Inorganic Polymers CHEM 470
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Kub on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 470 at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/225121/chem-470-rose-hulman-institute-of-technology in Chemistry at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
CHEM 470 The Role of the Scientist in the Cosmetic Industry Reference Ernest W Flick Cosmetic Additives An Industrial Guide Nov 1 1990 The cosmetics and personal care products industry has a 60 billion market worldwide and future growth is expected In the US the market breaks down roughly into hair care20 fragrances20 skin care14 makeup17 deodorants and skin and body lotions10 and oral care products10 Growth is expected in products targeting ethnic markets and working women Cosmetic Industry 60 Billion Market World Wide tip Hair care Skim This multibillion dollar industry relies on chemists and others to accomplish a multitude of key functions see Industry Overview Reference Romanowski and Schueller Beginning Cosmetic Chemstry 2003 Product Development Productdevelopment or formulating chemists create products designed to meet speci c consumer needs These include cosmetics hair and skincare products as well as certain overthecounter OTC drugs such as toothpastes and antiperspirants To accomplish this task formulators identify raw materials with the desired functionalities and combine these materials in the proper ratios to yield an acceptable nished productthat performs as intended and remains stable Knowledge base Formulating chemists must have a solid knowledge of general chemistry particularly surfactants and emulsi cation They must also have a thorough appreciation of the specific chemistry and functionality ofthe thousands of cosmetic raw materials available In addition they often require a specialized knowledge of speci c product types such as aerosols or drug categories such as uoride treatments Beyond basic cosmetic science formulators must be aware of how marketing decisions cost constraints manufacturing conditions and aesthetic concerns such as appearance and odor can impact product development Duties Research useful raw materials reviewing trade literature and supplier information create innovative formulations prepare actual batches and test them for functionality and stability Professional backgrounds Formulators come from a variety of backgrounds Some enter straight from college Typically these folks hold a BS in chemistry Some have degrees in biology or biochemistry Only a few US colleges offer specialized cosmetic programs table 1 Table 1 Cosmetic Science programs in the US Arnold and Marie Schwartz College Pharmacy and Health SciencesNY The City College of New York Dept of Chemistry NY Fairleigh Dickinson University NJ Rutgers University College of Pharmacy NJ St John s University NY Univ of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy OH Univ of Missouri Rolla Dept of Chemistry MO Univ of Okalahoma College of Pharmacy OK Univ of Rhode Island College of Pharmacy RI Univ of Southern Mississippi Dept of Polymer Science MS Monell Chemical Senses Center Univ of Pennsylvania PA Univ ofMinnesota College of Pharmacy MN Univ of Southern California School of Pharmacy CA Massachusetts College of Pharmacy MA University of Maryland School of Pharmacy MD Univ of South Florida College of Pharmacy FL Univ of Tennessee College of Pharmacy TN Table 2 lndustm Overview Companiesthat Comprise the Cosmetics lndustm Raw material suppliers Cosmetic products are made up of ingredients supplied by raw material vendors These vendors use various chemical and physical processes to convert feedstocks such as petroleum distillates and natural oils into materials useful in cosmetic products The thousands of chemical suppliers in this industry make everything from salt to vitamins Fragrance vendors A specialized subcategory of raw material suppliers are the vendors who design and manufacture the fragrances used in cosmetic products Finishedgoods marketers These companies make nished cosmetic products such as makeup shampoo deodorant skin lotion and fragrance They generate product ideas create and test prototypes and manufacture nished goods which are ultimately sold to consumers via retail outlets salons wholesale clubs or some from ofdirect marketing Contract manufacturers Many finishedgoods marketers do not have the ability northe desire to make all the products they want to sell Instead they use the services of contract manufacturers who specialize in batching and lling nished products Testing Laboratories For a variety of reasons nishedgoods manufacturers may choose to have their products tested by outside laboratories For example it may be easier to have an outside lab conduct skinmoisturization testing because the test protocol requires careful monitoring of human panelists Similarly it may be advantageous to have an outside lab run particlesize analysis because the equipment is expensive Testing labs perform these and many other vital functions in the cosmetic industry All of these companies employ a variety of chemists biologists engineers and other professionals 9 Quality QCQA Quality controlquality assurance QCQA chemists work for finished product manufacturers raw materials suppliers and contract manufacturers They ensure that products meet speci ed company standards by evaluating incoming raw materials and outgoing nished products The duties of QCQA chemists include sampling chemicals from storage containers and performing various analyses such as for pH viscosity IR solids and percent trace minerals They can alos check labels calibrate and maintain instruments and document batch histories Since QCQA chemists are integral to the ongoing manufacturing process it is critical that they perform their work on a timely efficient basis to avoid costly production delays To this end they must have thorough knowledge and experience in performing tests used to analyze samples QCQA chemists typically trained as analytical chemists come from different educational backgrounds with varying levels of experience Because production lines run around the clock this work often involves working in shifts Analytical methods development Develop methods for QCQA chemists use to test raw materials and finished products Methods include wetchemical tests and instrumental analyses titration spectrophotometric analysis HPLC gas chromatography and NMR Many ofthese chemists have advanced graduate degrees Microbiology