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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriela Alboucrek on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIL 150 at University of Miami taught by Michael Gaines in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see General Biology (Lecture) in Biology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
QUIZ 8 STUDY GUIDE Viruses Repicative cycles of animal viruses 0 An animal virus is equipped with an envelope an outer membrane that is used to enter the host cell 0 Viral glycoproteins protrude from the envelope and bind to speci c receptor molecules on the surface of the host cell Viruses have NO cells dsDNA double stranded DNA and ssDNA single stranded Can both be either or If negative it cannot be used to make mRNA it HAS to become positive rst Capsomeres proteins Capsid protein coat Capsid proteins will surround the genome and leave the positive gram and can either make mRNA or make another genome Diversity of Viral Genomes Class I dsDNA Class II ssDNA Class III dsRNA Class IV ssRNA Class V H ssRNA makes a strand Ebola virus CVI ssRNA RT RETROVIRUSES CVII dsDNA RT Retroviruses Class VI Viruses that are equipped with an enzyme reverse transcriptase which transcribes an RNA template into DNA the opposite of the usual direction Example is HIV Provirus Never leaves the host cell s genome Order of events 1 Glycoproteins on the viral envelope bind to speci c receptor molecules no the host cell 2 The capsid and viral genome enter the cell 3 The viral genome functions as a template for synthesis of complementary RNA strands 4 New copies of viral RNA are made 5 Complementary RNA strands also function as mRNA which is translated into both capsid proteins cytosol and glycoproteins for the viral envelope ER and Golgi apparatus 6 Vesicles transport envelope glycoproteins to the plasma membrane 7 A capsid assembles around each viral genome molecule 8 Each new virus buds from he cell its envelope studded with viral glycoproteins embedded in membrane derived from host cell Order of events of an HIV virus 1 The envelope glycoproteins enable the virus to bind to speci c receptors on white blood cells 2 The virus fuses with the cell s plasma membrane and the capsid proteins are removed releasing the viral proteins and RNA 3 Reverse transcriptase catalyzes the synthesis of a DNA strand complementary to the viral DNA 4 Reverse transcriptase catalyzes the synthesis of a second DNA strand complementary to the rst 5 The double stranded DNA is incorporated as a provirus into the cell s DNA in the nucleus 6 Proviral genes are transcribed into RNA molecules which serve as genomes for mRNAs for translation into viral protein 7 The viral proteins include capsid proteins and reverse transcription made in the cytosol and envelope glycoproteins made in the ER 8 Vesicles transport the glycoproteins to the cell s plasma membrane 9 Capsids are assembled around viral genomes and reverse transcriptase molecules 10 New viruses with viral envelope glycoproteins bud from the host cell Lytic cycle Destruction of host DNA Production of new phages Lysogenic cycle genome integrates into bacterial chromosome as prophage which then is either replicated and passed on to daughter cells or can be induced to leave the chromosome and initiate a lytic cycle Ebola Virus Transmission Reservoir host 1 Ebola does not kill the host but the host can spread Ebola to other cells 2 Everything else gets killed but the reservoir host is immune 3 Reservoir host is a fruiteating bat Viroids found only in plants causes yellowing and killing of plants Enzootic virus staying in the same species Epizootic transferring to different species Zoonosis goes to humans
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