Mechatronic Systems ME 430
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Halie Berge on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ME 430 at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/225095/me-430-rose-hulman-institute-of-technology in Mechanical Engineering at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
M15430 Mechatronics Transistors at 5 Volts Frrstburldthe basre swrteh erreurtwrth an LED as shown justhke before 5 L 7404 V nu Hh w h erreurt to pm 3 as well Then eohheet amotorbetweeh prh4 and ground You39ll be tryrhg Let39s try ruhruhg the rhotorusrhg dAfferent types of trausrstors Use the same NOT gate swrteh setup butrhstead of ruhruhg the motor duecdy vr pm 4 use atrahsrstor Bmld each of the followrhg and getrt checked off Use trahsrstor datasheets I 1 Euheuohsu basre swrteh erreurt wrth the ehrp sunning the LED eurreht I 2 Euheuohsu basre swrteh erreurt wrth the ehrp sinkingthe LED eurreht 3 Potehtrany fuheuohsu erreurt wrth 7404 powehhg a motor pm 4 and LED Ifxtdaem39tmmata txytagmxtbyhand xtrhrywurrhrreorrhrymtwurrrtuu Potehtrany fuhetrohsu erreurt wrth 7404 xinking eurreht to the motor Nate Lb 74u4 prrr4 Naw eurrehtgoeshurh Lb sthpryhtothe chp thnxsthematm arm I 5 Euheuohsu erreurtusrhg aN39PNtransxstor use ph4 keep the LED erreurt I o Euheuohsu erreurtusrhg ah Nrchannel MOSFET use pm 4 remove LED I 7 Euheuohsu erreurtusrhg aDarhhgtoh Basic Baekgrmmsl 1th uslng more general blg plcture terms not offlclal EE terms So what are we dolng here7 e olatasheet Thls ls FAR to lovv to run amotorl Novvrttums out that the olatasheet ls very eohservaave and most chlps ear dnve more eurreht Regar or me ool for dnvlng amotor Never run output devlces duectly from chlp mreroeohtrollers They slmply eah39t souree enough eurreht You need atrahsrstorl dless rt39s stall avery po s or Translstnrs svvrteh C B E Mosfet BJT There are two mam types oftxanslstors Table 1 Types hr Translstnrs Type Controlled vla l BJT e Blpoloar Juhetroh Translstor errent T rMedal Omole Semreoholuetor Voltage Fleld EtTeet Trahsrstor F N39PNtr v t Colleetor to the Emltter you wlll moluee alarger eurrehttlovv through the eolleetor For svvrtehmg the eurrehttlovvrs etreetavely saturated Theresrstahees R and R2 areuseolm eomuhetroh vvrththetrahsrstor reslstanees can make the txahslstorfuhetaoh as an amphfler mstead ofa swltch A quick blurb for Transistors and Integrated Circuits Today we use many electrical devices to make our lives easier From cell phones to microwave ovens to personal digital assistants they all owe their efficiency to a small device that led to some big ideas The rst transistor The first transistor invented at Bell Labs in 1947 The transistor was used to amplify electrical currents Before it was developed electron tubes also called vacuum tubes were common But they were too large and delicate for many uses The transistor on the other hand was small cheap and efficient It had all sorts of applications from airplane guidance systems to transistor radios Engineers quickly figured out how to make transistors from semiconductor materials like silicon slicing them into thin wafers At first each wafer had one transistor but soon they were able to put many transistors on the wafer or chip The First Integrated Circuit A few inventors thought it would be a good idea to put not just transistors on chips but entire electrical circuits socalled integrated circuits The two that succeeded in developing the first integrated circuit were Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby This was in 1958 Working separately at two different companies the men each found a way to wire an entire circuit onto one silicon chip Their discovery led to the birth of a new industry located in what we now call Silicon Valley Today one silicon chip can have hundreds of millions of microscopic transistors resistors capacitors and conductors on it Just how many transistors are there in the world When people talk about big numbers they sometimes talk about ants Biologist Edmund Wilson has estimated that there are about 100 quadrillion ants on Earth In a single year there are about 100 times as many transistors produced 7 and the trend is accelerating Can you tell me more about BJTs Bipolar Junction Transistors BJT transistors can be used in di erent modes Most EE folks will use BJTs in a region that is called the active region In the active region transistors are used to cause certain