Chapter 10: Water Resources
Chapter 10: Water Resources GEOL 1005
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kerrigan Unter on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1005 at George Washington University taught by Brown, C in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Environmental Geology in Geology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
GEOL 1005 Chapter 10 Water Resources 10 Water Resources The use of surface water affects groundwater Surface waters are bodies of water such as oceans springs creeks rivers ponds and lakes Salinity measure of water s concentration of dissolved salt Parts per million ppm measure of concentration Water with a salt concentration greater than 550 ppm is not healthy for people water with salinities of 750 ppm and higher is unsuitable for either human consumption or irrigation Groundwater water that infiltrates the ground and completely fills all open spaces part of the subsurface water that is in the saturated zone Water table top of the saturated zone the open spaces are only partly filled with water Aquifer groundwater reservoir that can supply enough water to wells and springs to be useful to people Porosity percentage of the earth material consisting of void spaces Permeability measure of how easily water passes through a material Unconfined aquifer aquifer that is overlain by permeable Earth material Confined aquifer aquifer that is overlain by lowpermeability material High Plains aquifer Gaining stream groundwater discharges into the streambed Losing stream loses water into the ground because its channel lies above the water table Artesian flow ow from a confined aquifer in response to pressure developed by the weight of water in higher parts of the aquifer Distillation salty water is heated to drive of steam which is pure freshwater the steam is then condensed back into a liquid Reverse osmosis salty water is pumped through special filters 102 How People Use Water Growing crops and electrical power generation accounts for the most withdrawals of freshwater Nonconsumptive use allows it to be used subsequently for other purposes or discharged back to its source Consumptive use disperses water to other system reservoirs and causes depletion of the source Water uses Public water supplies Irrigation Electric power generation Watering livestock Fish farms Other uses 103 Water Withdrawal and the Environment Dams are used to control oods generate hydroelectric power provide recreation and supply water Cone of depression coneshaped lowering of the upper surface of a body of water groundwater around a well from which water is being withdrawn faster than it is replenished Groundwater mining pumping out more water than natural recharge can replace Withdrawing groundwater can cause land subsidence Saltwater intrusion movement of saltwater into a freshwater aquifer commonly because of the withdrawal of groundwater in coastal areas and estuaries 104 Water Quality and Pollution Natural water quality Carbonic acid is formed through a chemical reaction between water and carbon dioxide Arsenic in natural water Parasites in natural water 0 Water pollution is the degrading of the water quality by people from releasing toxic chemicals such as pesticides to discharging heater water to clogging a river with waste and debris 0 Thermal pollution can make surface water bodies too warm to be hospitable to many aquatic organisms 0 Types of pollution Microbes Inorganic contaminants Humanmade chemicals Sediment 0 Point source pollution pollutants are released from specific traceable sites 0 Nonpoint source pollution pollutants are released to the environment over a large area and are not as easy to identify or trace 105 Sustaining Water Resources 0 Water treatment Primary treatment removes solid materials insoluble fats oils and greases and oating material Secondary treatment degrades the organic contaminants in the waste water Tertiary treatment disinfect the water 0 Recycling water 0 Household water conservation Using watersaving fixtures and appliances Avoiding waterwasteful gardening 0 Community water conservation 0 Watersaving agriculture 0 Groundwater management 0 Comprehensive water management 0 Safe yield sustainable use of the state s groundwater resources
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