Intro to Humanities (HU)
Intro to Humanities (HU) HUMA 1100
Salt Lake Community College
Popular in Course
Popular in Humanities
This 63 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keely Zboncak II on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HUMA 1100 at Salt Lake Community College taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/225132/huma-1100-salt-lake-community-college in Humanities at Salt Lake Community College.
Reviews for Intro to Humanities (HU)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/19/15
INDIAN COSMOGONY 39The Laws of Manu 1 516 The Mahavadharmashastra or Mahusmriti known in the West as The Laws of Mahu is the most important work regarding dharma i e the principles laws and rules governing both the cosmos and human society The dates assigned by scholars for the composition of the text vary from the second century BC to the second century AD The cosmogonic fragment reprinted below is known to be a late interpolation 5 This universe existed in the shape of Darkness 1 unperceived destitute of distinctive marks unattainable by reasoning unknowable wholly immersed as it were in deep sleep 6 Then the divine Selfexistent 2 indiscerhible but making all this the great elements and the rest discernible appeared with irresistible creative power dispelling the darkness 7 He who can be perceived by the internal organ alone who is subtle indiscerhible and eternal who contains all created beings and is inconceivable shone forth of his own will 8 He desiring to produce beings of many kinds from his own body first with a thought created the waters and placed his seed in them 9 That seed became a golden egg in brilliahcy equal to the sun in that egg he himself was born as Brahmih the progenitor of the whole world 10 The waters were called naras for the waters are indeed the offspring of Nara as they were his 1 first residence ayaha he thence is named Narayaha 3 11 From that first cause which is indiscerhible eternal and both real and unreal 2was produced that male Purusha who is famed in this world under the appellation of Brahmih 12 The divine one resided in that egg during a whole year then he himself by his thoughtg alone divided it into two halves 13 And out of those two halves he formed heaven and earth between them the middle sphere the eight points of the horizon and the eternal abode of the waters 14 From himself atmahas he also drew forth the mindE which is both real and unreal likewise from the mind egoism which possesses the function of selfconsciousness and is lor y 15 Moreover the great one Ethe soul and all products affected by the three qualities and in their order the five organs which perceive the objects of sensation 16 But joining minute particles even of those six which possess measureless power with particles of himself he created all beings Notes 1 Tamas a darkness both physical and mental The Samkhya system finds considerable significance in this stanza tamas one ofthe three twisted strands guhas of cosmic substance represents inertia Svayambhu ah epithet of Brahmih masculine who is the impersonal Absolute Brahman neuter ersonified as manifest god Atihdriya literally that spirit or mind 39beyond the senses 4 ie became selfmanifest 5 Or released 6 As 39the shape of Darkness39 vs I and the environmental 39waters39 recall the Rig Vedic creation hymn X 120 so does this golden 39egg39 anda and its seed bija recall the hirahyagarbha of Rig Veda X 121 7 Brahmih39s An example of popular etymology hara beihg primal man or eternal spirit 9 Literally having existence sat and honexistence asat as its nature 1 See the Purushasukta Rig Veda X 90 11 Early commentators disagreed some saying that the 39year39 was a 39year of Brahmih others maintaining that a human year is meant as in the similar version of this selection Shatapatha bramana Xl l 6 1 ff 2 Meditation dhyaha 13 Mahas mind or intelligence as distinct from spirit atmah 14 Ahamkara literally 39the making of quotlquot aham39 the principle of individuation 15 Mahat the 39great39 in Samkhya also called buddhi consciousness 16 Atmah 17 GU 1a Tanmatras subtle elements 19 Again the Indian commentators are at variance in their interpretations of these last three lines Probably 39those six39 are classes of tattvas elements mentioned in the preceding two verses in the order manas ahamkara mahat atman tattvas affected by the gunas tanmatras 39It is interesting to compare the Samkya evolutes of prakriti Here twentyfive tattvas a rearrangement of 39those six39 above evolve with greater systematization 1 purusha and from prakriti 2 mahat 3 ahamkara 4 manas 5 five sense organs and five motor organs 6 five subtle elements tanmatras and five gross elements mahabhutas Translation by G buhler in Sacred Books of the East XXV Oxford1886 PP 28 THE DINE ORIGIN MYTHS OF THE NAVAHO INDIANS By AILEEN O39BRYAN Bulletin 163 of the Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution 1956 THE CREATION OR AGE OF BEGINNING THE FIRST WORLD These stories were told to Sandoval Hastin Tlo39tsi hee by his grandmother Esdzan Hosh kige Her ancestor was Esdzan at a39 the medicine woman who had the Calendar Stone in her keeping Here are the stories of the Four Worlds that had no sun and of the Fifth the world we live in which some call the Changeable World The First World Ni39hodilqil1 was black as black wool It had four corners and over these appeared four clouds These four clouds contained within themselves the elements ofthe First World They were in color black white blue and yellow The Black Cloud represented the Female Being or Substance For as a child sleeps when being nursed so life slept in the darkness of the Female Being The White Cloud represented the Male Being or Substance He was the Dawn the LightWhichAwakens of the First World In the East at the place where the Black Cloud and the White Cloud met First Man Atse39hastqin2 was formed and with him was formed the white corn perfect in shape with kernels covering the whole ear Dolionot i39ni is the name of this rst seed corn3 and it is also the name of the place where the Black Cloud and the White Cloud met 1 lnformant39s note Five names were given to this First World in Its relation to First man It was called Dark Earth Ni39hodilqil Red Earth Ni39halchi One Speech Sada hat lai Floating Land Ni39ta na elth and One Tree De east39da eith Matthews 1897 p 65 The First World was red Franciscan Fathers 1912 p 140 ni39 the world or earth ni39 hodilqil the dark or lowest of the underworlds p 111 lai one or first Franciscan Fathers 1910 p 81 sad a word a language Sad lai First Speech 2 Franciscan Fathers 1912 p 93 Atse39hastqin First Man 3 lnformant39s note Where much corn is raised one or two ears are found perfect These are always kept for seed corn Franciscan Fathers 1912 p 85 do honot39i hi the name ofa full ear or seed corn The First World was small in size a oating island in mist or water On it there grew one tree a pine tree which was later brought to the present world for rewood Man was not however in his present form The conception was ofa male and a female being who were to become man and woman The creatures ofthe First World are thought of as the Mist People they had no de nite form but were to change to men beasts birds and reptiles ofthis world4 Now on the western side ofthe First World in a place that later was to become the Land of Sunset there appeared the Blue Cloud and opposite it there appeared the Yellow Cloud Where they came together First Woman was formed and with her the yellow com This ear of corn was also perfect V th First Woman there came the white shell and the turquoise and the yucca5 First Man stood on the eastern side ofthe First World He represented the Dawn and was the Life Giver First Woman stood opposite in the West She represented Darkness and Death First Man burned a crystal for a re The crystal belonged to the male and was the symbol ofthe mind and of clear seeing When First Man burned it it was the mind39s awakening First Woman burned her turquoise for a re They saw each other39s lights in the distance When the Black Cloud and the White Cloud rose higher in the sky First Map set out to nd the turquoise light He went twice without success and again a third time then he broke a forked branch from his tree and looking through the fork he marked the place where the light burned And the fourth time he walked to it and found smoke coming from a home quotHere is the home I could not ndquot First Man said First Woman answered quotOh it is you I saw you walking around and I wondered why you did not comequot Again the same thing happened when the Blue Cloud and the Yellow Cloud rose higher in the sky First Woman saw a light and she went out to find it Three times she was unsuccessful but the fourth time she saw the smoke and she found the home of First Man quotI wondered what this thing could bequot she said quotI saw you walking and I wondered why you did not come to mequot First Man answered 4 lnformant39s note The Navaho people have always believed ln evolution 5 lnformant39s note Five names were given also to the First World in Its relation to First Woman White Bead Standing Yolgai39na ziha Turquoise Standing Dolt i39zhi na ziha White Bead Floating Place Yolgai39dana elth gal Turquoise Floating Place Dolt i39zhi na elth gal and Yucca Standing Tasas y ah gal Yucca represents cleanliness and things ceremonial Franciscan Fathers 1912 p 181 Tsa39zi ntqe39li Yucca baccata wide leafyucca or Spanish bayonet The roots ofthis species furnish a rich lather the plant is frequently referred to as tqalawhush soap First Woman saw that First Man had a crystal for a re and she saw that it was stronger than her turquoise fire And as she was thinking First Man spoke to her quotWhy do you not come with your re and we will live togetherquot The woman agreed to this So instead of the man going to the woman as is the custom now the woman went to the man About this time there came another person the GreatCoyoteWhoWasFormedintheWater6 and he was in the form ofa male being He told the two that he had been hatched from an egg He knew all that was under the water and all that was in the skies First Man placed this person ahead ofhimself in all things The three began to plan what was to come to pass and while they were thus occupied another being came to them He also had the form ofa man but he wore a hairy coat lined with white fur that fell to his knees and was belted in at the waist His name was Atse39hashke39 First Angry or Coyote7 He said to the three quotYou believe that you were the rst persons You are mistaken l was living when you were formedquot Then four beings came together They were yellow in color and were called the tsts39na or wasp people They knew the secret of shooting evil and could harm others They were very powerful This made eight people Four more beings came They were small in size and wore red shirts and had little black eyes They were the naazo39zi or spider ants They knew how to sting and were a great people After these came a whole crowd of beings Dark colored they were with thick lips and dark protruding eyes They were the wolazhi39ni the black ants They also knew the secret of shooting evil and were powerful but they killed each other steadily By this time there were many people Then came a multitude of little creatures They were peaceful and harmless but the odor from them was unpleasant They were called the wolazhi39ni nlchu nigi meaning that which emits an odor8 And after the wasps and the different ant people there came the beetles dragonflies bat people the Spider Man and Woman and the Salt Man and Woman9 and others that rightfully had no de nite 6 lnformant39s note The Great Coyote who was formed in the water Mat tqo y elth chili Franciscan Fathers 1912 p 117 ma39ists wolfbig roamer and ma39ists o39si Coyote slender roamer 7 lnformant39s note Some medicine men claim that witchcraft came with First Man and First Woman others lnsist that devil conception or witchcraft originated with the Coyote called First Angry Franciscan Fathers 1912 pp 140 175 351 8 lnformant39s note No English name given this insect Ants cause trouble as also do wasps and other insects lftheir homes are harmed Franciscan Fathers 1910 p 346 Much evil disease and bodily Injury is due also to secret agents of evil In consequence ofwhich the belief shooting of evil sting is widely spread 9 lnformant39s note Beetle ntisa39go Dragonfly tqanil at39 Bat people ja aba39ni Spider Man nashjei hastqin Spider Woman nashjei esdza Salt Man ashi hastqin Salt Woman ashi esdza form but were among those people who peopled the First World10 And this world being small in size became crowded and the people quarreled and fought among themselves and in all ways made living very unhappy THE SECOND WORLD Because ofthe strife in the First World First Man First Woman the GreatCoyoteWhoWas FormedintheWater and the Coyote called First Angry followed by all the others climbed up from the World of Darkness and Dampness to the Second or Blue World11 They found a number of people already living there blue birds blue hawks blue jays blue herons and all the bluefeathered beings12 The powerful swallow people13 lived there also and these people made the Second World14 unpleasant forthose who had come from the First World There was ghting and killing The First Four found an opening in the World of Blue Haze and they climbed through this and led the people up into the Third or Yellow world THE THIRD WORLD The bluebird was the rst to reach the Third or Yellow World After him came the First Four and all the others A great river crossed this land from north to south It was the Female River There was another river crossing it from east to West it was the Male River This Male River owed through the Female River and on15 and the name of this place is tqo alna39osdli the Crossing of the waters16 There were six mountains in the Third World17 In the East was Sis na39 jin the Standing Black Sash lts ceremonial name is Yol 10 Matthews 1897 p 65 Stevenson 1891 pp 275285 Alexander 1916 vol 10 ch 8 p 159 Franciscan Fathers 1910 pp 346349 KiahWheelwright 1942 pp 3941 Haile and Wheelwright 1949 pp 35 11 lnformant39s note The Second World was the Blue World Ni39hodotl39ish Alexander 1916 vol 10 ch 8 pp 159160 12 lnformant39s note The names ofthe blue birds are bluebird do39le blue hawk gi39ni tso dolt ish blue Jay jozh ghae39gi and blue heron tqualti a39gaale 13 lnformant39s note The swallow is called tqash ji39zhi Matthews 1897 pp 6566 the swallow people bast sosidine Franciscan Fathers 1910 p 349 The Blue World KlahWheelwright 1942 pp 41 43 14 Haile and Wheelwright 1949 pp 35 15 lnformant39s note The Introduction of generation 16 Matthews 1897 p 63 To39bil haski39di Place Where the Waters Crossed 17 lnformant39s note Sis na39 jin Mount Baldy near Alamos Colo Tso39dzil Mount Taylor N Mex Dook39oslid San Francisco Mountain Ariz Debe39ntsa San Juan Mountains Colo Dzil na39odili El Huerfano Peak N Mex and Choli also given as El Huerfano or El Huerfanito Peak N Mex These mountains of the Third World were not in their true form but rather the substance ofthe mountains Matthews 1897 p 71 The Third World the mountains The four mountains named by the First Man Tsisnadzi39ne East Tso39tsil South Do koslid West Debe39ntsa North Also note 51 pp 220 221 version A and version B notes 52 53 54 56 p 221 and notes 58 60 62 65 p 222 Franciscan Fathers 1910 Pp 56 136 Sisnajin39 Pelado Peak p 137 Amsden 1934 p 123 Recorders note Although both Matthews and the Franciscan Fathers give Sisnajin as Pelado Peak Sam Ahkeah the Interpreter after checking Identified it as Mount Baldy near Alamosa Colo Also although the Franciscan Fathers give Dzil na odili choli as Huerfanito Peak Sam Ahkeah says that it is the Mother Mountain near Taos gai39dzil the Dawn or White Shell Mountain In the South stood Tso39dzil the Great Mountain also called Mountain Tongue lts ceremonial name is Yodolt i39zhi dzil the Blue Bead or Turquoise Mountain In the West stood Dook39oslid and the meaning ofthis name is forgotten lts ceremonial name is Dichi39li dzil the Abalone Shell Mountain In the North stood Debe39ntsa Many Sheep Mountain lts ceremonial name is Bash39zhini dzil Obsidian Mountain Then there was Dzil na39odili the Upper Mountain It was very sacred and its name means also the Center Place and the people moved around it Its ceremonial name is Ntl39is dzil Precious Stone or Banded Rock Mountain There was still another mountain called Chol39i39i or Dzil na39odili choli and it was also a sacred mountain There was no sun in this land only the two rivers and the six mountains And these rivers and mountains were not in their present form but rather the substance of mountains and rivers as were First Man First Woman and the others Now beyond Sis na39 jin in the east there lived the Turquoise Hermaphrodite Ashton nutli18 He was also known as the Turquoise Boy And near this person grew the male reed Beyond still farther in the east there lived a people called the Hadahuneya39nigi19 the Mirage or Agate People Still farther in the east there lived twelve beings called the Naaskiddi20 And beyond the home of these beings there lived four othersthe Holy Man the Holy Woman the Holy Boy and the Holy Girl In the West there lived the White Shell Hermaphrodite21 or Girl and with her was the big female reed which grew at the water39s edge It had no tassel Beyond her in the West there lived another stone people called the Hadahunes39tqin the Ground Heat People Still 28 lnformant39s note Ashon nutli39 the Turquoise Hermaphrodite later became masculine and was known as the Sun Bearer Jo hona39ai 29 lnformant39s note The Hadahuneya39nigi are the Stone people who live where there is a mirage on the desert lnterpreter39s note These Stone People came from the East Morris 1921 p 115 p 127 this bulletin Stevenson 1891 p 275 Matthews 1897 p 63 To the East there was a place called Tau corn to the South a place called Nahodoo39la and to the West a place called Lokatsos akad Standing Reed Again to the East there was a place called Essal39ai One Pot to the South a place called To39hadzitil They came often for water and to the West a place called Dsilitsibe hogan House made of Red Mountain Then again to the East there was a place called Ley a hogan Underground house and to