amounts of current gain and can do all sorts of useful fun stuff By default what a BJT transistor is trying to do is set a certain amount of current owing from the collector to the emitter proportional to the amount of base current Transistors follow this equation IB hfe ICE While in the active region roughly where hfe is between say 50 to 300 The way it maintains this current ratio is by lowering the voltage at the collect until there is exactly hfe times as much current owing However the lowest voltage the collect can reach is slightly higher than the emitter voltage So if the emitter is connected to ground the collector voltage can only go down to like 02 volts If the collector of the transistor goes down all the way to 02 volts then the transistor is no longer in the active region It s in the saturated region a di erent mode for using transistors The saturated region is where the collect voltage is as low as it can go It is no longer following the equation above For EE folks this is bad because it s just behaving like a boring onolT switch This is what we want As a rule of thumb if we want to setup the BJT to work like a switch we need to size the base resistor proportional to the resistance of the motor We want to setup the circuit such that when the voltage at the collector is 02 volts then Ib 10 ICE Clearly 10 is much lower than typical 50 to 300 so the transistor is in the saturated region and behaving as a switch I could go into more details but I ll leave it there for now So when using BJTs you must gure out the appropriate size for the base resistor For an NPN BJT in order to use the transistor like a switch find the resistor values that will make the current going into the base terminal one tenth of the current going into the collector terminal Most Basic BJ39ET circuit setup N39PN ransistur Cnllectol Q1 1N3904 R1223 10 V 0mg 5v lt Emmer Thrs srmple rule ofthumb where we use abase resrsmr bemg 10 trees the 5V are Rm can sr mply be 10 trees greater than Rm As xf ths doesn39t make sense Are MOSFET translstors easlerto use as swltches7 Ye slnee aFET ls avoltage eonuolleol devlce you don39t needlo use areslstor at to be honest about 2 5 volts ls the cutoff Most Basic MOSFET circuit setup Channel 5 Rina Gale Dzain Vn 3 117000 mpunnal Some no ehange to the rest othe clrcult Also where it says optional reslstor you pretty much never Want to mess wlth areslstor there There ls no current Wlnto a E You are slmply chargmg a capacltorto turn the MOSFET on than no addluonal cunentwlll ow mto the MOSFET Are Darlingtons easlen to use as swltches7 buy lhenn ln a DIP ehlp and they39ve even taken care of slzlng base reslstors lntemally for you wuh the U39LN2003 Danington pair Darhngton parr nwasmo Bunransrsrorsrn serres Tms gwesmeDarhngton per every mgh current garn Darhngton pars are sord rm a DP cmp packagemat has 7 Darhngton parr per cmp They have three eads 5 c and E WWCH are equrvarem to me eads or a standard rndwrduar NPN transrsror You can make up your own Darhngton parrrrormwo transrsrors For examp e E I In a standard U39LN392003 Darlmgron package there are 7 Darhngron Pans per chip All the emmers of the Base 5 pm 1 andthe collector pm 16 There is also ahandy dandy special snubber dAOdE connected m pm 9 that we39ll talk about later U1 lNl OUTI l39Nl OI INS OUT3 1N4 OUT4 INS OUTS 1N6 OUTG 1N7 OUT7 GN39D COII DSZOO3CN August 1986 PA R C H I l D Revised March 2000 SEMICONDUCTDPTM DM74LSO4 Hex Inverting Gates General Description This device contains six independent gates each of which performs the logic INVERT function Ordering Code Order Number Package Number Package Description DM74LSO4M M14A 14Lead Small Outline Integrated Circuit SOIC JEDEC MS120 0150 Narrow DM74LSO4SJ M14D 14Lead Small Outline Package SOP EIAJ TYPE ll 53mm Wide DM74LSO4N N14A 14Lead Plastic DuallnLine Package PDIP JEDEC MS001 0300 Vl de Devices also available n Tape and Reel Specify by appending the suffix letter X to the ordering code Connection Diagram Function Table Y A vcc As its A5 v5 A4 v4 I14 I13 I12 I11 1n In In InPUt OUtPUt A Y L H H L H HIGH Logic Level L LOW Logic Level I1 I2 I3 4 I5 I6 7 Al v1 A2 v2 A V GND 2000 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation D3006345 AMANfairchildsemicom same umeAul er 170 lt7LlNG IDENDOHODOI IezR Rectifier LogicLevel Gate Drive Advanced Process Technology Dynamic dvdt Rating 175 C Operating Temperature Fast Switching Fully Avalanche Rated