Chapter 1: What does “living with earth” mean?
Chapter 1: What does “living with earth” mean? GEOL 1005
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kerrigan Unter on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1005 at George Washington University taught by Brown, C in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Environmental Geology in Geology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
GEOL 1005 Chapter 1 What does living with earth mean Atmosphere hydrosphere geosphere biosphere Earth Systems 11 Environmental Geology and You Environment all the physical and biological components changes people make to the Earth How people and the Earth interact How Earth systems interact with each other How science helps people to understand and deal with issues related to Earth How people can take steps to achieve a sustainable future Sustainable capable of being continued with minimal longterm effect on the environment Needs of the present generation are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs essential concept 12 How people and Earth interact Average growth rate birth rate death rate Per capita consumption average consumption of a commodity per year per person depends on personal social cultural and economic factors Gross domestic product GDP the total market value of goods and services produced in a year Af uence is increasing around the world As the growth rate of the human population slows consumption patterns will become an ever more signi cant in uence on people s environmental impacts The combination of increasing population and increasing consumption means that people will use more and more of Earth s natural resources I impact P population X A af uence X T technology The key cause of increased spending is the greater number of people affected by natural disasters 13 How Earth systems interact 0 System a group of interacting interrelated or interdependent parts that together form a whole 0 Geosphere consists of rock and material derived from rock 0 Atmosphere consists of gases that surround Earth 0 Hydrosphere consists of all the water on Earth s surface and underground 0 Biosphere consists of all the living organisms that inhabit Earth 0 Energy and Systems Radiation from the Sun transfers energy to the oceans and the atmosphere causing severe weather Solar energy also drives chemical reactions that make possible the growth of green plants Heat from Earth s interior melts parts of the geosphere and helps produce volcanic eruptions Gravity moves water in rivers to the ocean gradually changing landscapes and inundating entire regions during oods 0 Carbon 0 Reservoir a place where specified matter or energy in stored in a system 0 Flux the rate of transfer of matter 0 Residence time Reservoir Size Flux In Reservoir Size Flux Out 0 If a reservoir is very large and the ux of matter in or out is low residence times can be very long 0 Sink a system reservoir where matter has a very long residence time sink isolate matter from system interactions 0 Open system matter and energy can move in or out 0 Closed system allows only energy to be transferred in or out 0 Dynamic system open systems that readily interact and change 0 Steady state transfers of energy and matter into and out of an open system are about the same 14 How science helps Scientific method an approach to asking and answering questions that scientist use to explore and explain how the natural world operate Developing questions Developing hypotheses I Hypothesis tentative explanation that is consistent with all we know about the situation Testing hypotheses Evaluating results Iterative process it repeats itself over and over again Theory extensively tested hypotheses become integrated in a wellaccepted statement of relationships Availability of water Transition from oil to other energy source Effects of global climate change 15 How to achieve sustainability in the future Renewable resources resource that will continue to be available because it is naturally replenished as fast or faster than it is being consumed Nonrenewable resources cannot be replenished as fast as they are being used Biodiversity the full range of variability within the living world at all levels measure of health of a biosphere Biodiversity depends on the size of a habitat Carrying capacity k number of people that the Earth can support sustainably at a defined level of economic and social wellbeing
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