the South a place called Tsil st39ntha Among aromatic sumac and to the West a place called Tse39lits ibe hogan House made of red rock 20 lnformant39s note The Naaskiddi or Gha39askidi are the hunchback gures connected with seeds fertility and phallus worship They are said to have come from the mountain called Chol39i39i 21 lnformant39s note The White Shell Hermaphrodite or Girl later entered the Moon and became the Moon Bearer She is connected with Esdzanadle the WomanWho Changes or Yolgai esdzan the White Shell Woman farther on there lived anothertwelve beings but these were all females22 And again in the Far West there lived four Holy Ones V thin this land there lived the Kisa39ni the ancients ofthe Pueblo People On the six mountains there lived the Cave Dwellers or Great Swallow People23 On the mountains lived also the light and dark squirrels chipmunks mice rats the turkey people the deer and cat people the spider people and the lizards and snakes The beaver people lived along the rivers and the frogs and turtles and all the undenNater people in the water So far all the people were similar They had no de nite form but they had been given different names because ofdifferent characteristics Now the plan was to plant First Man called the people together He brought forth the white corn which had been formed with him First Woman brought the yellow corn They laid the perfect ears side by side then they asked one person from among the many to come and help them The Turkey stepped fonNard They asked him where he had come from and he said that he had come from the Gray Mountain24 He danced back and forth four times then he shook his feather coat and there dropped from his clothing four kernels of corn one gray one blue one black and one red Another person was asked to help in the plan of the planting The Big Snake came forward He likewise brought forth four seeds the pumpkin the watermelon the cantaloup and the muskmelon His plants all crawl on the ground They planted the seeds and their harvest was great After the harvest the Turquoise Boy from the East came and visited First Woman When First Man returned to his home he found his wife with this boy First Woman told her husband that Ashon nutli39 was of her esh and not of his esh25 She said that she had used her own re the turquoise and had ground her own yellow corn into meal This corn she had planted and cared for herself Now at that time there were four chiefs Big Snake Mountain Lion Otter and Bear26 And it was the custom when the black cloud rose 22 lnformant39s note The Corn Maidens are deities of fertility 23 lnformant39s note The Great Swallow People Tqashji39zhi ndilk39si lived in rough houses of mud and sticks They entered them from holes in the roof 24 lnformant39s note The Gray Mountain is the home ofthe Gray Yei Hasch ei39ba39i whose other name is Water Sprinkler The turkey is connected with water and rain lnterpreter39s note Gray Mountain is San Francisco Mountain Ariz qu39neinili the Water Sprinkler whose color is gray lives there He is also called the Gray God Hasch e39lbai and the Clown whose call is quotdo doquot and whose name is Hasch e39dodi 25 lnformant39s note First Woman and the Turquoise Hermaphrodite represented the female principle Later he said There is confusion among medicine men regarding this Some say that the Turquoise Boy was Ashon nutli39 some say the Mirage Man some contend that quotItquot was another quotTurquoise Boyquot 26 lnformant39s note Some medicine men call them the chiefs of the Four Directions in the morning27 for First Man to come out of his dwelling and speak to the people After First Man had spoken the four chief s told them what they should do that day They also spoke ofthe past and ofthe future But after First Man found his wife with another he would not come out to speak to the people The black cloud rose higher but First Man would not leave his dwelling neither would he eat or drink No one spoke to the people for 4 days All during this time First Man remained silent and would not touch food or water Four times the white cloud rose Then the four chiefs went to First Man and demanded to know why he would not speak to the people The chiefs asked this question three times and a fourth before First Man would answer them He told them to bring him an emetic28 This he took and puri ed himself First Man then asked them to send the hermaphrodite to him When he came First Man asked him if the metate and brush29 were his He said that they were First Man asked him if he could cook and prepare food like a woman if he could weave and brush the hair And when he had assured First Man that he could do all manner ofwoman39s work First Man said quotGo and prepare food and bring it to mequot After he had eaten First Man told the four chiefs what he had seen and what his wife had said At this time the GreatCoyoteWhoWasFormedintheWater came to First Man and told him to cross the river They made a big raft and crossed at the place where the Male River followed through the Female River And all the male beings left the female beings on the river bank and as they rowed across the river they looked back and saw that First Woman and the female beings were laughing They were also behaving very wickedly In the beginning the women did not mind being alone They cleared and planted a small field On the other side ofthe river First Man and the chiefs hunted and planted their seeds They had a good harvest Nadle30 ground the corn and cooked the food Four seasons passed The men continued to have plenty and were happy but the women became lazy and only weeds grew on their land The women wanted fresh meat Some ofthem tried to join the men and were drowned in the river 27 lnformant39s note These are not the Black and White Clouds ofthe First World As there was no sun and no true division ofnight and day time was counted by the black cloud rising and the white cloud rising Stevenson 1891 pp 284285 Matthews 1897 p 67 Whitman 1925 p 13 Alexander 1916 pp 160161 28 lnformant39s note with recorder39s The emetic was believed to be either Babia woodhousei Gray of the thistle family or the root of the wild cherry In either case after a hot brew is drunk copious vomiting ensues 29 lnformant39s note The metata and brush are symbolic ofwoman39s implements 30 lnformant39s note Nadle means that which changes Ashon nutli39 or nadle the Turquoise Hermaphrodite was the rst man to change or become as a woman First Woman made a plan As the women had no way to satisfy their passions some fashioned long narrow rocks some used the feathers ofthe turkey and some used strange plants cactus First Woman told them to use these things One woman brought forth a big stone This stonechild was later the Great Stone that rolled overthe earth killing men Another woman brought forth the Big Birds of Tsa bida39hi and others gave birth to the giants and monsters who later destroyed many people On the opposite side ofthe river the same condition existed The men wishing to satisfy their passions killed the females of mountain sheep lion and antelope Lightning struck these men When First Man learned ofthis he warned his men that they would all be killed He told them that they were indulging in a dangerous practice Then the second chief spoke he said that life was hard and that it was a pity to see women drowned He asked why they should not bring the women across the river and all live together again quotNow we can see for ourselves what comes from our wrong doingquot he said quotWe will know how to act in the futurequot The three other chiefs of the animals agreed with him so First Man told them to go and bring the women After the women had been brought over the river First Man spoke quotWe must be puri edquot he said quotEveryone must bathe The men must dry themselves with white corn meal and the women with yellowquot This they did living apart for 4 days After the fourth day First Woman came and threw her right arm around her husband She spoke to the others and said that she could see her mistakes but with her husband39s help she would henceforth lead a good life Then all the male and female beings came and lived with each other again The people moved to different parts of the land Some time passed then First Woman became troubled by the monotony of life She made a plan She went to Atse39hashke the Coyote called First Angry and giving him the rainbow she said quotI have suffered greatly in the past I have suffered from want of meat and corn and clothing Many of my maidens have died I have suffered many things Take the rainbow and go to the place where the rivers cross Bring me the two pretty children of qu holt sodi the Water Buffalo31 a boy and a girl The Coyote agreed to do this He walked over the rainbow He entered the home of the Water Buffalo and stole the two children and these he hid in his big skin coat with the white fur lining And when he returned he refused to take offhis coat but pulled it around himself and looked very Wise 31 Franciscan Fathers 1910 p 157 qu holt sodi water buffalo water ox or water monster Alexander 1916 p 161 and note 9 p 274 After this happened the people saw white light in the East and in the South and West and North One ofthe deer people ran to the East and returning said that the white light was a great sheet of water The sparrow hawk ew to the South the great hawk to the West and the king sher to the North They returned and said that a ood was coming The king sher said that the water was greater in the North and that it was near The ood was coming and the Earth was sinking And all this happened because the Coyote had stolen the two children ofthe Water Buffalo and only First Woman and the Coyote knew the truth When First Man learned ofthe coming ofthe water he sent word to all the people and he told them to come to the mountain called Sis na39jin He told them to bring with them all of the seeds of the plants used for food All living beings were to gather on the top of Sis na39jin First Man traveled to the six sacred mountains and gathering earth from them he put it in his medicine bag32 The water rose steadily When all the people were halfway up Sis na39 jin First Man discovered that he had forgotten his medicine bag Now this bag contained not only the earth from the six sacred mountains but his magic the medicine he used to call the rain down upon the earth and to make things grow He could not live without his medicine bag and be wished to jump into the rising water but the others begged him not to do this They went to the king sher and asked him to dive into the water and recoverthe bag This the bird did When First Man had his medicine bag again in his possession he breathed on it fourtimes and thanked his people When they had all arrived it was found that the Turquoise Boy had brought with him the big Male Reed33 and the White Shell Girl had brought with her the big Female Reed34 Another person brought poison ivy and another cotton which was later used for cloth This person was the spider First Man had with him his spruce tree35 which he planted on the top of Sis na39jin He used his fox medicine36 to make it grow but the spruce tree began to send out branches and to taper at the top so First Man planted the big Male Reed All the people blew on it and it grew and grow until it reached 32 lnformant39s note Here and following magic is associated with First Man Recorder39s note The magic of First Man was considered white magic reason logos 33 lnformant39s note The big male reed is called luka39tso It grows near Santo Domingo Pueblo not far from the home ofthe Turquoise Boy the little turquoise mountain south Of Santa Fe N Mex 34 lnformant39s note The big female reed is thought to be the joint cane which grows along the Colorado River This was nearthe home of the White Shell Girl 35 Recorder39s note That the tree is here called a spruce and on page 2 a pine is not explained 36 First Man39s name Atse39hastqin corresponds to the sacred name ofthe kit fox the canopy ofthe sky They tried to blow inside the reed but it was solid They asked the woodpeckerto drill out the hard heart Soon they were able to peek through the opening but they had to blow and blow before it was large enough to climb through They climbed up inside the big male reed and after them the water continued to rise37 THE FOURTH WORLD When the people reached the Fourth World they saw that it was not a very large place Some say that it was called the White World but not all medicine men agree that this is so The last person to crawl through the reed was the turkey from Gray Mountain His feather coat was ecked with foam for after him came the water And with the water came the female Water Buffalo who pushed her head through the opening in the reed She had a great quantity of curly hair which oated on the water and she had two horns half black and halfyellow From the tips ofthe horns the lightning ashed First Man asked the Water Buffalo why she had come and why she had sent the ood She said nothing Then the Coyote drew the two babies from his coat and said that it was perhaps because ofthem The Turquoise Boy took a basket and filled it with turquoise On top of the turquoise he placed the blue pollen tha39di39thee do tlij from the blue owers38 and the yellow pollen from the corn and on top of these he placed the pollen from the water ags tquel aqa39di din and again on top ofthese he placed the crystal which is river pollen This basket he gave to the Coyote who put it between the horns ofthe Water Buffalo The Coyote said that with this sacred offering he would give back the male child He said that the male child would be known as the Black Cloud or Male Rain and that he would bring the thunder and lightning The female child he would keep She would be known as the Blue Yellow and White Clouds or Female Rain She would be the gentle rain that would moisten the earth and help them to live So he kept the female child and he placed the male child on the sacred basket between the horns ofthe Water Buffalo And the Water Buffalo disappeared and the waters with her After the water sank there appeared another person They did not know him and they asked him where he had come from He told them that he was the badger nahashch39id and that he had been formed 37 The Third or Yellow World Matthews 1897 p 66 Whitman 1925 pp 79 Alexander 1916 p 161 Parsons 1923 p 161 Cushing 1923 p 166 18 Recorder39s note This blue pollen tha39di39thee do tlij is thought to be Delphinium scaposum Green where the Yellow Cloud had touched the Earth Afterward this Yellow Cloud turned out to be a sunbeam39 THE FIFTH WORLD First Man was not satis ed with the Fourth World It was a small barren land and the great water had soaked the earth and made the sowing of seeds impossible He planted the big Female Reed and it grew up to the vaulted roof of this Fourth World First Man sent the newcomer the badger up inside the reed but before he reached the upper world water began to drip so he returned and said that he was frightened At this time there came another strange being First Man asked him where he had been formed and he told him that he had come from the Earth itself This was the locust40 He said that it was now his turn to do something and he offered to climb up the reed The locust made a headband of a little reed and on his forehead he crossed two arrows These arrows were dressed with yellow tail feathers V th this sacred headdress and the help ofall the Holy Beings the locust climbed up to the Fifth World He dug his way through the reed as he digs in the earth now He then pushed through mud until he came to water When he emerged he saw a black water bird41 swimming toward him He had arrows42 crossed on the back of his head and big eyes The bird said quotWhat are you doing here This is not your countryquot And continuing he told the locust that unless he could make magic be would not allow him to remain The black water bird drew an arrow from back of his head and shoving it into his mouth drew it out his nether extremity He inserted it underneath his body and drew it out of his mouth quotThat is nothingquot said the locust He took the arrows from his headband and pulled them both ways through his body between his shell and his heart The bird believed that the locust possessed great medicine and he swam away to the East taking the water with him Then came the blue water bird from the South and the yellow water bird from the West and the white water bird from the North and everything happened as before The locust performed the magic with 39 lnformant39s and interpreter39s note The Four Worlds were really 12 worlds or stages of development but different medicine men divide them differently according to the ceremony held Forthe narrative they call them the Four Dark Worlds and the Fifth World the one we live in An old medicine man explained that the Sixth World would be that ofthe spirit and that the one above that would be quotcosmicquot melting into one 40 lnformant39s note The name of the locust was not given Franciscan Fathers 1912 p 123 locust nahacha39gi This also means grasshopper cicada 41 lnformant39s note The water birds were grebes 42 Recorder39s note The arrows crossed on the back of the bird39s head See both Navaho and Zuni Arrow Ceremony his arrows and when the last water bird had gone he found himself sitting on land The locust returned to the lower world and told the people that the beings above had strong medicine and that he had had great dif culty getting the best of them Now two dark clouds and two white clouds rose and this meant that two nights and two days had passed forthere was still no sun First Man again sent the badgerto the upper world and he returned covered with mud terrible mud First Man gathered chips of turquoise which he offered to the ve Chiefs ofthe V nds who43 lived in the uppermost world ofall They were pleased with the gift and they sent down the winds and dried the Fifth World First Man and his people saw four dark clouds and four white clouds pass and then they sent the badger up the reed This time when the badger returned he said that he had come out on solid earth So First Man and First Woman led the people to the Fifth World which some call the Many Colored Earth and some the Changeable Earth They emerged through a lake surrounded by four mountains The water