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Educational Psychology

by: Myrtice Yundt III

Educational Psychology EDU 272

Myrtice Yundt III

GPA 3.68

Giovanni Valiante

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Giovanni Valiante
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myrtice Yundt III on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 272 at Rollins College taught by Giovanni Valiante in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see /class/225067/edu-272-rollins-college in Education and Teacher Studies at Rollins College.


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Date Created: 10/19/15
The construction of THEORY Theories emerge from a PARADIGM A collection of beliefs shared by scientists a set of agreements about how problems are to be understood Kuhn 1970 gt A body of shared assumptions beliefs methods and interpretations that constitute a particular vision of reality 0 ce gt A loose collection of logically heldtogether assumptions concepts or propositions that orient thinking and research Bogden amp Biklen gt A theoretical orientation a systematic set of beliefs together with accompanying methods Lincoln amp Guba A paradigm is composed of various THEORIES that share the more general world view expressed by the paradigm A theory can be defined as gt an explanation of facts Le Francois gt a general principle that attempts to explain in an organized way the relationships among a number of facts or conditions Fond amp Resnick gt a systematic framework of principles based on organized observations of changes in behavior over time Biehler gt a tentative explanation of why and under what circumstances certain phenomena occur Serafino amp Armstrong gt a set of assumptions or system of beliefs that explains what has happened in the past as well as predicts what will happen in the future Salkind amp Ambron gt a series of related abstract statements which define and relate phenomena Mller gt a set of related general statements used to explain particular facts Hamilton amp Ghatala gt a scientifically acceptable set of principles offered to explain a phenomenon Schunk ltgt Theories operate within a paradigmatic framework 0 Theories aid in organizing facts and interpreting meaning represent public rather than private knowledge test claims seek patterns of behavior patterns of behavior are less complex than individual behavior seek generalizability have structural components 1 Hypotheses assumptions that can be empirically tested 2 Problems for study phenomena to be explained 3 Principles fundamental core concepts specificity of meaning creates jargon Theory and models gt Models are analogies drawn from something that is known extended to the unknownitheir purpose is to aid theory building to mimic to simplify to illustrate There are physical models the atom the social system graphic models flow charts linguistic models meta hors logical models statistics formulas HeP Nf Limitations of theories All theories re ect the paradigmatic view and bias of the researcher Theories are limited by choice of method and type of study There is always distortion in theor Theories provide incomplete explanation of human nature and behavior HeP Nf Theories provide frameworks for interpreting environmental observations and serve as bridges between research and education Research findings can be organized and systematically linked to theories Without theories research findings would be disorganized collections of data because researchers and practitioners would have no overarching frameworks to which they could be linked Schunk 1996 p 3 Key issues in Developmental Theory and Research NATURE heredity genetic predisposition or NURTURE experience environment CON TINUITY development is a gradual process or DISCONTINUITY there are distinct stages of development KNOWLEDGE GENERATION innate external or personalsocial construction How can a theory be evaluated Standards for Appraising the Adequacy of Theories l A theory is better if it accurately re ects the facts of the real world ACCURACY 2 A theory is better if it is stated in a way that makes it clearly understandable to anyone who is reasonably competent reasonably competent meaning having a suitable command of language mathematics and logical analysis CLARITY 3 A theory is better if it not only explains why past events occurred but also reasonably predicts future events It is better if it enables us to make accurate predictions about the speci c behaviors of a particular child rather than only speculations about general growth patterns for a group of children EXPLANATION AND PREDICTION 4 A theory is better if it offers practical guidance in solving daily problems of child rearing to people responsible for the welfare of childreniparents teachers camp counselors pediatricians clinical psychologists juvenile court judges and so on GUDANCE 5 A theory is better if it is internally consistent CONSISTENCY 6 A theory is better if it is economical in the sense that it is founded on as few unproven assumptions as possible and requires simple mechanisms to explain all the phenomena it encompasses ECONOMY 7 A theory is better if it is testable falsifiable or disconfirmable TESTABILITY 8 A theory is better if the evidence supporting it is convincing STREN GTHOFEVlDEN CE 9 A theory is better if it is able to accommodate new data ADAPTABILITY 10 A theory is better if it offers reasonable answers to questions about all conceivable phenomena within the theory s line of inquiry COMPREHENSIVENESS ll A theory is better if it stimulates the creation of new research techniques and the discovery of new knowledge RESEARCH GENERATION 12 A theory is better if it continues to attract attention and enlist adherents over an extended period of time DURABILITYHISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE 13 A good theory is selfsatisfying It explains development in a way that we feel makes good sense It is quotintuitivequot SENSE AND SATISFACTION common sense chord 14 A theory is generative if it challenges the guiding assumptions of the culture and of the times raises fundamental questions regarding contemporary social life fosters reconsideration of what is typically taken for granted challenges Iakenfor granled assumptions and generates fresh alternatives for social science CHALLENGE AND GEN ERATIVITY FLOW PASSAGES I guess the best way to describe it is that it s the only thing that s going to happen The ball has absolutely no options It will go in I wish I could feel that way all the time but it only happens I think when my concentration is at its absolute peak and usually that s toward the end of a tournament when everything is on the line all my adrenaline is pumping I m in the ow of the tournament and everything is riding on a certain shot I have what I would describe as black out moments Tiger Woods Vogue Spring 2006 p 206 quotEvery golfer