Cell Communication and Hormones
Cell Communication and Hormones BIL 150
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriela Alboucrek on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIL 150 at University of Miami taught by Michael Gaines in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Biology (Lecture) in Biology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Cell Communication Negative feedback variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial uctuation Kinds of Hormones Type Example Gland Action Modi ed amino Epinephrine Adrenal Increases acids norepinephrine metabolic activities Peptides Oxytocin and Post pituitary Uterine ADH contractions retention of water in kidneys Proteins lnsulin glucagon B and a cells of Lower and raise pancreas glucose in blood Steroids Testosterone Testes and Sperm formation estrogen ovaries and uterine lining Modi ed fatty Prostaglandins Uterus Contractions acids epididymis Cell signaling 1 Reception 2 Transduction phosphorylation cascade cAMP P3 or calcium as 2nCI messengers 3 Response Signal molecule goes into receptor at the plasma membrane reception the receptor goes through a signaltransduction pathway transduction and then activates cellular responses response Mechanisms of Hormonal Signaling Watersoluble hormone receptor in plasma membrane Does not go through it STOPS Needs a receptor protein The receptor produces a response rather than the hormone getting directly into the cell Hormone activates receptor and receptor stimulates other proteins through transduction eventually it will get a response General transduction pathway The protein kinase is involved with putting phosphates on Gprotein Coupled Receptor Gprotein links to receptor Creates GDP which is inactive A signal molecule comes along and activates the receptor GDP is activated into GTP GTP goes to the inactive enzyme and activates it GTP changes back to GDP and leaves the enzyme Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Puts phosphates on proteins to activate them 1 Signal molecule goes to signal binding site on the polypeptide in cytoplasm 2 Monomers of receptor tyrosine inactive make a dimer 3 The tyrosine kinase regions are activated and unphosphorylated 4 ATP is made into ADP and activates tyrosine kinase is now phosphorylated 5 Activated relay proteins make cellular responses Ion Channel Receptors 1 A signal moecue goes to the ion channel receptor on plasma membrane 2 The gate opens and lets the ions in negative feedback 3 Gate closes Kidney tubules reabsorb water to get the right osmoscity of blood ADH ADH is inhibited by drinking alcohol and coffee CAMP as a second messenger 1 First messenger ts into G proteincoupled receptor 2 G protein activates GTP 3 GTP goes to adenylyl cyclase 4 ATP is released making CAMP 2nol messenger 5 CAMP goes to protein kinase A 6 Protein kinase A creates cellular responses Lipidsoluble hormone Receptor in nucleus or cytoplasm Examples estrogen and testosterone The only hormone that gets directly into the cell Releases hormone hormone goes into the blood hormone goes in plasma membrane hormone goes to signal receptor in nucleus the receptor and hormone acts on the DNA Hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary Oxytocin goes into posterior pituitary Muscle contractions during birth and after birth This is an example of positive feedback stimulusgtsensory neurongt release hormone into blood celgtbreastgt milk Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus is an example of negative feedback Hormone regulation continued Antagonistic effects insuin and glucagon f blood glucose level is high beta cells of pancreas release insulin into the blood the body cells take up more glucose the liver takes up more glucose and stores it as glycogen and then the blood glucose level declines to a set point stimulus for insulin release diminishes f blood glucose is low alpha cells of pancreas stimulated to release glucagon into the blood liver breaks down glycogen and release glucose to the blood blood glucose level rises to set point stimulus for glucagon release diminishes Nervous system Neurons make up your nerves Glial Cells Schwann cells make up the myelin sheath Myelin sheath insulates the nerves so the pulse goes faster Structure Dendrite receive the nerve impulse Cell body Axon nerve impulse goes down through this Synaptic Endings the terminals Synapse to the next neuron postsynaptic cell Types of Neurons a Sensory neuron afferent b lnterneurons connects sensory neuron to motor neuron c Motor neuron efferent Example Knee jerk re ex Receptor in knee Sensory neurons with cell bodies outside of the spinal chord Goes to spinal chord through an interneuron Motor neuron acts in quadriceps muscle Structure of the vertebrate nervous system 1 Central nervous system information processing 1 Brain cranial nerves 2 Spinal chord spinal nerve gangia 2 Peripheral nervous system Motor system Autonomic a sympathetic b parasympathetic c Enteric sympathetic parasympathetic and enteric all control smooth muscles cardiac muscles and glands THE ORDER 1 Internal and external stimuli 2 Sensory receptors 3 Afferent neurons 4 Central nervous system processes information 5 Efferent neurons in peripheral nervous system now 6 Either goes to autonomic nervous system or motor system 7 If motor controls skeletal muscle 8 If Autonomic then controls either sympathetic parasympathetic or enteric divisions Transmission of the nerve impulse Membrane potential when neurons are resting resting potential Example sodium potassium pump Negative in the cell positive outside the cell Action potential occurs when you pass the threshold it then transmits nerve impulse and is unstoppable Hyperpolarization when you want to inhibit the nerve system It is too negative because you are losing potassium Depolarization the inside gets too positive because Na from outside the cell comes into the cell Voltage Gated ion channels generating action potentials 1 Resting state 2 Depolarization trying to make the inside more positive by opening the gates and letting some Na ions inside 3 Rising phase of the action potential other gates will open no stopping It is now passing the threshold 4 Falling phase of the action potential got to get back down close the Na gates and get some K out repolarization 5 Undershoot a little too negative because too much K left K gates close slowly not quick enough to shut K from getting out
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