bubbles in this lake when anyone goes near44 Now after all the people had emerged from the lower worlds First Man and First Woman dressed the Mountain Lion with yellow black white and grayish corn and placed him on one side They dressed the Wolfwith white tail feathers and placed him on the other side They divided the people into two groups The first group was told to choose whichever chiefthey wished They made their choice and although they thought they had chosen the Mountain Lion they found that they had taken the Wolf for their chief The Mountain Lion was the chief for the other side And these people who had the Mountain Lion for their chief turned out to be the people ofthe Earth They were to plant seeds and harvest corn The followers ofthe Wolf chief became the animals and birds they turned into all the creatures that fly and crawl and run and swim And after all the beings were divided and each had his own form they went their ways 43 The First Chief Nichi ntla39ie the Left Course Wind the Second Chief Nichi lichi the Red V nd the Third Chief Nichi shada ji na39laghali the Wind Turning from the Sun the Fourth Chief Nichi qa39hashchi the V nd with Many Points the Fifth Chief Nichi che do et siedee the Wind with the Fiery Temper 44 lnformant39s note The place ofemergence is said to be near Pagosa Springs Colo The white people have put a wire fence around our Sacred Lake Matthews 1897 p 135 place ofemergence Franciscan Fathers 1910 pp 347354 The First or Dark World ants beetles dragonflies locusts bats frogs The Second or Blue World blue heron swallow people They lived in rough lumpy houses with the entrance in a hole in the top of the roofor in eaves The Third or Yellow World grasshoppers etc The Fourth or Larger World was of All Colors four snowcovered mountains the Pueblo People corn pumpkins Parsons 1933 pp 611631 Cushing 1923 p 164 14 This is the story ofthe Four Dark Worlds and the Fifth the World we live in Some medicine men tell us that there are two worlds above us the rst is the World ofthe Spirits of Living Things the second is the Place of Melting into One The Mesopotamian Pantheon Here are some of the gods and goddesses from the Babylonian creation epic quotEnuma elishquot Apsu Tiamet Lahmu and Lahamu Anshar Kishar Anu Antu Ishtarlnnina Mummu Kingu Ea Dumkina Murduk He is the underworld ocean and the begetter of the skies and the earth He is the husband of Tiamet and the father of Lahmu Lahamy Anshar and Kishar She is primeval Chaos bearer of the skies and the earth mother of Lahmu Lahamu Anshar and Kishar At her death her eyes form the Tigris and Euphrates rivers First children of Apsu and Tiamet Son of Apsu and Tiamet Husband to his sister Kishar and father to Anu Daughter of Apsu and Tiamet Consort of Anshar and mother of Anu Sky god father and king of the gods He is the son of Anshar and Kishar His first consort was Antu They produced the Anunnaki the underworld gods and the utukki the seven evil demons His second consort was Ishtar He is Ea s father First consort of Anu Mother of the Anunnaki and the utukki She is Anu s second consort She is the goddess o ove procreation and war She is armed with a quiver and bow She has many lovers and is served in her temples by temple prostitutes of both genders Apsu s vizier He helps Apsu disperse the younger gods when they disturb Tiamet Ea finds out about the plan casts a spell on Mummu and ties him up Tiamet s battle leader and second consort Tiamet gives him the Tablet of Destinies which gives him power to affect reality He is defeated by Marduk and counted among the dead gods For his part in the war he was made by Marduk to provide the blood for the creation of man Also called Mudimmud Consort of Dumkina and father of Murduk God of the waters and of wisdom He is the son of Anu and Ishtar Ea s consort and mother of Murduk Also called Bel or Baal Son of Ea and Dumkina He supplants the other Babylonian deities to become the central figure of their pantheon He finally defeats Kingu and Tiamet in return for which the other gods make him their king He controls the winds Gods of the underworld and judges of the dead Anunnaki Utukki Seven deadly demons Innugi Collective name for the gods mostly of heaven Other important gures Enlil Wind and storm god He is responsible for the great ood Son of the goddess Ninsun and of a priest of Kullah He is the hero of the epic Gilgamesh poem quotThe Epic of Gilgamesh quot Utnapsihtim Son of Ubara and Tutu He is the only man to survive the great ood Gilgamesh goes to ask him how to achieve immortality A mm Tiamul undcnvzuald mumquot chutney Mummu Eman r39muaxz vi tf i I lamm39s pcnural L ml39rn39mr39l 39 T 7 thmu Lulmmu Anslmr high limit 3L1 Mmlr can Arum min lnuinm lnhtar 54M marl 39 guddvsi m lenilm II Maurian II mat a undumnrld 39 Hakka I T L39L39ll demon n I Uumkim haul tri39 wi dran M u will Mlle King ml Eudfs39l Elm Selections from the Uganishads Brahman is the whole world Thou art the darkblue bird and the green parrot with red eyes Thou hast the lightning as thy child Thou art the seasons and the seas Having no beginning thou dost abide with allpervadingness Wherefrom all beings are born Svetasvatara 424 Verily this whole world in Brahman Tranquil let one worship it as that from which he came forth as that into which he will be dissolved as that in which he breathes Chandogya 3141 Brahman indeed is this immortal Brahman before Brahman behind to right and left Stretched forth below and above Brahman indeed is this whole world Mundaka 2211 Atman the worldsoul is the whole world Fire is His head His eyes the moon and sun the regions of space His ears His voice the revealed Vedas Wind His breath His heart the whole world Out of His feet the earth Truly He is the Inner Soul of all Mundaka 224 As all the spokes are held together in the hub of a wheel just so in this Soul all things all gods all worlds all breathing things all selves are held together Brihadaranyaka 2515 Atman and Brahman are identical The Soul Atman which pervades all things this is Brahman Svetasvatara 116 This Soul Atman is Brahman made of knowledge of mind of breath of seeing ofhearing of earth ofwater of wind of space of energy and of non energy of desire and ofnondesire of anger and ofnonanger of virtue and of nonvirtue It is made of everything Brihadaranyaka 44 The individual soul is indentical with BrahmanArman The light which shines higher than this heaven verily that is the same as the light which is here within a person Chandogya 3137 He who is in the re and he who is here in the heart and he who is yonder in the sun he is one Maitri 617 He who breathes in with your breathing is the Soul ofyours which is in all things Brihadaranyaka 341 He who consists of mind whose body is lifebreath whose form is light whose conception is truth whose soul is space containing all works containing all desires containing all odors containing all tastes encompassing this whole world this Soul of mine within the heart is smallerthan a grain of rice or a barleycorn or a mustardseed or a grain of millet or the kernel ofa grain of millet This Soul of mine is greaterthan the earth greater than the atmosphere greaterthan the sky greater than these worlds Chandogya 31423 As far verily as this worldspace extends so far extends the space within the heart Within it are contained both heaven and earth both re and wind both sun and moon lightning and the stars both what one possesses here and what one does not possess everything here is contained within it That is the Soul free from evil free from age free from death free from sorrow free from hunger free from thirst whose desire is the Real whose conception is the Real Chandogya 81 34 The diversity of appearances is an illusion There is on earth no diversity He gets death a er death Who perceives here seeming diversity As a unity only is It to be looked upon this indemonstrable enduring Being Brihadaranyaka 441920 This whole world the illusion maker projects out of this Brahman And in it by illusion the other is con ned Now one should know that Nature is illusion And that the Mighty Lord is the illusion maker Svetasvatara 4910 There are no chariots there no bridges no roads But he projects from himself chariots bridges roads There are no blisses there no pleasures no delights But he projects from himself blisses pleasures delights There are notanks there no lotuspools no streams But he projects from himself tanks lotuspools streams For he is a creator In the state of sleep going high and low a god he makes many forms for himself Brihadaranyaka 431012 The true Brahman is beyond understanding by words or concepts Neti neti not this not this Brihadaranyaka 236 It is not coarse not ne not short not long without shadow without darkness without air and without space intangible odorless tasteless without eye without ear ithout voice without mind without energy without breath without mouth unaging undying without fear immortal without stain without measure without inside and without inside Brihadaranyaka 388 It is to be known through thought not senses Not by sight is It grasped not even by speech Not by any other senseorgans austerity or work That subtile Soul is to be known by thought Mundaka 3189 Knowledge and inaction are better than action Having scrutinized the worlds that are built up by work a Brahman should arrive at indifference The world that was not made is not won by what is done Mundaka112 Knowledge of self brings knowledge of cosmos One should reverence the thought I am the worldall Chandogya 7251 Verily with the seeing of with the hearing of with the thinking of and with the understanding ofthe soul this worldall is known Brihadaranyaka 245 That art thou Chandogya 6816 Knowing the unity of self and world is liberation Whoever thus knows I am Brahman becomes this all even the gods have no powerto prevent him becoming thus for he becomes their self Brihadaranyaka 1410 He knowing all becomes the All Prasna 410 This unity is beyond dualism and beyond normal cognition Where there is a duality as it were there one sees another there one smells another there one tastes another there one speaks to another But where everything has becomejust one39s own self then whereby and whom would one see Then whereby and whom would one smell then whereby and whom would one speak then whereby and whom would one hear then whereby and whom would one think then whereby and whom would one touch then whereby and whom would one understand Brihadaranyaka 2414 A a man when in the embrace ofhis beloved wife knows nothing within or without so this person when in the embrace ofthe intelligent Soul knows nothing within or without Brihadaranyaka 4321 Death is the ultimate union of self and All When a person is dying his voice goes into his mind his mind into his breath his breath into heat the heat intothe highest divinity that which is the nest essence the whole world has that as its soul That is Reality That is Atman That art thou Svetaketu Chanodgya 686 As these owing rivers that tend towards the ocean on reaching the ocean disappear their name and form are destroyed and it is called simply quotthe oceanquot even so of this spectator these sixteen parts that tend towards the Person Purusha the cosmic unity on reaching the Person disappear their name and form are destroyed and it is called simply quotthe Personquot Prasna 65 Death is better than life When one has come into the presence ofundecaying immortals What decaying mortal here below who understands who meditates on the pleasures of beauty and delight Would delight in a life overlongKatha128 When are cut all the knots ofthe heart here on earth then a mortal becomes immortal Katha 615 The extracts are from Robert Hume The Thirteen Principal Upanishads Oxford University Press 1931 Homeric Hymn to Demeter Demeter was the goddess of corn and the fertility of the earth mother by Error Hyperlink reference not valid of Persephone The Homeric Hymn to Demeter tells the story of Persephone39s abduction by Hades and Demeter39s desperate search for her daughter As well as providing a mythological origin for the Eleusinian Mysteries the Hymn gives a unique and powerful depiction of the relationship between mother and daughter and underlines Demeter39s unusual position in Greek mythology as both a mother and a powerful goddess with an important domain of her own The story of Demeter as told in the Hymn contains some important themes By causing famine and therefore disrupting sacrifice to the gods she threatens the Olympians and manages to make Zeus change his mind Her refusal to fulfil her usual functions when she feels dishonored by her daughter39s abduction is paralleled by Achilles39 withdrawal from battle in the Iliad Note This Homeric Hymn composed in approximately the seventh century BCE served for centuries thereafter as the canonical hymn of the Eleusinian Mysteries The text below was translated from the Greek by Hugh G EvelynWhite and first published by the Loeb Classical Library in 1914 I begin to sing of richhaired Demeter awful goddess of her and her trimankled daughter whom Aidoneus Hades rapt away given to him by allseeing Zeus the loud thunderer Apart from Demeter lady of the golden sword and glorious fruits she was playing with the deepbosomed daughters of Oceanus and gathering owers over a soft meadow roses and crocuses and beautiful violets irises also and hyacinths and the narcissus which Earth made to grow at the will of Zeus and to please the Host of Many to be a snare for the bloomlike girl a marvellous radiant flower It was a thing of awe whether for deathless gods or mortal men to see from its root grew a hundred blooms and it smelled most sweetly so that all wide heaven above and the whole earth and the sea s salt swell laughed for joy And the girl was amazed and reached out with both hands to take the lovely toy but the widepathed earth yawned there in the plain of Nysa and the lord Host of Many with his immortal horses sprang out upon her the Son of Cronos He who has many names1 He caught her up reluctant on his golden car and bare her away lamenting Then she cried out shrilly with her voice calling upon her father the Son of Cronos who is most high and excellent But no one either of the deathless gods or of mortal men heard her voice nor yet the olivetrees bearing rich fruit only tenderhearted Hecate brightcoiffed the daughter of Persaeus heard the girl from her cave and the lord Helios Hyperion39s bright son as she cried to her father the Son of Cronos But he was sitting aloof apart from the gods in his temple where many pray and receiving sweet offerings from mortal men 80 he that Son of Cronos of many names who is Ruler of Many and Host of Many was bearing her away by leave of Zeus on his immortal chariot his own brother39s child and all unwilling Line 33 And so long as she the goddess yet beheld earth and starry heaven and the strongflowing sea where shes shoal and the rays of the sun and still hoped to see her dear mother and the tribes of the eternal gods so long hope calmed her great heart for all her trouble and the heights of the mountains and the depths of the sea rang with her immortal voice and her queenly mother heard her Bitter pain seized her heart and she rent the covering upon her divine hair with her dear hands her dark cloak she cast down from both her shoulders and sped like a wildbird over the firm land and yielding sea seeking her child But no one would tell her the truth neither god nor mortal man and of the birds of omen none came with true news for her Then for nine days queenly Deo wandered over the earth with flaming torches in her hands so grieved that she never tasted ambrosia and the sweet draught of nectar nor sprinkled her body with water But when the tenth enlightening dawn had come Hecate with a torch in her hands met her and spoke to her and told her news Queenly Demeter bringer of seasons and giver of good gifts what god of heaven or what mortal man has rapt away Persephone and pierced with sorrow your dear heart For I heard her voice yet saw not with my eyes who it was But I tell you truly and shortly all I know Line 59 So then said Hecate And the daughter of richhaired Rhea answered her not but sped swiftly with her holding aming torches in her hands So they came to Helios who is watchman of both gods and men and stood in front of his horses and the bright goddess enquired of him quotHelios do you at least regard me goddess as I am if ever by word or deed of mine I have cheered your heart and spirit Through the fruitless air I heard the thrilling cry of my daughter whom I bare sweet scion of my body and lovely in form as of one seized violently though with my eyes I saw nothing But you for with your beams you look down from the bright upper air over all the earth and sea tell me truly of my dear child if you have seen her anywhere what god or mortal man has violently seized her against her will and mine and so made off 80 said she And the Son of Hyperion answered her quotQueen Demeter daughter of rich haired Rhea I will tell you the truth for I greatly reverence and pity you in your grief for your trimankled daughter None other of the deathless gods is to blame but only cloud gathering Zeus who gave her to Hades her father39s brother to be called his buxom wife And Hades seized her and took her loudly crying in his chariot down to his realm of mist and gloom Yet goddess cease your loud lament and keep not vain anger unrelentingly Aidoneus the Ruler of Many is no un tting husband among the deathless gods for your child being our own brother and born of the same stock also for honour he has that third share which he received when division was made at the first and is appointed lord of those among whom he dwells So he spake and called to his horses and at his chiding they quickly whirled the swift chariot along like longwinged birds Line 90 But grief yet more terrible and savage came into the heart of Demeter and thereafter she was so angered with the darkclouded Son of Cronos that she avoided the gathering of the gods and high Olympus and went to the towns and rich elds of men dis guring her form a long while And no one of men or deepbosomed women knew her when they saw her until she came to the house of wise Celeus who then was lord of fragrant Eleusis Vexed in her dear heart she sat near the wayside by