Description Fifth Generation HEXFETs from International Rectifier utilize advanced processing techniques to achieve the lowest possible onresistance per silicon area This benefit combined with the fast switching speed and ruggedized device design that HEXFET Power MOSFETs are well known for provides the designerwith an extremely efficient device for use in a wide variety of applications The TO220 package is universally preferred for all commercialindustrial applications at power dissipation levels to approximately 50 watts The low thermal resistance and low package cost of the TO220 contribute to its wide acceptance throughout the industry Absolute Maximum Ratings PD 913078 RLZ34N HEXFE i Power MOSFET VDSS 55V RDSOn ID 30A Parameter Max Units ID To 25 C Continuous Drain Current VGs 10V 30 ID To 100 C Continuous Drain Current VGS 10V 21 A IDM Pulsed Drain Current D 110 PD Tc 25 C Power Dissipation 68 W Linear Derating Factor 045 W C VGs GatetoSource Voltage 16 V 5 Single Pulse Avalanche Energy 3 110 mJ IAR Avalanche Current 16 A EAR Repetitive Avalanche Energy 68 mJ dvdt Peak Diode Recovery dvdt 50 Vns TJ Operating Junction and 55 to 175 TSTG Storage Temperature Range C Soldering Temperature for 10 seconds 300 16mm from case Mounting torque 632 or M3 screw 10 Ibfin 11Nm Thermal Resistance Parameter Min Typ Max Units ReJC JunctiontoCase 2 2 Recs CasetoSink Flat Greased Surface 050 CNV ReJA JunctiontoAmbient 62 82597 ULN2001A ULN2002A ULN2003A ULN2004A SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM EACH WVER 5 In Series U LN2001A Series U LN2002A each driver each driver n EACH DRIVER 5quot EACH DRIVER 52571 Series ULN2003A Series ULN2004A each driver each driver ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Symbol Parameter Value Unit VO Output Voltage 50 V Vm Input Voltage for ULN2002AD 2003AD 2004AD 30 V I0 Continuous Collector Current 500 mA lb Continuous Base Current 25 mA Tamb Operating Ambient Temperature Range 20 to 85 C Tstg Storage Temperature Range 55 to 150 C TJ Junction Temperature 150 C THERMAL DATA Symbol Parameter DIP16 5016 Unit I Rmramb I Thermal Resistance Junctionambient Max I 70 120 I CIW 28 E ULN2001A ULN2002A ULN2003A ULN2004A ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Tamb 25 C unless otherwise specified Symbol Parameter Test Conditions Min Ty p ICEX Output Leakage Current VCE 50v Tm 70 C VCE 50v Tm 70 C for ULN2002A VCE 50V Vl 6V for ULN2004A VCE 50V V 1V 1a 1a 75 Collectoremitter Saturation Voltage Ic 100mA IE 250uA Ic 200 mA IB 350uA Ic 350mA IE 500uA 03940 Input Current for ULN2002A V 17V for ULN2003A V 385V for ULN2004A Vl 5V Vl 12V 5300 o Awom 010m Imam Input Current Tm 70 C lc 500 Vl0l i Input Voltage VCE 2V for ULN2002A Ic 00m for ULN2003A Ic 200mA Ic 250mA Ic 300mA for ULN2004A Ic 12 mA 01 J cocoon NNN DC Forward Current Gain for ULN2001A VCE 2V Ic 350mA 1000 Input Capacitance 15 Turnon Delay Time 05 V to 05 V0 025 Turnoff Delay Time 05 V to 05 V0 025 Clamp Diode Leakage Current Vp 50V Tamb 70 C Vp 50V 100 mm Clamp Diode Forward Voltage I 350mA lt EVn 38 ULN2001A ULN2002A ULN2003A ULN2004A TEST CIRCUITS Figure 1a Figure 1b 39cu 55725 Figure 2 Figure 3 5 mo viii OPEN OPEN Figure 4 Figure 5 S lll39l Figure 6 Figure 7 5 127 M8 ULN2001A ULN2002A ULN2003A ULN2004A Figure 8 Collector Current versus Input Current lc mA 500 400 300 200 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 IbGLA Figure 10 Peak Collector Current versus Duty Cycle 390 Peak D96W457 T7654 3 OUTPUT 2 Tamb70 C DI P1 0 Figure 9 Collector Current versus Saturation Voltage Io D96W454 TYPICAL 00 05 10 15 Vcesat Figure 11 Peak Collector Current versus Duty Cycle Tamb70 C 58 ULN2001A ULN2002A ULN2003A ULN2004A Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable However STMicroelectronics assumes no responsibility for the conse e of such information nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of STMicroelectronics Speci cation mentioned in this publication are subject to change without notice This publication supersedes and replaces all information previously supplied STMi croelectronics products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems without express written approval of STMicroelectronics The ST logo is a registered trademark of STMicroelectronics 2002 STMicroelectronics Printed in Italy All Rights Reserved TMicroelectronics GROUP OF COMPANIES Australia Brazil Canada China 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