at his or her own level occasionally experiences usually out of the blue a spell when everything feels absolutely rightigrip aim posture takeaway backswing downswing impact follow through the whole enchilada It s a rare but delightful experience and that week for no reason I could think of then or now it enveloped me for four straight days The result was a mind totally free of concerns about technique or ball striking and therefore a mind applied exclusively to competitive strategy and course managementquot Nicklaus p 39 The decisions are so fast Your routine seems faster but slower It s like you are not cognitively aware of what you are doing of your grip or your set up but you are just kind of feeling your target feeling what you are doing The stuff you feel is not right here it s out here The stuff you are feeling is what shot is going to happen like making a 50 footer Obviously before every putt I felt it I could see it feel it what was going to happen I didn t question it 7 Byrd It s total focus But your total focus is out there It s as if you have a zoom lens on a camera and you re looking way out there You re zooming in and you re really very specifici on where you want to hit it You re aware of everything everything Around you but you re not thinking mechanically of how you re going to get it out there You have the feeling that you are GOING to make it work you re gonna create the shot and it s just a real calm feeling because you re just out there being athletic and playing 7 Funk When you are playing well you might stay in the ow and the zone It seems like you are able to slow things down but also things seem to be moving around slowly around you but while you are playing it just seems like you are able to concentrate on so many things at one time It becomes so clear and makes sense You are able to look at the yardage look uphill factor in the wind think about what is going on on the green where you want to place the ball and know exactly how hard you want to hit that shot and do it in a relatively short amount of time Yet be so confident about it and know and be able to effortlessly make that plan and hit it where you want to It doesn t seem to be that easy even though you are trying to do the same thing Furyk Some tips regarding writing using APA guidelines Do not contract in formal writing Wrong quotI can t agree with Dewey on this point quot Right quotI cannot agree with Dewey s pointquot Avoid superlatives and most ly adverbs 7 Do not write Write quotThe article was incredibly well writtenquot quotI found the article well written quot quotI completely disagreequot quotI disagree because quot quotThat is utterly incorrect quot quotI believe he is in error because quot Be modest in your assertions and do not be dismissive of authors As William James wrote quotYou may notfollow me wholly and ifyou do you may not wholly agree with me Butyou will I know regard me at least as serious and treat my e ort with respectful consideration quot The authors whom we read are serious and we must treat their effort with respectful consideration Careful with your tone Poor quotHis stance strikes me as completely absurd quot Better quot1 nd his contention problematic because quot Better quotThe reasonI cannot agree with his contention is that quot Quotation marks follow periods and commas 7 quot and quot never quot or quot Examples On the whole we tend to believe what we read There were connections between this article and Lies of the Mind People often seek simple solutions and good for them There should always be three ellipsis points and they should have a space between them 7 eg quothe asked what I wanted quot On the use of heshe 7 Replacing he with he or she or she or he should be done sparingly because the repetition can become tiresome Combination forms such as heshe or she are awkward and distracting Alternating between he and she may be distracting and is not ideal doing so implies that he or she can in fact be generic which is not the case APA Guidelines p 51 APA suggests a replacing with individual or with person b using plural nouns c replacing the pronoun with an article or d dropping the pronoun altogether Cite authors with year of publication and provide page numbers when quoting text Example As Smith 1996 explained quotwe are always falling in love with the wrong personquot p 45 Notice in the example that the page number is enclosed by parentheses there is a space between the period and the number and punctuation comes after the closing parenthesis Never use full justi cation Only use left justi cation Use only authors39 last names 7eg quotAccording to Dewey 1949 reality is quot Do not write John Dewey One of the most common errors in writing is the incorrect use of pronouns and their antecedents Remember that pronouns and antecedents must agree in number Wrong It seems to me that the client is not lowering their opinion of psychologists Problem 7 clienttheir opinion Right The clients are not lowering their opinion of psychologists Wrong An individual is eXpected to have a certain amount of basic knowledge about their eld so as to create good hypotheses Problem 7 individualiheirfielal Right Individuals are eXpected to have a certain amount of basic knowledge about their eld so as to create good hypotheses Wrong In a wellwritten piece that shows a person s dedication for their work Problem 7personiheir work Right In a wellwritten piece that shows one s dedication for one s work Avoid trite terms such as In conclusion simply conclude Do not get into the habit of referring to citations in present tense Always use past tense Wrong Right quotDewey 1932 writes that individuals should strive for democracyquot quotDewey 1932 wrote that individuals should strive for democracyquot On a related point authors do not speak or my Authors write In APA every item in an ordered list is followed by a comma 7 eg quotI went to the store and bought apples oranges and bananasquot Careful with seXist language7eg man 39s behavior sbe human behavior or people s behavior When referring to race Black and White should be capitalized Avoid upon and in order to Use upon only when you are writing a fairy tale instead of in order to simply say to We is reserved for popes kings and coauthors Stay away from we or us when you mean human beings Wrong quotWe live in a dif cult world quot Right quotThe world is dif cult quot Wrong quotSuch a philosophical viewpoint would harm us irreparablyquot Right quotSuch a philosophical viewpoint would harm individuals irreparably Use exclamation marks only once every two years pick the spot carefully and mean it Please please please proofread your manuscript more than once and run the spellchecker Ifyou have a grammar program run that as well Disregard for the presentation of a manuscript surely betrays disregard for the class and professor


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