the Maiden Well from which the women of the place were used to draw water in a shady place over which grew an olive shrub And she was like an ancient woman who is cut off from childbearing and the gifts of garlandloving Aphrodite like the nurses of king39s children who deal justice or like the housekeepers in their echoing halls There the daughters of Celeus son of Eleusis saw her as they coming for easydrawn water to carry it in pitchers of bronze to their dear father39s house four were they and like goddesses in the ower of their girlhood Callidice and Cleisidice and lovely Demo and Callithoe who was the eldest of them all They knew her not for the gods are not easily discerned by mortals but startling near by her spoke winged words Old mother whence are you of folk born long ago Why are you gone away from the city and do not draw near the houses For there in the shady halls are women ofjust such age as you and others younger and they would welcome you both by word and by deedquot Line 118 Thus they said And she that queen among goddesses answered them saying quotHail dear children whosoever you are of womankind I will tell you my story for it is not unseemly that I should tell you truly what you ask D050 is my name for my stately mother gave it me And now I am come from Crete over the sea s wide back not willingly but pirates brought me thence by force of strength against my liking AftenNards they put in with their swift craft to Thoricus and these the women landed on the shore in full throng and the men likewise and they began to make ready a meal by the sterncables of the ship But my heart craved not pleasant food and l ed secretly across the dark country and escaped my masters that they should not take me unpurchased across the sea there to win a price for me And so I wandered and am come here and I know not at all what land this is or what people are in it But may all those who dwell on Olympus give you husbands and birth of children as parents desire so you take pity on me maidens and show me this clearly that I may learn dear children to the house of what man and woman I may go to work for them cheerfully at such tasks as belong to a woman of my age Well could I nurse a new born child holding him in my arms or keep house or spread my masters39 bed in a recess of the wellbuilt chamber or teach the women their work So said the goddess And straightway the unwed maiden Callidice goodliest in form of the daughters of Celeus answered her and said Line 147 Mother what the gods send us we mortals bear perforce although we suffer for they are much stronger than we But now I will teach you clearly telling you the names of men who have great power and honour here and are chief among the people guarding our city39s coif of towers by their wisdom and true judgements there is wise Triptolemus and Dioclus and Polyxeinus and blameless Eumolpus and Dolichus and our own brave father All these have wives who manage in the house and no one of them so soon as she had seen you would dishonour you and turn you from the house but they will welcome you for indeed you are godlike But if you will stay here and we will go to our father39s house and tell Metaneira our deepbosomed mother all this matter fully that she may bid you rather come to our home than search after the houses of others She has an only son lateborn who is being nursed in our wellbuilt house a child of many prayers and welcome if you could bring him up until he reached the full measure of youth any one of womankind who should see you would straightway envy you such gifts would our mother give for his upbringingquot So she spake and the goddess bowed her head in assent And they lled their shining vessels with water and carried them off rejoicing Quickly they came to their father s great house and straightway told their mother according as they had heard and seen Then she bade them go with all speed and invite the stranger to come for a measureless hire As hinds or heifers in spring time when sated with pasture bound about a meadow so they holding up the folds of their lovely garments darted down the hollow path and their hair like a crocus ower streamed about their shoulders And they found the good goddess near the wayside where they had left her before and led her to the house of their dear father And she walked behind distressed in her dear heart with her head veiled and wearing a dark cloak which waved about the slender feet of the goddess Line 184 Soon they came to the house of heavennurtured Celeus and went through the portico to where their queenly mother sat by a pillar of the close tted roof holding her son a tender scion in her bosom And the girls ran to her But the goddess walked to the threshold and her head reached the roof and she filled the doonNay with a heavenly radiance Then awe and reverence and pale fear took hold of Metaneira and she rose up from her couch before Demeter and bade her be seated But Demeter bringer of seasons and giver of perfect gifts would not sit upon the bright couch but stayed silent with lovely eyes cast down until careful lambe placed a jointed seat for her and threw over it a silvery eece Then she sat down and held her veil in her hands before her face A long time she sat upon the stooljg without speaking because of her sorrow and greeted no one by word or by sign but rested never smiling and tasting neither food nor drinks because she pined with longing for her deepbosomed daughter until careful lambe who pleased her moods in aftertime also moved the holy lady with many a quip and jest to smile and laugh and cheer her heart Then Metaneira filled a cup with sweet wine and offered it to her but she refused it for she said it was not lawful for her to drink red wine but bade them mix meal and water with soft mint and give her to drink And Metaneira mixed the draught and gave it to the goddess as she bade So the great queen Deo received it to observe the sacrament Line 212 And of them all wellgirded Metaneira rst began to speak quotHail lady For I think you are not meanly but nobly born truly dignity and grace are conspicuous upon your eyes as in the eyes of kings that deal justice Yet we mortals bear perforce what the gods send us though we be grieved for a yoke is set upon our necks But now since you are come here you shall have what I can bestow and nurse me this child whom the gods gave me in my old age and beyond my hope a son much prayed for If you should bring him up until he reach the full measure of youth any one of woman kind that sees you will straightway envy you so great reward would I give for his upbringingquot Then richhaired Demeter answered her quotAnd to you also lady all hail and may the gods give you good Gladly will I take the boy to my breast as you bid me and will nurse him Never l ween through any heedlessness of his nurse shall witchcraft hurt him nor yet the Undercutter for I know a charm far stronger than the Woodcutter and I know an excellent safeguard against woeful witchcraft j When she had so spoken she took the child in her fragrant bosom with her divine hands and his mother was glad in her heart So the goddess nursed in the palace Demophoon wise Celeus39 goodly son whom wellgirded Metaneira bare And the child grew like some immortal being not fed with food nor nourished at the breast for by day richcrowned Demeter would anoint him with ambrosia as if he were the offspring of a god and breathe sweetly upon him as she held him in her bosom But at night she would hide him like a brand in the heart of the fire unknown to his dear parents And it wrought great wonder in these that he grew beyond his age for he was like the gods face to face And she would have made him deathless and unaging had not wellgirded Metaneira in her heedlessness kept watch by night from her sweetsmelling chamber and spied But she wailed and smote her two hips because she feared for her son and was greatly distraught in her heart so she lamented and uttered winged words Line 248 Demophoon my son the strange woman buries you deep in fire and works grief and bitter sorrow for me Thus she spoke mourning And the bright goddess lovelycrowned Demeter heard her and was wroth with her So with her divine hands she snatched from the fire the dear son whom Metaneira had born unhopedfor in the palace and cast him from her to the ground for she was terribly angry in her heart Forthwith she said to wellgirded Metaneira Witless are you mortals and dull to foresee your lot whether of good or evil that comes upon you For now in your heedlessness you have wrought folly past healing for be witness the oath of the gods the relentless water of Styx I would have made your dear son deathless and unaging all his days and would have bestowed on him ever lasting honour but now he can in no way escape death and the fates Yet shall unfailing honour always rest upon him because he lay upon my knees and slept in my arms But as the years move round and when he is in his prime the sons of the Eleusinians shall ever wage war and dread strife with one another continually Lo I am that Demeter who has share of honour and is the greatest help and cause of joy to the undying gods and mortal men But now let all the people build me a great temple and an altar below it and beneath the city and its sheer wall upon a rising hillock above Callichorus And I myself will teach my rites that hereafter you may reverently perform them and so win the favour of my heartquot Line 275 When she had so said the goddess changed her stature and her looks thrusting old age away from her beauty spread round about her and a lovely fragrance was wafted from her sweetsmelling robes and from the divine body of the goddess a light shone afar while golden tresses spread down over her shoulders so that the strong house was filled with brightness as with lightning And so she went out from the palace And straightway Metaneira s knees were loosed and she remained speechless for a long while and did not remember to take up her lateborn son from the ground But his sisters heard his pitiful wailing and sprang down from their wellspread beds one of them took up the child in her arms and laid him in her bosom while another revived the fire and a third rushed with soft feet to bring their mother from her fragrant chamber And they gathered about the struggling child and washed him embracing him lovingly but he was not comforted because nurses and handmaids much less skillful were holding him now All night long they sought to appease the glorious goddess quaking with fear But as soon as dawn began to show they told powerful Celeus all things without fail as the lovelycrowned goddess Demeter charged them So Celeus called the countless people to an assembly and bade them make a goodly temple for richhaired Demeter and an altar upon the rising hillock And they obeyed him right speedily and harkened to his voice doing as he commanded As for the child he grew like an immortal being Line 301 Now when they had nished building and had drawn back from their toil they went every man to his house But goldenhaired Demeter sat there apart from all the blessed gods and stayed wasting with yearning for her deepbosomed daughter Then she caused a most dreadful and cruel year for mankind over the allnourishing earth the ground would not make the seed sprout for richcrowned Demeter kept it hid In the fields the oxen drew many a curved plough in vain and much white barley was cast upon the land without avail So she would have destroyed the whole race of man with cruel famine and have robbed them who dwell on Olympus of their glorious right of gifts and sacri ces had not Zeus perceived and marked this in his heart First he sent goldenwinged Iris to call richhaired Demeter lovely in form So he commanded And she obeyed the darkclouded Son of Cronos and sped with swift feet across the space between She came to the stronghold of fragrant Eleusis and there finding darkcloaked Demeter in her temple spake to her and uttered winged words Demeter father Zeus whose wisdom is everlasting calls you to come join the tribes of the eternal gods come therefore and let not the message I bring from Zeus pass unobeyed Thus said Iris imploring her But Demeter39s heart was not moved Then again the father sent forth all the blessed and eternal gods besides and they came one after the other and kept calling her and offering many very beautiful gifts and whatever rights she might be pleased to choose among the deathless gods Yet no one was able to persuade her mind and will so wroth was she in her heart but she stubbornly rejected all their words for she vowed that she would never set foot on fragrant Olympus nor let fruit spring out of the ground until she beheld with her eyes her own fairfaced daughter Line 334 Now when allseeing Zeus the loudthunderer heard this he sent the Slayer of Argus whose wand is of gold to Erebus so that having won over Hades with soft words he might lead forth chaste Persephone to the light from the misty gloom to join the gods and that her mother might see her with her eyes and cease from her anger And Hermes obeyed and leaving the house of Olympus straightway sprang down with speed to the hidden places of the earth And he found the lord Hades in his house seated upon a couch and his shy mate with him much reluctant because she yearned for her mother But she was afar off brooding on her fell design because of the deeds of the blessed gods And the strong Slayer of Argus drew near and said Darkhaired Hades ruler over the departed father Zeus bids me bring noble Persephone forth from Erebus unto the gods that her mother may see her with her eyes and cease from her dread anger with the immortals for now she plans an awful deed to destroy the weakly tribes of earthborn men by keeping seed hidden beneath the earth and so she makes an end of the honours of the undying gods For she keeps fearful anger and does not consort with the gods but sits aloof in her fragrant temple dwelling in the rocky hold of Eleusisquot 10 So he said And Aidoneus ruler over the dead smiled grimly and obeyed the behest of Zeus the king For he straightway urged wise Persephone saying Line 360 quotGo now Persephone to your darkrobed mother go and feel kindly in your heart towards me be not so exceedingly cast down for I shall be no unfitting husband for you among the deathless gods that am own brother to father Zeus And while you are here you shall rule all that lives and moves and shall have the greatest rights among the deathless gods those who defraud you and do not appease your power with offerings reverently performing rites and paying fit gifts shall be punished for evermorequot When he said this wise Persephone was filled with joy and hastily sprang up for gladness But he on his part secretly gave her sweet pomegranate seed to eat taking care for himself that she might not remain continually with grave darkrobed Demeter Then Aidoneus the Ruler of Many openly got ready his deathless horses beneath the golden chariots And she mounted on the chariot and the strong Slayer of Argus took reins and whip in his dear hands and drove forth from the hall the horses speeding readily Swiftly they traversed their long course and neither the sea nor riverwaters nor grassy glens nor mountainpeaks checked the career of the immortal horses but they clave the deep air above them as they went And Hermes brought them to the place where richcrowned Demeter was staying and checked them before her fragrant temple Line 384 And when Demeter saw them she rushed forth as does a Maenad down some thickwooded mountain while Persephone on the other side when she saw her mother39s sweet eyes left the chariot and horses and leaped down to run to her and falling upon her neck embraced her But while Demeter was still holding her dear child in her arms her heart suddenly misgave her for some snare so that she feared greatly and ceased fondling her daughter and asked of her at once My child tell me surely you have not tasted any food while you were below Speak out and hide nothing but let us both know For if you have not you shall come back from loatth Hades and live with me and your father the darkclouded Son of Cronos and be honoured by all the deathless gods but if you have tasted food you must go back again beneath the secret places of the earth there to dwell a third part of the seasons every year yet for the two parts you shall be with me and the other deathless gods But when the earth shall bloom with the fragrant flowers of spring in every kind then from the realm of darkness and gloom thou shalt come up once more to be a wonder for gods and mortal men And now tell me how he rapt you away to the realm of darkness and gloom and by what trick did the strong Host of Many beguile youquot Line 405 Then beautiful Persephone answered her thus Mother I will tell you all without error When luckbringing Hermes came swift messenger from my father the Son of Cronos and the other Sons of Heaven bidding me come back from Erebus that you might see me with your eyes and so cease from your anger and fearful wrath against the gods l sprang up at once forjoy but he secretly put in my mouth sweet food a pomegranate seed and forced me to taste against my will Also I will tell how he rapt me away by the deep plan of my father the Son of Cronos and carried me off beneath the depths of the earth and will relate the whole matter as you ask All we were playing in a lovely meadow Leucippe and Phaeno and Electra and lanthe Melita also and lache with Rhodea and Callirhoe and Melobosis and Tyche and Ocyrhoe fair as a ower Chryseis laneira Acaste and Admete and Rhodope and Pluto and charming Calypso Styx too was there and Urania and lovely Galaxaura with Pallas who rouses battles and Artemis delighting in arrows We were playing and gathering sweet owers in our hands soft crocuses mingled with irises and hyacinths and rose blooms and lilies marvellous to see and the narcissus which the wide earth caused to grow yellow as a crocus That I plucked in myjoy but the earth parted beneath and there the strong lord the Host of Many sprang forth and in his golden chariot he bore me away all unwilling beneath the earth then I cried with a shrill cry All this is true sore though it grieves me to tell the tale Line 434 So did they then with hearts at one greatly cheer each