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Date Created: 10/19/15
NTR457 Lecture 7 Dietary Supplements and Ergogenic Aids Part II Types of Ergogenic Aids Common Doping Agents and Ergogenic Aids 0 Anabolics enhance the body s ability in building muscle tissue 0 Examples I Testosterone I Anabolicandrogenic hormones I Growth hormones o Prohormones and hormone releasers substances increasing production of anabolic hormones in the body 0 Examples Prohormones I DHEA I Androstenedione aka quotAndroquot I Betahydroxybetamethyl butyrate HMB 0 Examples Hormonereleasers I Ornithine I Arginine I Clonidine 0 Fat reducers substances decreasing appetite and increasing fat mobilization and usage 0 Examples I Caffeine I Lcarnitine I Chitosan I Ephed ne 0 Anticatabolics substances that decrease the breakdown of body tissues and slowing protein degradation 0 Examples I Glutamine I Mediumchain triglycerides I Branchedchain amino acids I Leucine I Whey protein 0 Vitamins and minerals micronutrients enhancing enzyme activities and therefore athletic performance 0 Examples I B vitamins I CleO I Chromium I Iron Anabolic Steroids 0 Treats androgen deficiency musclewasting diseases osteoporosis decline in lean body mass due to aging 0 Used by some athletes along with stimulants hormones and diuretics Screening for steroids usage is common for athletes Structures and Function of Anabolic Steroids Functionally similar to testosterone Usually combined with o resistance training 0 increased protein intake Used to improve strength speed power Highly used amongst young athletes Causes alterations in mood and mental state 0 Dysfunctions associated with androgen use General Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids Damage to the connective tissue Risk of kidney malfunction Alterations to cardiovascular functions 0 Injuries to myocardial cell cultures 0 May cause pathological ventricular growth and dysfunction of the heart I Particularly when combined with resistance training Impaired adaptation of cardiac microvascular to training Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids in Men Infertility Reduced sperm concentrations Decreased testicular volume Gynecomastia swollen chest tissue causing increase in breast size Chronic stimulation of prostate gland Alterations of functions of the cardiovascular system Pathological ventricular growth and dysfunction Increased blood platelet aggregation Risk of acute myocardial infarction and stroke Side Effects of Anabolic Steroids in Women Virilization hormonal imbalance in estrogen and testosterone Deepened voice Increase in facial and body hair Altered menstrual functions Increased sebaceous gland size secretion of oil and waxy matter of hair Presence andor increase of acne Decreased breast size enlarged clitoris Human Growth Hormone GH Also known as somatotropin Stimulation of bone and cartilage for growth Enhances fatty acids oxidation in the body Slows glucose and amino acids from synthesis Side effects include Swollen feet and ankles joint pain Carpal tunnel syndrome numbness and tingling in hands and arms Development of diabetes and prediabetes Gigantism abnormal largeness die to growth hormone imbalance Acromegaly increased production of growth hormone due to disordered pituitary gland function OOOOO DHEA dehydroepiandrosterone Relatively weak steroid hormone Synthesized from cholesterol Best production happens in body Largely concentrated in the brain FDA does not have any control over its distribution or claims since it is produced naturally The chemical structure resembles both sex hormones testosterone and estrogen Androstenedione Physically active individuals use this supplement in belief of 0 Direct stimulation of endogenous testosterone production 0 Formation of androgenlike derivatives 0 Enables harder training building of muscle mass and injury repair Androstenedione is naturally found in meat and some plant extractions Helps liver in synthesizing biologically active steroid hormones Is a controlled substance in some foreign countries therefore some individuals come to the United States to purchase this supplement Androstenedione is a precursor hormone between DHEA and testosterone Research Findings Regarding Androstenedione No favorable effect on 0 Muscle mass 0 Muscular performance 0 Body composition 0 Muscle protein synthesis nor tissue anabolism Little elevation of plasma testosterone concentrations Impairs blood lipid in healthy men Increase likelihood of testing positive for steroid usage Elevates variety of estrogen subfractions BHydroxyBMethyl butyrate HMB Generated from breakdown of amino acid leucine o Bioactive 0 Decreases protein loss during stress by slowing protein catabolism 0 Increases fatty acid oxidation 0 In untrained athletes o Showed effectiveness for increasing muscle size and strength 0 In trained athletes o No effectiveness for increased muscle size nor strength Caffeine 0 Legally acceptable stimulatory drug 0 No social stigma 0 Main ingredient is methylxanthine 0 Safe at low dosage but has side effects 0 May be banned at a certain urinary concentration Safety of Caffeine 0 Generally safe however is addictive 0 Side effects include 0 Increased blood pressure at rest and during exercise 0 Increased