Microbiologists function like QC chemists in many ways However their focus is on whether materials are acceptably free from microbial contamination They typically sample incoming chemicals and nished batches then inoculate and conduct plate counts to establish bacteria count They also play an important role in formulation development They often help select the optimal preservative system for a product They are especially important when developing and testing products with proclaimed antimicrobial activity Microbiologists require detailed knowledge ofthe types of microorganisms that may in ltrate cosmetic products as well as conditions of manufacturing storage and usage that may promote microorganism growth The must also have a detailed knowledge of chemical preservatives and understand the effects raw materials have on preservatives For example nonionic surfactants can inactivate parabenzoic acid derivative Microbiologists typically hold degrees in biology but they may also be chemists or biochemists Process Engineering Chemists or their engineering cousins the chemical engineers who specialize in process engineering solve problems encountered when scaling up they process of transferring a formula from laboratorysized batches to production size quantities Problems often occur during scale up due to drastic differences in the impact ofthe physical forces that are experienced in the laboratory vs the manufacturing plant Process engineers understand how heat transfer and mixing conditions can impact the quality of nished goods Their duties include working with chemists to understand the idiosyncrasies of speci c formulations while keeping up with current technology of production equipment such as mixers pumps and heating and cooling systems Process engineers usually hold degrees in chemical or mechanical engineering Regulatory Claims support Another specialization is substantiating product performance claims Claims appear on television and radio and in package copy print advertising and sales materials such as brochures and pamphlets Claims support scientists must be familiar with the basic properties of cosmetic raw materials and skilled at interpreting claims language In addition claimssupport chemists must develop creative testing criteria In some cases preestablished test methodology my already be in place such as standard regression tests which quantify skin moisturization However other areas are more subjective such as evaluating shine on hair Everyone has a preferred method there is no one universally accepted way to substantiate such claims For this reason claimssupport scientists must be knowledgeable of the many tests available Safetytoxicology Many companies have specialists who deal with chemical safety or government regulations For example environmental specialists ensure that a company and its products comply with current environmental regulations Other regulatory chemists make sure that the company complies with employee health safety rules labeling requirements etc These scientists are increasingly important as more companies begin to operate globally and must be aware of the regulations in every country where they do business Regulatory scientists have degrees in various areas and typically a wide range of experience Because rules and regulations are constantly changing this job is quite dynamic Ingredients Suppliers Synthesis chemists Just as nishedgoods manufacturers hire formulating chemists to create nished products ingredient suppliers employ synthesis chemists to develop raw materials These chemists derive chemical reactions that convert coconut oil petroleum and other feedstocks into functional salable raw materials Synthesis chemists must have a strong background in organic chemistry and be able to creatively develop novel reaction pathways to produce new raw materials They should also have a general ideal ofthe properties a nished raw material will have and how they will be economically useful Synthesis chemists usually have advanced degrees in specialized areas of organic synthesis such as esteri cation reactions or polymerization Technical applications development Once raw materials are developed the manufacturer must understand their properties to sell them effectively To this end many suppliers employ applications chemists that determine how finished product manufacturers might use a raw material Essentially the duties and background of this job are the same as ofthe product development chemist except that these chemists work for an ingredient supplier Applications chemists may also work across several industries personal care detergents paints and coatings and so forth Technical Sales Rawmaterial suppliers frequently employ chemists on their sales teams because people with technical backgrounds are more likely to suggest meaningful applications Generally they communicate more effectively with formulating chemists and their internal technical support Technical salespeople perfom the same type of tasks as other salespeople such as meeting with clients giving presentations and providing support to accounts While a degree in chemistry or related eld usually suf ces an MBA or marketing experience is often required as well Perfumery Chemists who specialize in formulating fragrances are known as perfumers Perfumers have a large palette oforganic chemicals with which to formulate fragrances some perfumes contain as many as 600 materials Perfumers must have a thorough understanding of the potential interaction between fragrance raw materials and other ingredients to help formulators create nished products with appropriate fragrance characteristics In addition to the required technical skills perfumers must have a highly developed sense of smell and the ability to commit smells to memory Most fragrance vendors provide perfumers with extensive training programs to cultivate these specialized skills Many perfumers are employed exclusively by fragrance vendors However many finishedgoods companies employ fragrance coordinators to administrate the process of fragrance selection The cosmetic industry is an arena providing a wealth ofjobs for scientists All are critical to the success of product development manufacturing sales and ultimately the company and the industry The average salary of a chemist in the industry is 52 890 and for the biochemical engineers is 72490 Job growth will be concentrated in manufacturing and in scienti c RampD services
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