the other s soul and spirit with many an embrace their hearts had relief from their griefs while each took and gave back joyousness Then brightcoiffed Hecate came near to them and often did she embrace the daughter of holy Demeter and from that time the lady Hecate was minister and companion to Persephone 12 And allseeing Zeus sent a messenger to them richhaired Rhea to bring darkcloaked Demeter to join the families of the gods and he promised to give her what rights she should choose among the deathless gods and agreed that her daughter should go down for the third part of the circling year to darkness and gloom but for the two parts should live with her mother and the other deathless gods Thus he commanded And the goddess did not disobey the message of Zeus swiftly she rushed down from the peaks of Olympus and came to the plain of Rharus rich fertile cornland once but then in nowise fruitful for it lay idle and utterly leafless because the white grain was hidden by design of trimankled Demeter But aftenNards as springtime waxed it was soon to be waving with long ears of corn and its rich furrows to be loaded with grain upon the ground while others would already be bound in sheaves There first she landed from the fruitless upper air and glad were the goddesses to see each other and cheered in heart Then brightcoiffed Rhea said to Demeter Line 459 Come my daughter for farseeing Zeus the loudthunderer calls you to join the families of the gods and has promised to give you what rights you please among the deathless gods and has agreed that for a third part of the circling year your daughter shall go down to darkness and gloom but for the two parts shall be with you and the other deathless gods so has he declared it shall be and has bowed his head in token But come my child obey and be not too angry unrelentineg with the dark clouded Son of Cronos but rather increase forthwith for men the fruit that gives them life So spake Rhea And richcrowned Demeter did not refuse but straightway made fruit to spring up from the rich lands so that the whole wide earth was laden with leaves and flowers Then she went and to the kings who deal justice Triptolemus and Diocles the horsedriver and to doughty Eumolpus and Celeus leader of the people she showed the conduct of her rites and taught them all her mysteries to Triptolemus and Polyxeinus and Diocles also awful mysteries which no one may in any way transgress or pry into or utter for deep awe of the gods checks the voice Happy is he among men upon earth who has seen these mysteries but he who is uninitiate and who has no part in them never has lot of like good things once he is dead down in the darkness and gloom Line 483 But when the bright goddess had taught them all they went to Olympus to the gathering of the other gods And there they dwell beside Zeus who delights in thunder awful and reverend goddesses Right blessed is he among men on earth whom they freely love soon they do send Plutus as guest to his great house Plutus who gives wealth to mortal men And now queen of the land of sweet Eleusis and seagirt Paros and rocky Antron lady giver of good gifts bringer of seasons queen Deo be gracious you and your daughter all beauteous Persephone and for my song grant me heartcheering substance And now I will remember you and another song also Notes 1 The Greeks feared to name Pluto directly and mentioned him by one of many descriptive titles such as quotHost of Many compare the Christian use of diaboos or our Evil Onequot 2 Demeter chooses the lowlier seat supposedly as being more suitable to her assumed condition but really because in her sorrow she refuses all comforts 3 An act of communion the drinking of the potion kykean here described was one of the most important pieces of ritual in the Eleusinian mysteries as commemorating the sorrows of the goddess 4 Undercutter and Woodcutter are probably popular names after the style of Hesiod39s Boneless Onequot for the worm thought to be the cause of teething and toothache 5 The list of names is taken with ve additions from Hesiod Theogony349 ff Summa Theologica lof2 httpwwwccelorgaaquinassumm aF SFSO94htmlFSQ94AlTHEPl Index Whether the natural law is the same in all men Objection 1 It would seem that the natural law is not the same in all For it is stated in the Decretals Dist i that quotthe natural law is that which is contained in the Law and the Gospelquot But this is not common to all men because as it is written Rm 10 16 quotall do not obey the gospelquot Therefore the natural law is not the same in all men Objection 2 Further quotThings which are according to the law are said to be justquot as stated in Ethic V But it is stated in the same book that nothing is so universally just as not to be subject to change in regard to some men Therefore even the natural law is not the same in all men Objection 3 Further as stated above Articles 2 3 to the natural law belongs everything to which a man is inclined according to his nature Now different men are naturally inclined to different things some to the desire of pleasures others to the desire of honors and other men to other things Therefore there is not one natural law for all On the contrary Isidore says Etym v 4 quotThe natural law is common to all nationsquot I answer that As stated above Articles 2 3 to the natural law belongs those things to which a man is inclined naturally and among these it is proper to man to be inclined to act according to reason Now the process of reason is from the common to the proper as stated in Phys i The speculative reason however is differently situated in this matter from the practical reason For since the speculative reason is busied chie y with the necessary things which cannot be otherwise than they are its proper conclusions like the universal principles contain the truth without fail The practical reason on the other hand is busied with contingent matters about which human actions are concerned and consequently although there is necessity in the general principles the more we descend to matters of detail the more frequently we encounter defects Accordingly then in speculative matters truth is the same in all men both as to principles and as to conclusions although the truth is not known to all as regards the conclusions but only as regards the principles which are called common notions But in matters of action truth or practical rectitude is not the same for all as to matters of detail but only as to the general principles and where there is the same rectitude in matters of detail it is not equally known to all It is therefore evident that as regards the general principles whether of speculative or of practical reason truth or rectitude is the same for all and is equally known by all As to the proper conclusions of the speculative reason the truth is the same for all but is not equally known to all thus it is true for all that the three angles of a triangle are together equal to two right angles although it is not known to all But as to the proper conclusions of the practical reason neither is the truth or rectitude the same for all nor where it is the same is it equally known by all Thus it is right and true for all to act according to reason and from this principle it follows as a proper conclusion that goods entrusted to another should be restored to their owner Now this is true for the majority of cases but it may happen in a particular case that it would be injurious and therefore unreasonable to restore goods held in trust for instance if they are claimed for the purpose of fighting against one s country And this principle will be found to fail the more according as we descend further into detail eg if one were to say that goods held in trust should be restored with such and such a 1012004 905 AM Summa Theologica 20f2 httpwwwccelorgaaquinassummaFSFSO94htm1FSQ94AlTHEPl guarantee or 1n such and such a way because the greater the number of conditions added the greater the number of ways in which the principle may fail so that it be not right to restore or not to restore Consequently we must say that the natural law as to general principles is the same for all both as to rectitude and as to knowledge But as to certain matters of detail which are conclusions as it were of those general principles it is the same for all in the majority of cases both as to rectitude and as to knowledge and yet in some few cases it may fail both as to rectitude by reason of certain obstacles just as natures subject to generation and corruption fail in some few cases on account of some obstacle and as to knowledge since in some the reason is perverted by passion or evil habit or an evil disposition of nature thus formerly theft although it is expressly contrary to the natural law was not considered wrong among the Germans as Julius Caesar relates De Bello Gall vi Reply to Objection 1 The meaning of the sentence quoted is not that whatever is contained in the Law and the Gospel belongs to the natural law since they contain many things that are above nature but that whatever belongs to the natural law is fully contained in them Wherefore Gratian after saying that quotthe natural law is what is contained in the Law and the Gospelquot adds at once by way of example quotby which everyone is commanded to do to others as he would be done byquot Reply to Objection 2 The saying of the Philosopher is to be understood of things that are naturally just not as general principles but as conclusions drawn from them having rectitude in the majority of cases but failing in a few Reply to Objection 3 As in man reason rules and commands the other powers so all the natural inclinations belonging to the other powers must needs be directed according to reason Wherefore it is universally right for all men that all their inclinations should be directed according to reason 1012004 905 AM SOPHOCLES ANTIGONE A New Translation by DW Myatt First Published 1990 This Edition rst published 1994 copyright DW Myatt 1990 1994 Preface The main aim ofthe present translation is to provide an accurate and poetic rendering in a style suitable for both reading and dramatic performance This would restore to Greek drama in translation a beauty of expression sadly lacking in almost all modern translations This translation will hopefully enable readers without a knowledge of ancient Greek to understand why Greek drama has been regarde for thousands of years as one of the triumphs of European civilization something hardly evident from other translations particularly recent ones which both trivialize and traduce the ori inal For this present edition of the translation the Greek notes that formed part ofthe rst edition have been omitted l have also amended the translation in places The layout ofthe translation generally follows the line structure ofthe Greek although for grammatical and dramatic reasons I have sometimes rendered one line of Greek as two English ones and occasionally written one English line for two Greek ones The numbers in the margin referto the Greek text and are given for guidance The text used is that of RD Dawe Sophoclis Tragoedia TomI Teubner 1985 although in a few places l have used other readings DW Myatt Shropshire 1994 Introduction The 39Antigone39 of Sophocles which follows his 39Oedipus the King39 and 39Oedipus at Colonus39 seems at rst glance to be concerned with the conflict between Antigone the daughter of Oedipus and Creon the new ruler of the community at Thebes who was the brother of Jocasta the mother and wife of Oedipus Polynices and Eteocles the two sons of Oedipus and thus the brothers of Antigone and her sister lsmene had quarrelled Polynices leaving Thebes and returning with an attacking force which he hoped would take the fortified citadel defended by Eteocles In the ensuing battle Polynices and Eteocles fought and killed each other with the attackers routed and forced to ee One of Creon39s rst edicts as ruler of Thebes is to forbid anyone to bury or mourn for Polynices This edict goes against the established custom which permitted those foes fallen in battle to be honoured by their relatives with the customary rites and buried Antigone defies this edict even though she knows her disobedience will mean her own death She believes that the ancient customs given by the gods and which thus honour the gods have priority over any edict or law made by a mortal and that thus it is her duty to observe these customs The reality however is that the 39Antigone39 is a not a tragedy concerned with individual characters with their motivations feelings ideas and so on It is not for instance as many modern commentators like in their ignorance to believe a drama about two different personalities Antigone and Creon both of whom are selfwilled and determined Rather this tragedy as do all Greek tragedies when rightly understood deals with the relation between mortals and gods The work is an exploration and explanation of the workings ofthe cosmos and the answers given express the distinctive ancient Greek 39outlook39 or ethos This ethos is pagan and it forms the basis of all civilized conduct and indeed civilization itself The essence ofthis outlook is that there are limits to human behaviour some conduct is wise some conduct is unwise Unwise conduct invites retrbution by the gods it can and o en does result in personal misfortune in bad luck However it is crucial to understand that this outlook does not involve abstract monotheistic notions l ke quotgoodquot and quotevilquot The Greeks strove to emulate a human ideal they strove through the pursuit of excellence to emulate and celebrate the best Their ideals or 39archetypes39 were the best the most heroic the most beautiful the most excellent individuals of their communities In their pursuit ofthis excellence they were careful not to quotoverstep the markquot to be excessive to commit 39hubris39 or 39insolence39 toward the g uch insolence was a violation ofthe customs which created and maintained the warrior communities and these customs were regarded as being given by the gods By honouring these customs the gods themselves were honoured and the very fabric of the communities maintained Thus a noble human balance was maintained Of course there were times of excess as there were individuals who were excessive But it was recognized that such excesses were unwise they would sooner or later be paid for In effect this outlook or ethos was that of the noble warrior aware of the power of Fate of the gods This ethos created and maintained a certain personal character and this character is evident whenever one reads Homer Sophocles Aeschylus and other Greek writers or views any Greek sculpture or painting The essentially archetypal Greek man was an intelligent reasoning proud vigorous independent warrior who respected the gods and who honoured the customs of the folk Fundamentally he was human able to enjoy life and its pleasures but aware from personal experience of death suffering the power of Fate and the gods at we admire so much about the ancient Greeks was this ba ance between a pagan joy and enthusiasm and an understanding and acceptance of Fate of the power of the gods in the rightlyfamed Choral Ode of the 39Antigone W 332ff Sophocles calls such a man the quotthinking warriorquot the allresourceful one for whom nothing is impossible he who by his skill rules over others Fundamentally Greek tragedy enables us to gain an insight into that way ofliving and that way ofthinking which are essential to civilization 0 a m For Susan 19521993 Characters Antigone lsmene Chorus of Theban Elders Creon A Watchman Haemon Tiresias A Messenger Eurydice Scene Before the wealthy dwelling of Creon at Thebes Antigone Antigone and lsmene enter Among your suffering and mine Antigone And what of this new proclamation lsmene my own sister by blood By the General to all the people Do you see how Zeus fulfills in us Have you heard and know what it means While we live the woes of Oedipus Or do you not understand how the suffering There is no pain no af iction no shame Of our foe now comes to our clan Nor dishonour that is not present lsmene l have heard ofnothing told of ourfolk Antigone Whether grievous or good since we two Lost ourtwo brothers killed in one day By their own two hands And since the Argive army ed this same night l have heard nothing to give me more sorrow or joy Antigone Such was my thought and thus I summoned you Beyond the courtyard gate so only you can hear this lsmene 20 What is it For see you colour changed Antigone It is that Creon has given burial honour To only one of our brothers leaving the other dishonoured Eteocles it is reported has with rightful justice Been concealed in earth tothus be given tribute By the dead below But pitiful is the death of Polynices For by royal decree no one may cover him Lament his death or weep But must leave him unburied as a welcome feast For carrion birds to eat as they WI Such they say is the proclamation of Creon quotthe noble For you and me For me And soon shall he be here To proclaim this directly to those who have not heard He does not hold this as ofno worth Since whosoever disobeys the edict Shall by a public stoning in the citadel be murdered Thus things are and now you shall swi ly show If you are noble or will debase the race that gave you birth lsmene But what my grieving sister can I do 40 To loosen or make the not Antigone Will you work with me to do the deed lsmene To attempt what Where is your thought leading Antigone With your hand help me raise the corpse lsmene You intend to bury him though our folk forbid it Antigone e is mine as yours though you wish he was not lshall never betray a brother lsmene How reckless when Creon has spoken against it Antigone He cannot keep me from my own lsmene Have thought sister of how our father Dishonoured and abhorred was destroyed He convicted himself ofwrong and by his own hands With his own act struck out both his eyes Then his mother and wife two names for one With a coiled rope made a failure ofher life And third our two brothers in one day Slaughtered themselves when their own hands Were raised each against their kin Consider now that we alone remain Pitifully shall we perish if we defy the decree Or the power of our Kin Reflect that we are women not disposed By our nature to strive against men For the