layer do virtually all weather phenomena take place Exosphere Mesosphere Stratosphere Thermosphere Troposphere


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All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.