heart rate 0 Causes insomnia o Distress of the digestive system 0 Doses of ZOO300mg a day are recommended 0 A dose greater than 500 mg may cause irritability anxiety and headaches 0 Moderate doses for athletes doesn t affect hydration 0 Eliminate usage for hypohydrated athletes Effectiveness of Caffeine o For performance enhancement 0 Extends endurance in in strenuous aerobic exercise 0 Shorter duration with maximal effort 0 Increases fatty acid mobilization o A central nervous system stimulant o For weight loss 0 Does not decrease fat content and is ineffective for weight loss 0 Enhances the effect of ephedrine increases blood pressure and breathing patterns Warnings about Caffeine 0 Less effective when 0 A high carbohydrate diet is consumed o Caffeine is used habitually o Caffeine can cause 0 Restlessness Insomnia Headaches Nervous irritability Muscle twitching Tremulousness Psychomotor agitation Elevated heart rate and blood pressure 0 Triggers premature left ventricle contraction 0 Caffeine is a diuretic OOOOOOO LCarnitine 0 Healthy adults do not need carnitine in a wellbalanced diet 0 This supplementation does not have any ergogenic benefits 0 Does not have any positive metabolic alterations 0 Does not enhance recovery 0 Does not have any effects on body fat reduction Benefits of LCarnitine 0 Vasodilation in peripheral tissues 0 Enhances regional blood flow and oxygenation 0 Reduces DOMS delayedonset muscle soreness as it clears muscle damage due to improved oxygen supply to injured tissues Glutamine o A fuel for immune system cells Thought to be an amino acid that helps promote lean tissue Not very effective Might be beneficial for athletes who travel for athletic competitions Might be helpful for athletes at risk for upper respiratory infections Boosts the immune system and helps reduce risk for infection Best source is increasing protein in the diet Mediumchain Triglycerides A rapid source of fuel in the form of fatty acids Used as anticatabolic Has the best effects when combined with carbohydrates Advertised as a fatburner and glycogen sparer Able to be absorbed directly into the bloodstream Protects glycogen stores and releases carbohydrates as an energy source Conflicting research results about the effectiveness of MCTs 0 Negative side effects include digestive system distress cramping diarrhea Proteinbase Supplements 0 Advertised to increase strength in power athletes 0 These products are not regulated o It is important to look for 3rd party certification for pure ingredients and potency WheyProtein 0 Has a protective effect on muscle tissue 0 Helps promote muscle tissue synthesis 0 Considered the best of protein supplements 0 Used as a recovery supplement as it digest and is absorbed quickly 0 Changes the body s state from catabolic to anabolic 0 Uptake of this protein supplement can be enhanced when taken in combination with carbohydrates Amino Acid Supplementation 0 Essential amino acids lack studies that prove effectiveness 0 Safe to use as a muscle building supplement according to the International Society of Sports Nutrition Branchedchain Amino Acids 0 Part of the essential amino acids 0 Leucine shown to be the amino acids necessary for lean tissue 0 May decrease mental fatigue and improve immune system responses Coenzyme Q10 Mainly found in meats peanuts and soybean oil Fat soluble Has antioxidant properties Found in myocardial tissue in high concentrations Part of the oxidative phosphorylation system CleO does not improve 0 Aerobic capacity Endurance performance Plasma glucose Lactate levels at submaximal workloads Cardiovascular dynamics OOOO Buffering Solutions Designed to address the increased acidity in working tissue When lactic acid produces H ions they can be buffered using buffering solutions 0 This allows for contractile capabilities of muscle 0 Increases bicarbonate which reduces the acidity of tissues as it is an alkaline 0 Does not have an ergogenic effect on resistance athletes Sodium Bicarbonate High levels release H ions from cells and slows acidosis Might enhance anaerobic exercise performance Decreases soreness and fatigue that is a result of acidosis from lactic acid Beta Alanine A natural amino acid used for synthesis of carnosine o Carnosine helps control buildup of acid in muscles Delays formation of lactic acid in athletes which results in an improve muscle output Needs to consumed orally for several weeks to show increased carnosine levels Increase in work capacity and decreased time of fatigue Nutritional Ergogenic Aids used by Endurance Athletes Branched chain amino acids Caffeine CleO Energy bars Energy gels Ginseng Glycerol Lcarnitine Medium chain triglycerides Pyruvate Sodium and electrolyte tablets Sports beverages Nutritional Ergogenic Aids used by Strength Power Athletes Chromium Creatine Conjugated linoleic acid Growth hormone Anabolic steroids Protein powders Protein bars Medium chain triglycerides Betahydroxybetamethyl butyrate Nutritional Ergogenic Aids used by Team Sport Athletes The same as other athletes however is dependent on physical demands of the sport Sports that use both strengthpower and endurance ergogenic athletes include 0 Soccer players speed and strength
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