stronger rule and therefore we should listen To such orders and those that are worse I thus ask the pardon ofthose below Since in these things I have no ower And must therefore obey those in authority To be excessive is unwise Antigone No more shall I exhort you and even if another day You wished it I would not welcome your sharing In the deed Be as you are as for me I shall bury him Since it is beautiful to die doing such a thing I shall lie by he whom I love who loves me the villain sanctioned by the gods For l have More seasons to spend pleasing those below Than those here since I shall lie there forever But if you deem it then dishonour What the gods themselves honour lsmene I do not dishonour them I have no strength And cannot act against the fo Antigone 80 So you say I shall go alone to raise A burial mound over my beloved brother lsmene You unhappy woman I fear for you Antigone Have no anxiety for me Follow your own Destiny lsmene If you must then do not announce the deed But keep it secret as l shal Antigone No announce it I shall detest you more If you keep silent and do not proclaim it to all lsmene A hot heart you have for cold things Antigone l appease those whom it is necessary to please lsmene Indeed if it can be done but your desire is impossible Antigone If so I shall stop only when strength fails lsmene But to begin a hopeless quest is not cunning Antigone Do not speak so or you will become my foe And then justly the lasting foe ofthe dead Now leave me to my 39mistaken39 counsel Forl shall suffer nothing as terr le As a dishonourable death ifl should die lsmene Go then if resolved but know that although foolish Those who love you will love you still Exit Antigone and Ismene Enter Chorus Chorus Ray ofthe sun most beautiful light Ever to shine upon sevenGated Thebes As a golden eye opening over Dirce39s streams Have you revealed how the whiteshielded Argive warrior In full armour Swi ly ed with bridle whistling Against our soil quarrelling Polynices Came forth Shrilly screaming As an eagle soaring over our land On wings white like snow With many weapons And helmet of horsehair crest He lingered over roo s bloodseeking and gaping wide To circle with spears the seven gates But then was gone Before his jaws were stained by our blood Or the pine re torches burnt the circle of ourtowers Because the clash ofAres sounded against him Since the dragon he found was a difficult foe To subdue For Zeus greatly hates the overboasting tongue And watched them gushing forth Their gold clanging in pride Before He hurled the re that He holds At he shouting victory As he rushed up to those posts That were his prize Swaying then he fell to beat against earth This rebearer who with madness Rushed in Bacchic frenzy To breathe against us winds of hate Thus what he wished was not 140 While to the others great Ares with vigour Delivered his blows Their seven Chiefs were each at our seven gates opposed And forced to leave their bronze As offerings to Zeus routeroffoes Save for those two unhappy ones born Of the same mother and father Who levelled their spears for the doublekill One against the other To share then the same dying Yet since Nike She giving glory has come To Thebes of the many chariots adding joy to ourjoy Let the battles become forgotten As there is the circleofthedance all night In all the Temples ofthe gods which Bacchus Shaker ofthe ground that is Thebes shall lead Enter Creon But now comes the Lord ofthis land Creon son of Menoeceus the new Commander Whose new fate is given bythe gods To where is he row39n And whythis special calling of Elders to assemble By sending proclamation to them a Creon Men our citadel which the gods greatly shook with storm Has bythem been made secure again Out of everyone I chose you sending my escort To bring you alone here because primarily you I know Respected always the authority of the throne of Laius And also because when Oedipus raised up our clan As well as after his sons had died yourthinking was unchanged Now since through their two fates those two in one da Were each struck down by their own hand and became thus de led It is I who now possess the power and the throne Because nearest in kin to those who were killed Although it is dif cult to learn the soul spirit orjudgement Of any man until his leadership and his laws Have been seen because experienced l for myself believe now as before That whoever in ruling a whole clan Does not give noble counsel Because some fear keeps his tongue still Is the vilest person of all Just as l deem those who consider some friend Before their own fatherland to be worthless For and in this invoke Zeus the Allseein Would not keep myself from speaking should our people Move from safety toward some harm Neither would I have as friend a man hostile o my sorl since I know that It Is she Allowing us thus to have friends Thus shall I by such customs nourish this clan And as kin ofthese l have made a proclamation To the people concerning the sons of Oedipus Eteocles who fought for his people and who died The most valiant warrior of them all Shall be covered in a cairn and given All rites as befits the valiant who have died But as for his bloodkin called Polynices He who returned from exile to seek 200 To utterly destroy with re The race ofhis ancestors his gods and his clan Who wanted to feast upon kindred blood And enslave what remained of his clan As for him it has been proclaimed to the clan That there shall be no cairn no honours As due to the dead no lamentation He shall be le unburied for all to watch The corpse mutilated and eaten by carrionbirds and by dogs Such is myjudgement for I shall never Honour the ignoble nor place them before the just Yet whoever is friendlytoward the clan I shall esteem While they live and when they are dead Chorus It is your delight son of Menoeceus so to deal With the friend and foe of our clan Since your will is surely law for all Both the dead and we who live Creon Be then watchmen for my commands Chorus Ask someone younger to bear that task Creon Others are already watching the corpse Chorus What other command ofyours then is for us Creon Not to agree with those who would disobey Chorus Only a fool would love death Creon Such indeed is the reward but hope Of pro t o en drives men to ruin Enter Watchman Watchman Master I shall not speak of how I swiftly And panting reached here on nimble feet For many were the thoughts I had to stop me And turn me round in circling paths My psyche spoke to me saying many things 39Unhappy one why do you go to where you will be punished 39Why you wretch do you stop For if Creon learns Of this from another man you will surely suffer pain39 In turning these around I could not hasten But slowly lingered making the short path long Yet at last victory came to my coming here to you For although what I announce may be nothing I shall speak it since I am seized by the belief That I can suffer only what my fate decrees Creon What is it that has made you lose your courage Watchman I want rst totell of myself Since I did not do the deed nor see who did 240 It is notjust for me to sufferfor it Creon You aim well a er barricading yourself by circling around The deed revealing you have something strange to tell Watchman Danger brings much delay Creon So deliver what it is then go Watchman Then I shall speak it just now the cor se Was covered by someone since gone for dry dust Moistened the esh giving thus the necessary rites Creon Of what are you telling For what man would risk this Watchman I did not see and there were no cuts Of an axe no soil thrown out The earth Was hard and dry unbroken by the travelling wheels Of a cart for this workman le no mar s When the rst watchman of the day showed us It was a distressing wonder for us all For we could not see the body yet there was no cairn Only a covering of dust as if done to escape the disgrace There were no signs of wild animals or of dogs Being there nor oftheir tearing And loudly bad words went from one of us to another 260 With guard accusing guard and with blows To end it for there was no one to restrain us Someone had done it yet each ofus was clear In turn that they had not with no one convicted We were willing to hold hot iron in our hands To walk into re to before the gods take oath That we did not dothe deed nor consult before with Or help those who did perform it At last when our seeking came to nothing One of us in speaking made us all lower our heads Toward the ground in fear since none of us Could speak against it nor say how we would stay Healthy if we agreed He said we should not Conceal it but must bring an account to you We on this agreed and by the casting oflots It was my unhappy fate to be condemned to that joy Thus as unwilling as you are to see me I approached here Since no one is pleased by the messenger heralding ill Chorus Master from the rst I considered That this deed might be the work of the gods Creon 280 Cease your words or I shall become glutted with wroth And you revealed as both stupid and 0 I cannot endure your words when you speak Of our guardian gods caring about this corpse Did they esteem him as bene cent And thus bury him he who came to set on re Their spacious Temples their votive offerings their land And to break their customs Have you beheld The gods honouring the bad There is no such thing Yet just now there were among our clan Men hostile to my edict who in secret whispered Against me rearing their heads instead of keeping their necks Under the yoke as and when l deem it fitting For indeed lwell understand it is they who hired These others and by such means caused this deed to be done For among men it is silver as coins That brings forth base customs that thing ravages clans Drives men from their homes trains honest mo als well How to turn from reason and practice dishonest deeds lt instructs men in cunning arts makin m To know all kinds of acts of destruction Yet all hirelings Finally pay by having to yield to what is right Creon turns to speak to the Watchman Since I at least still hold Zeus in awe Then understand this and I speak an oath If you do not discover he who by his own hands Did this burial and reveal him before my own eyes Then not even Hades by itself will suf ce for you For first you will be strung up alive Until you reveal your insolence This will be a lesson as to where pro t may be obtained For such a plundering will have taught you Not to love gain from wherever it comes And it will be seen that from such dishonourable receiving More are injured than are safe Watchman Can I speak or may I turn and go Creon Have you not seen how your words pain me Watchman Where is your wound in your ears or in your soul Creon Do you instruct me as to how I am injured Watchman The doer assaults your reason your ears Creon It is clearthat you grew to be a babbler Watchman Even if so I did not do this deed Creon You did and abandoned your soul for silver Watchman How fearful to assume when such assumption is false Creon What elegant opinions you have But if you do not reveal To me those who did it you will be gushing forth That cowardly gains injure those who make them Exit Creon Watchman Before all may he be discovered but whether caught Or not it is fate which chooses Whatever I shall not come here again For beyond my hope and reason am kept safe And for this have a duty to give to the gods many favours Exit Watchman Chorus There exists much that is strange yet nothing ls more stranget an mankindhttpwwwgeocitiescomAthensAeg ean4979 N 1 For this being crosses the gray sea of Winter Against the wind through the howling sea swell And the oldest of gods ageless Earth She the inexhaustible He wearies turning the soil year a er year By the plough using the offspring ofhorses He snares and captures the careless race of birds The tribes of wild beasts the natives ofthe sea In the woven coils ofhis nets This thinking warrior he who by his skill rules over The wild beasts ofthe open land and the hills And who places a yoke around the hai Ofthe horse taming it and the vigorous mountain bull His voice his swi thought The raising and ordering oftowns How to build against the illwinds of the open air And escape the arrows of stormrain All these things he taught himself He the allresourceful From whom there is nothing he does not meet Without resources except Hades From which even he cannot contrive an escape Although from unconquered disease He plans his refuge 365 Beyond his own hopes his cunning ln inventive arts he who arrives Now with dishonour then with chivalry Yet by ful lling his duties tothe soil His oaths to the customs given by the gods Noble is his clan although clanless is he who dares To dwell where and with whom he please Never shall any who do this Come to my hearth or share theirjudgement Enter Antigone and Watchman Now this sign from the god I cannot speak against Forl see that the girl brought here Is Antigone Unfortunate daughter of Oedipus the unfortunate What is this Can it be that you are brought here For being faithless to the Chiefs law Caught in an act lacking reason Watchman Here is the one who did the deed We captured her burying him But where is Creon Chorus From his dwelling he now ttingly comes Enter Creon Creon What is it that makes my arrival fortunate Watchman Master we mortals should never swear not to do anything For an advance in thought cheats ourformerjudgment I might have vowed for my desire to return to be wea Because of your threats that tempest I went through before Yet since that delight which is beyond hope Is In extent beyond other pleasures l despite taking oath have come here Leading this maiden whom I captured giving rites Of burial There was then no need to cast and draw lots Forthis chance was mine and mine alone So now Master take hold of her yourself And examine and question her according to your will Thus it is tting that go 400 Completely free of these troubles Creon This maiden you lead how and where was she caught Watchman Burying that man Now all by you is known Creon Do you clearly hear what your words announce Watchman I saw her giving forbidden burial rites to that corpse Are these words of mIne plain and clear Creon Was she seen and seized doing the deed Watchman Thus it was when I returned there A er those terrible threats you made against us All the dust covering the corpse we swept away To leave the putrid body bare while we sat Windsheltered by the top of the hill To escape the hurling smell We kept awake by shaking and loud threats Those men who did not attend to their work And long this continued until Helios with his radiant circle Had established himselfin middlesky burnin us Then suddenly from the earth as a thunderbolt through air Awhirlwind came afflicting the heavens Filling the plain beating all the leaves 420 From the trees of the elds and vomiting them high in the sky While we closed our eyes against this sickness sent by a god And when a er much waiting our deliverance came We saw this girl who loudly wailed With the sharp shrill voice ofa bird when it beholds There is nothing lying in the empty nest So it was that she on seeing the corpse bare Loudly wailed and made bad wis es Against those who had done that deed Then suddenly she with her hands brought dry dust And raised a wellcrafted bronze ewer to honour The corpse with the threefold libation Seeing this we rushed down to trap her But she was not surprised and we accused her Of that act and the one before She did not deny it And this pleased me yet also gave me pain For while it is pleasing to escape suffering oneself It is painful to bring suffering to a member of one39s folk Yet all such things are for me less important 440 Than my own escape and survival Creon You there inclining your head tothe ground Do you af rm or do you deny doing these things Antigone I did them and do not deny it reun To Watchman As for you you can convey yourself Where you will free from the burden of blame Exit Watchman Now not at great length but brie y tell me If you knew ofthe proclamation made in this case Antigone Certainly I knew it was clear Creon So even then you dared to violate these laws Antigone It was not Zeus who proclaimed them to me Nor did she who dwells with the gods below the goddess Judgement Lay down for us mortals such laws as those Neither did I suppose that your edicts Had so much strength that you who die Could outrun the unwritten and unchanging Customs of the gods for the life of these things Is not only of yesterday or today but e ernal No one remembering their birth I did not seek because I feared any man39s pride To be punished by the gods for breaking their laws39 For I clearly saw I would die even before your proclamation That my death is now sooner I say is a gain Since how can he who lives among so many cowards as Not nd a gain in dying There is thus for me no sorrow in this My destined fate Yet had I le the corpse Of my own mother39s son unburied Then I would have sorrow as l have no sorrow now And if you believe I from stupidity performed the deed Then it is the stupid exposing his own stupidity Chorus Clear it is that this child is the savage offspring Of a savage father suffering does not bend her Creon It is known that those too hardened in their thinking Assuredly fall for it is the strongest iron Baked hard by re that is often seen to uddenly shatter And a small bridle restrains the angry horse It is not allowed for a servant to possess pride 480 She is wellpractised in insolence in going beyond The prescribed laws for a er the first her further Insolence was to boast of it and laugh Now she would be a man and I would not Were she to be master in this and uninjured Fo even w r s e a child of my sister Or closer in blood that all in my home Who are bound whole b Zeus She and her sister would not escape their miserable fate For indeed accuse her as well of sharing In the planning of this burial Summon her here Forjust now I saw her inside Frenzied and not possessing anyjudgement For o en the thoughts of those desiring dark deeds ecome revealed before such deeds are done And further I hate those who when cau ht Seek to beautify their baseness and their deeds Antigone Do you will more than herding me to my slaughter Creon Nothing more when l have that it is over Antigone Then why delay Your speech does not please me 500 Nor can ever please me just as my own is displeasing to you For what greater renown could I obtain Than the renown gained by giving burial to my own brother By all these men would this be said Were their tongues not stopped through fear But a King has much wealth And can speak and act as he himself desires Creon You alone of all the Cadmeans see this Antigone They see but you stop their mouths from opening Creon But are you not ashamed because alone in such thinking Antigone There is no shame in honouring wombkin Creon Yet was it not your brother who was killed by the hostile side Antigone A brother born of my mother and father Creon How then by being dishonourable to him can you show him respect Antigone He who is dead and below would not bear witness to that Creon He will when your respect is his dishonour Antigone It was not a slave but a brother who died Creon He died trying to rape this land which the other one protected Antigone Yet Hades longs for these rites Creon 520 But what the decent inherit is not the same as what is given to the bad Antigone Who can see if such things are acceptable tothose below us Creon Even in death an enemy is never a friend Creon I came forth not to return hate but to love friends Creon Then when you go into earth love them iflove them you must I while living will not be commanded by a woman Enter lsmene Chorus Certain it is that here before the door is lsmene A cloud above her eyes casting down tears in love For her sister drop by drop To moisten her beauty of face And shadow her bloodred cheeks Creon You who stayed lurking like a snake in my home Secretly sucking at me for I did not see I was feeding two destructions and subverters From my throne Tell me do you say you shared in this burial Or will you make oath and say you did not know lsmene I did the deed if she agrees And share with herthe burden and the blame Antigone But it is not fairto allow you this Since you did not desire it and I gave you no share lsmene 540 Now maledictions assail you I would be ashamed Not to sail with you toward misfortune Antigone Of that act Hades and those below are witness As to words I do not love those who care for them lsmene Sister do not dishonour me But let me die with you and so purify his death Antigone My death is not for sharing do not claim to have touched What you have not my dying is suf ciency itself lsmene What life have I to love without you Antigone Ask Creon since you care for him lsmene Why hurt me when it does not pro t you Antigone If I laugh it is from pain that I laugh lsmene How then can I help you Antigone Save yourself I shall not blame you for escaping lsmene This hurts me And I then to be deprived ofyourfate Antigone You chose life my dying lsmene Yet I did not keep silent but spoke Antigone To some your intentions were right to others mine lsmene Why then is the fault both yours and mine Antigone Be trusting you live but my psyche long ago 560 Perished that I might aid the dead Creon In this one child now reveals herselfwithout reason While the other has been without from her beginning lsmene So it is sir that sometimes such reason as grows ls displaced when misfortunes arise Creon Yours was when you ignony arose to aid the ignoble lsmene How would I alone live without her Creon Do not speak of her as being here she is nothing lsmene Will you then slay her betrothed to your son Creon There are other furrows for him to plant his plough in lsmene 570 But for them it was so tting Creon I would detest my son having an ignoble wife lsmene Dear Haemon your father dishonours you Creon You annoy me you and this marriage lsmene Would you deprive your son of his wife Creon It is Hades who will relieve me ofthat wedding Creon So it seems then that she will die Creon So it is by both you and No more delay now You slaves take them within Forthey now must be women and thus be constrained Even the bold ee when they behold Hades Very close totheir life Exit Antigone and Ismene Chorus Favoured by a divinity are those never tasting badness Since when a clan is shaken by the There is no misfortune that is missed for generations to come As when the heavybreathing sea of Thrace attacks The deep darkness to roll from the bottom The black sands 590 And there are sighs and shouts at the illwinds As the sea breaks against and overruns the shore I watch those ancient sufferings of the clan of Labdacus Fall upon the suffering of those dead Generation a er generation captive Since a god casts em down Giving no release The light cast upon the last root of the family of Oedipus Has become dimmed by the red dust ofthe gods below By speech lacking understanding And by frenzied judgements Zeus what mortal can transgress and hold back your streng Which even sleep subduer of all cannot seize Nor even the inexhaustible months of the gods You who are master of gleaming radiant Olympus And so now as therea er and in the past this custom prevails ln mortal life there is no prosperity without misfortune Farranging hope delights many mortals While many are tricked because deprived Of their judgement by desires For what is to come is not seen Until the foot is burnt In the heat of the re 620 And there is wisdom is this renowned saying Sometimes the bad has appearance of nobility To those whose reasoning is damaged bythe god And only for a short season is there exemption From misfortune But here is Haemon youngest and last of your sons Is he in grief at the fate of the nubile maiden Antigone promised to him in marriage And in great anguish because cheated Out of that wedding Enter Haemon Creon Soon we will see and more than some prophet would have izon have you heard of that decision that brings to an n Your promised bride and so come in rage at your father Or whatsoever that I do are we still friends Haemon You are my father and your opinions Possess worth and correctly guide me For me no wedding is of greater value Than the noble lead you give Creon 640 Yes my son you must be so directed by your heart And in all things stand behind your father39s opinion It is for this that a man prays to have his offspring grow Hearing and obeying him in his home That they treat his enemies as worthless While esteeming his friends as they do his father But of those who sow unpro table children You can only say that they have breed toil forthemselves And provided their enemies with much laughter Do not my son cast out your reason For the pleasures of a woman For embraces become cold when a bad woman Is your bedpartner And a bad relative is a large festering wound Now with loathing spit on that girl And let her marry someone in Hades Since from all of our folk she alone I have caught in visible disobedience I will not show myself false to these folk Thus I shall put herto death So let her chant to Zeus guardian of kinsfo k Were l to nourish disorder in my own bloodrelations Then I would most certainly be doing so within our clan n man who is honest within his own fam39 y Will by the folk be seen to be fair nd whomsoever by force transgresses the customs And presumes to command his master Will never be applauded by me Since those whom the fo k appoint must be obeyed In what is small what is fair and what is not I have confidence that such a man Would nobly rule as he would be willing to be ruled And would in a storm of spears be steadfast And stand his ground a valiant comrade at one39s side The worst ill is to have no leader It is this which destroys clans Which causes families to disperse Which makes a spearalliance to turn and break Just as ofthose who do stand rm The greater number are saved due to obeying commands Therefore we must defend the rulegivers And never let a woman overcome us If we must be thrust down it is better done by a man 680 So that we are not called weakerthana woman Chorus To me unless the seasons have cheated me Your sayings appear to be wise sayings Haemon Father it is the gods who root reason in mortals And of all our possessions it is the greatest Of your sayings I could not even had I the experience Say wherein they are not correct Although another might with fairness differ For me it is natural to watch for you All that others say or do or blame you for Your eyes awe the common man So that they say only what you delight in hearing But I have heard how under cover of darkness The clan grieve for this girl For of all women she is the most undeserving To perish dishonoured for so honourable a deed With her very own brother slaughtere She did not leave him unburied To be eaten by carrion dogs or any bird Does she not merit a golden honour 700 Such is the talk spread in secret For myself there is no possession I value higher Than your prosperity father What for a oungster can have greater glory Than a father39s prospering fame Or for a father that of his children Do not keep only a single mask for yourself In that what you say and nothing else is correct For whosoever supposes that he alone is wise Or that his words or his nature are above all others Will when split open be revealed as empty Certainly a man clever though he e Can without shame learn manythings And so still stretch himself See how beside the torrents of Winter The trees whose branches yield are kept safe While those that resist are lain waste to their roots Just as whomsoever holds taut and unyielding The sail of a ship will overturn it Completing the voyage with the deck downturned Thus give way and so permit your anger to change If I though young may put forth my understanding I would say it would be excellent if men by nature Knew about everything but if not and seldom are they So inclined it is noble to learn From those who speak what is honourable Chorus Master it is reasonable if his words are in season That you are instructed as he has been by you Both your words are fortunate Creon Is it natural that those of such an age as me Be taught how to reason by men of such an age as he Haemon It is only fair Although lam young Behold my acts not the seasons l have seen Creon 730 Can respect be given to those who work mischief Haemon I would never entreat anyone to respect what is bad Creon But is she not attacked by that sickness Haemon The whole clan of Thebes deny it Creon Is the clan to tell me what I ought to dothen Haemon Observe you are speaking as though very young Creon Am I then to rule this land as l deem or as others do Haemon It is not a clan if it is the possession of any one man Creon It is the custom for a clan to have a master Haemon You would make a good ruer alone in the wilderness Creon 740 So he is ghting for that woman Haemon My concern is for you so you are the woman Creon Totally shameful to dispute so with your father Haemon Not when see you missing your duty Creon Dol err in respecting my own authority Haemon You do not respect it when you tred on the offerings due to the gods Creon You stain your character by coming second to a woman Haemon You will never nd me overcome by dishonour Creon But all your words are for that girl Haemon And also for you me and the gods below us Creon 750 While she lives you will never marry her Haemon Then she will die and in dying destroy another Creon Are you so bold that you make threats Haemon Is it a threat to speak against hollow thoughts Creon Suffering shall instruct you for your own hollow reasoning Haemon Were you not my father I would say you could not judge things correctly Creon You slave ofa woman Do not babble at me Haemon You like speaking but not hearing a reply Creon Is that so By Olympus know That you will soon suffer for reviling me with insults 760 Bring that hated thing here so that she will die Now beside her bridegroom and before his eyes Haemon No do not believe that she will perish beside me Or that you with your eyes will ever see my face again So rage on then at such kinsfolk as can endure it Exit Haemon Chorus Master that man hurled by anger has swi ly gone Someone of such an age as he when injured has a strong resolve Creon Let him experience and understand more than other men But whatever the two girls shall not escape their fate Chorus So you still intend to slay them both Creon Your words are well taken Not she whose hands are clean Chorus What fate had you planned for the other39s death Creon She will be led to where the paths are desolate of mortals And be concealed alive in a rockhewn tom With as much food before her as is required for expiation So that the whole clan escapes pollution There she may if she asks have success from dying By giving reverence to Hades the only god she reveres Or she will learn at last though late bythis 780 That it is useless toil to so revere Hades Exit Creon Chorus Eros unconquered in battle Eros despoiler of wealth Who at night keeps vigil bythe so lips Of a young girl And who widely roams over sea and land To even the wildest dwellings No immortal can escape you Nor any mortals while they live You possess them all with yourfrenzy Those who are fair become unfair And are disgraced As you wrest aside their reason You who now trouble these kinsmen with strife Passion is victorious for a comely cleareyed bride And this power is seated there beside the ancient lawgivers 800 There where the goddess Aphrodite mocks us With no resistance But now as I look there I am carried beyond that decree And cannot from their source block these burgeoning tears As see Antigone passing to that inner chamber Wherein we will all be quiet Enter Antigone Antigone You see me fathers of our clan Go forth on my lastjourne By the light of this sun that hereafter I shall not see again Hades he who makes all of us quiet Leads me while I ive To the banks of Acheron And there shall be no bridal songs for me To share in No nuptial hymns in praise Since I shall be bride to Acheron Chorus With renown and praised you depart Forthe tomb of the dead No wasting sickness struck you No sword of punishment was your fate lnstead you who were independent of the decrees of others Shall alone among mortals descend while you live Down into Hades Antigone l have heard ofthe sorrowful death Of that Phrygian guest who was Tantalus39 daughter Who on the highest part of Sipylus was overpowered By sprouting rock clinging to her like ivy There heavy rain and snow such are men39s sto ies Never departs as she lamenting moistens with tears Her brows and ridges In the same way some god shall lay me down to sleep Chorus Yet she was a goddess born of gods While you and l are mortals born of mortals So it is a great thing to perish Since it will be said you are equal tothe gods Having shared in such a fate While living and a erwards in your dying Antigone lam laughed at By the gods of our fathers 840 Could this not wait must I be insulted here in this light My clan You wealthy kinsmen You springs of Dirce and you sacredgroved Thebes of the beautiful chariots l have you at least to bear witness How and by what decree go with no lamentations from my kin To be placed in that fresh cairn Which shall be my grave l the unfortunate one Who shall be among neither mortals nor corpses But instead a foreigner tothe living and the dead Chorus You approached the boundary of boldness And at the high altar ofthe goddess Judgement You my child heavily stumbled Perhaps your ordeal is retribution because of your father Antigone You touch that concern which pains me The o enploughed lamentations made for my father 860 And the whole destiny of the famed clan of Labdacus That bane of a mother39s bed Where she lay in illfated intercourse With her own child my father From such was I who endures brought forth And now cursed and unwed Go forth to stay with them Since you my brother who found your illfortune By your marriage in your death Killed my being Chorus To honour is honourable But he who has authority cannot allow Anyone to overstep his authorIty Your obstinate character ruined you Antigone Without friends without lamentations With no bridal songs am suffering taken To what lies prepared for me No more it is decreed shall I the unfortunate see The sacred eye that is the sun And there are no tears for my destiny No kin who lament Enter Creon Creon lf songs and wailings were before death They would never stop if it was useful to say them Swi ly lead her away And as l have said enclose her Within her embracing cairn then leave her alone And desolate if necessaryto die Or to live buried and concea ed We are then pure concerning this maiden Whatever she shall be deprived of residing here on earth Antigone My bridalchamber is a carvedout tomb A chamber always to guard me wherein I shall pass To my own of whom the greater number have perished already Received by Persephone to be among the dead Last and most illfated of all I shall descend down Before my portion of living has expired But I have within the strong hope that this my setting out Will be welcome to you my father pleasing to you My mother and pleasing also to you my brother 900 For when death came with my own hands I moistened and dressed you and poured libations Over your graves Now Polynices it for covering your body That I have won such as this Yet to the wise I rightly honoured you Although I might not had it been my own child Or my husband who had died and was putrid Have taken up that task against the folk To what custom do I do homage in speaking thus My husband dead I might have had another And a child by this other man in place of the rstborn But with my mother and father hidden in Hades No brother could ever come forth again Such was the custom by which I honoured you My own brother but Creon believed it wrong And dangerously reckless So now by his hands he forcibly leads me away There are no nuptials in bed no bridal songs No wedding no share in nurturing children 920 As I pass while living to my grave and my death What divine decree have ltransgressed Shall I the unfortunate look again tothe gods What ally can be invoked Now for my respect am said to be disrespectful Yet if these things are fair to the gods Then I will experience my mistake While if it is these others who are mistaken Then ma the experience in retribution No greater ills than those they give to me Chorus The same spirit gusting stormfully still sways In the same wayt is girl Creon And because ofthat trouble will befall Her guards over their slowness Antigone This therefore brings closer That death Creon I do not encourage you to believe That that will not be ful lled Antigone Community of my fathers on this Theban soil You elder gods No longer dothey delay 940 Behold me you Theban lords The solitary descendant of your nobility And how I can treated and by what kind of man For so respecting honour Exit Antigone Chorus So endured Danae for whom the light of heaven Was bartered for a chamber wrought in bronze And where in that enclosing tomb She was shut in She also my child was of noble birth She to whom Zeus dispensed his wet golden seed But numinous is the power of destiny It cannot be escaped from by wealth by combat By ramparts by taking to a ship upon a blackstorming sea Thus was the son of Dryas he of the swi anger And Chief ofthe Edonians tamed By Dionysus for his wrothful taunts And con ned bound by rock Where in his strange frenzy His bursting erceness trickled from him He came to know the god who had touched him With frenzy for his taunting tongue For he had saught to stop the godpossessed women And their Bacchic re provoking thus The fluteloving Muses By Cyanaei ofthe twofold sea Are the Bosphorus shores And Thracian Salmydessus Where Ares dwelling close by the citadel Beheld the two sons of Phineas Blinded by ruinous woun s Dealt by that savage second wife A blinding of orbs the seeing of which brought vengeance By sticking at them with the 39 Of her weaver39s spindle blood staining her hands Anguished by this anguish they cried aloud 980 Their misfortune those born from a mother39s unhappy arria e She ofthe fabled seed of Erechtheus es She of Boreas swi as horse over steep hill Who though child of a god Was my child by those longliving Fates Attacked Enter Tiresias guided by a boy Tiresias Theban lords I come here sharing another39s steps This one seeing for us both for the blind Should be guided along their path Creon Well venerable Tiresias what that is new brings you here Tiresias I shall instruct you Do oracles persuade you Creon Never in the past have I dismissed yourjudgement Tiresias And thus have you straightly steered this clan Creon I can testifyto how I have pro ted from you Tiresias Know then that fate is readyto cut you down Creon What I shiver at your words Tiresias Learn by hearing of these signs of my art Just now as at the place of auguryl sat 1000 Where all kinds of birds gather I heard voices of birds I did not know A bad feverish foreign screeching And sensed they were tearing at each other With their deadly claws And the rushing oftheir wings le no doubt ln awe I went straight to rouse a blazing Altar re to burn sacri ce But Hephaestus Did not seize the offering by flames lnstead puss oozed from the thighs down to the embers To spit and smoke while the gallbladder swelled To burst open and the fat covering the thighs dripped out Such I learnt from this boy here Of the signless divination from the failed sacrifice He gives me a lead as I give a lead to others And it is yourjudgement that brought sickness to our clan The altar the hearths all ofthem Have been soiled by the suppurating food torn By birds and by dogs from the illfated son of Oedipus 1020 Wherefore the gods do not accept our sacri cial supplications Nor our burntofferings And no bird in its screeching cry gives favourable signs Since they have devoured the bloodsoaked fat of a slain warrior Understand these things my son All mortals have in co That sometimes they aim wrong and miss but a er an error A man is no longer luckless or thoughtless If he wills to cure the ill he has fallen into By not remaining idle Obstinacy and awkwardness bring reproaches Give way to the dead do not goad those who have fallen Is it courageous to kill the dead again Carefully have ljudged this carefully have I spoken for it is easing To learn from such careful words from such words Are pro table to you Creon Old man all of you like archers shoot arrows at me as target And not even by your divinations am le Unassailed by you and your breed To whom I am the customer who buys your goods Gain pro ts and customers if you so design By the electrum of Sardis and Indian gold But you shall not conceal that person in a grave 1040 Not even if the eagles oneus tear him For food and carry it away to Zeus39 throne No ven then in dread of such defilement Will I submit to him being buried For I know well that no mortal Has the strength to defile the gods Even the cleverest of mortals old Tiresias Are cast down in dishonour When they for pro t grace dishonourable words with elegance Tiresias But can any man see or any explain Creon What Is this to be some common saying Tiresias why wise counsel is superior to all other possessions Creon Why suggest lack ofjudgement is the greater mischief Tiresias Your nature is full of that disease Creon l have no desire in answer to contradict a prophet TIresias Yet you spoke of me saying false prophecies Creon Yes because the breed of prophets loves silver TIresias And that of Kings loves shameful gain Creon Can you see that when you speak you are speaking to your master TIresias see This citadel of yours you saved because of me Creon You are skilled in divination but love to do harm TIresias 1060 You stir me to express what is inviolate and hidden in my heart Creon Bring it forth Do not speak it only for profit TIresias Were there any I would not expect you to have any share of it Creon You will see that you cannot buy my heart TIresias Know then that there will not be for you many more Loops which the swi sun will complete Before you see one born from your own loins a corpse In exchange for corpses because you have cast down One of those from above By dishonourably settling one alive in a tomb And also because you held here from the gods below A corpse bere profaned because without funeral rites Not you not any of the gods above Can overpower i For this is outrage by you to them and shall destroy you Since the Furies of Hades and the gods will ambush you To catch you by those same ills Observe ifl speak laden with silver For there will not be a long delay herea er Before such things are visible and the men and women of your abode 1080 Will shriek when hatred casts into disorder all those clans Whose own were mangled and buried by dogs or wild beasts Or birds of prey carrying away a profane stench To those sacred clan sanctuaries Since you grieved me as an archer these Are the sure arrows l in anger direct at your heart And from whose burns you cannot escape So boy take me away to my dwelling And let him loose his anger on those who are younger And nurture his thought by keeping his tongue quiet So he obtains better judgement Than the judgement he now possesses Exit Tiresias Chorus My Lord that person has le hurling fearful prophecies lam certain that ever since hair once black Now white crowned me he has never Given false utterances for the clan Creon This also I know and my heart is troubled on one side lfear to yield on the other I fear opposition and thus misfortune striking Chorus Son of Menoeceus you should accept good counsel Creon What then do need to do Speak and I shall consider it Chorus 1100 Go and loosen the maiden from her cavern And build a tomb to lay within it he who lies exposed Creon And that is your advice You believe I should give way Chorus Yes my Lord and swi ly For those swi footed wretches Of the gods cut down the misguided Creon It is hard to give up what it is the desire of my heart to do But yet I cannot ght against those forces Chorus Go and do these things do not turn them over to another Creon As I am so shall I go now Have follow those here And those others grasping axes in their hands To rush tothat place overlooking here Since I have turned my opinion around I who bound her should also release her lam anxious because it seems that it is best Throughout one39s life to keep to what is ancient custom Exit Creon Chorus You ofthe many names Glory of the Cadmean bride And kin to Zeus of the roaring thunder You who enclose illustrious ltalia And who rule overthe public Eleusinian plain of Dec 1120 Bacchus Whose frenzied Bacchants dwell In your clanmother Thebes She seeded bythe savage dragon Near the smooth water of lsmenus Above that twocrested rock you are glimpsed Through the smoke of amingtorches There where your frenzied Corycian Nymphs go By Castile39s Spring You who came from the ivycovered hills of Nysa And that green shore ofthe many gra es To visit the community of Thebes Amid that immortal cry EUA l Of all the clans ours you honour above all others Your mother stricken by lightning So now since a strong sickness overcomes All of our clan pass here with your healing feet Over the cliffs of Parnassus or over the Strait of Sighs You who dance with the rebreathing stars Who overshadows the voices of the night The son born of Zeus My Lord appear With your Thyiad followers Who in frenzy dance through the night For you their Master lacchus Enter Messenger Messenger You who reside by this dwelling of Cadmus and of Amphion There is no way of mortal living Which I would either praise or blame For frequently fate raises the unfortunate And brings down those of good fortune 1160 And no one can divine the actual being of mortal things Creon was once I believe to be envied For he saved this land of Cadmus from those hostile to it And guided it well he who ourished in his nobly born c il ren But now all this is gone for ifa man betrays What is delightful to him I do not hold him as living Since he is but an animated corpse Have an abundance of property if such is your aim Live in the manner of a great Kin But if they provide no pleasure I would not obtain them From any man for such things are as a covering of smoke Compared to what delights Chorus What grief do you carry for the Chie ains here Messenger Death And the dead accuse the living Chorus What Who the killer Who the slain Speak Messenger Haemon has died Bloodied by a kindred hand Chorus Was it by his father39s hand or his own Messenger By his own in wroth at his father for his killing Chorus You our prophet How perfect was your skill Messenger Sothe thing is as to the rest you must decide Chorus 1180 see nearly here a sorrowing Eurydice Creon39s wife perhaps fate brings her from her dwelling Or has she heard about her child Enter Eurydice Eurydice You clansmen I felt your words As departed to greet and offer supplication to the goddess Pallas As I drew back the bolts to open the gate A voice woeful or my family struck my ears And in fear I crouched backwards into the arms Of my servant unable to move So you tell again what message you brou ht And I shall hear it since I am not without experience of misfortune Messenger My Lady I who was present shall tell What passed and disclose all what was said Why should I so en you with lies Which will soon be revealed Disclosure is straightforward As a guide I attended your husband To where the plain ends at that place where unlamented Was the dogtorn body of Polynices 1200 To the goddess of the crossingtrackways and to Pluton We prayed for them to withhold their frenzy and be friendly And with pure libations washed what had been le Gathering them together to burn them with newlyplucked And raise overthem a high tumulus ofhis native soil Next we went toward to enter the stonelined cavern Ofthe maiden that bridalchamber for Hades When still far off one of us heard a voice loudly wailing Beside that nuptial chamber bere offuneral rites And came to inform Creon our Master Who as he went near was ambushed by a wretched strange cry And who mournfully lamenting said Wretch that I am is that what I divine it to be Shall I go along the most unpleasant track l have ever aken Is that the pleasing voice of my son Servants swi ly go Nearer there in the gap where the earth has been dug And the stones torn away and enterthat mouth to see If it is Haemon39s voice that I heard or ifthe gods have deceived me This order by our despairing Master we obeyed 1220 And at the end ofthe tumulus we beheld her Hanging bythe neck a noose of threaded ne linen Fastening her and he embracing her around her middle Wailing for his bride destroyed and now below At his father39s deeds and his own illfated marriage Seeing him his father gave a fearful c And loudly lamenting went within to call to him Unfortunate one ave you done this dee What resolve possessed you What misfortune overpowered you My son l in supplication beseech you to come out The boy gave no answer but looked at him With wild eyes then spat on his face And drew his doubleedged sword But his father hastened to retreat And then the illfated one enraged at himself forthwith Stretched himself to lean on that point Until half the length was in his side Then still breathing he with but feeble arms Embraced the maiden to gasp and spurt forth a swi stream this dripping blood upon her white cheek 1240 Corpse lay upon corpse as he the unfortunate completed his rites Of marriage in the dwelling of Hades Thus this shows to mortals that ofthe ills conferred upon men The greatest is privation of wisdom Exit Eurydice Chorus To what is this like For now the lady goes away Without speaking of honour or dishonour Messenger I also am amazed Yet my own hope is nourished Since having heard about her unfortunate child it would not be digni ed For her to lament before her people Rather she will in the concealment ofher dwelling appoint her servants To lament with her in grief She is not so lacking in experience that she would err Chorus About this I do not know since an excessive silence Is no less ofa portent than an abundance of wailing Messenger We will be certain whether she keeps a secret Shrouded in her passionate heart since I shall enter the dwelling Your words may indeed be fortunate for this excessive silence Could well portend something Exit Messenger Chorus Here comes our Lord himself In his hands a memorial as a token If it is tting for me to say it of his own error 1260 And not that of some stranger Creon l lament For those bad errors ofjudgement Which condemned others to death You see here the killer And he ofthe same family whom he killed I cry because of my own illfated plans And for my young son who died so young You who perished who le us Not because your plans were wrong but because mine were Chorus Thus too late you see the meaning of customs Creon A dreadful learning It was a god who attacking me On my ea wi h a great weight made me to wander wildly And who overturned and stamped on myjoy l lament for wearisome are the toils given to mortals Enter Messenger Messenger aster you came bearing that griefin your hands Seeing that one but you wi I soon see 1280 These others stored within your dwelling Creon What further ills could follow ills such as these Messenger Your wife had died mother in every way tothat corpse And unfortunate from fresh wounds Creon Ah How can I purifythat haven of Hades I am destroyed You who convey the sorrow of these bad tidings What message can you speak You there do you pursue me to kill me again What misfortune is mine Speak your message of a wife39s Ofthis new sacri ce heaped upon those killed Messenger See it is no longer concealed The doors to Creon39s dwelling open to reveal the body of Eurydice Creon l behold this second grief What fate still awaits me now Me who has held in my hands our child And who in misery looks upon her a cor se 1300 l lament for you the illfated mother and you her child Messenger By the altar with a keenedged knife She released her eyes to darkness lamentin Forthe death of Megareus he renowned for his fate Who went before him there her last deed To invoke ills upon you the killer of her children Creon Fear rises within me Will no one strike me In the chest with a cutting sword Me in misery Whose misery is mixed with anguish Messenger She denounced you as being guilty Both of the death of he who died before and ofthis other one Creon She who is gone how was her blood shed Messenger She was stricken by her own hand As there was loud lament made at the fate of her son Creon No other mortals but me can be denounced Forthis It was I and no other who killed I who here disclose this You servants Lead me swi ly away For am no more than nothing Chorus There is something to be gained from this if troubles are a gain Since it is excellent to shorten our ills Creon Let it appear that fate Which brings me to m end This is the best and highest of all Since then I shall never behold another day Chorus Such things are yet to arrive Before then it is necessaryto be practical What is to arrive shall be attended to by they who order it Creon But all that I desire was contained within that vow Chorus Then do not make another vow Mortals cannot be delivered from the misfortunes of their fate Creon Lead this foolish man away 1340 My child and you also Wretch that I am It was not my purpose to slay you Now there is nothing for me to look upon Nothing to hold onto In my hands everything went wrong As a heavy fate I could not carry Leapt upon me Exit Creon Chorus Judgement is the greater part of good fortune Just as it is necessary not to be disrespectful to the gods For the great words of the excessive boaster Are repayed by great blows And this as one grows old teachesjudgement MESOPOTAMIAN COSMOGONY Enuma Elish The long Babylonian creation epic 39Enuma elish39 39When on High39 so called from the first two words of the poem narrates a chain of events beginning with the very first separation of order out of chaos and culminating in the creation of the specific cosmos known to the ancient Babylonians As the gods are born within the commingled waters of their primeval parents Apsu and Tiamat their restlessness disturbs Apsu Over Tiamat39s protests he plans to kill them but the clever Ea learns of his plan and kills Apsu instead Now Tiamat is furious she produces an army of monsters to avenge her husband and to wrest lordship from the younger generation The terrified gods turn to Ea39s son Marduk for help Marduk agrees to face Tiamat but demands supremacy over them as compensation They promptly assemble declare him king and send him forth armed with his winds and storms The battle is short the winds inflate Tiamat39s body like a balloon and Marduk sends an arrow through her gaping mouth into her heart He then splits her body forming heaven and earth with the two halves After putting the heavens in order he turns to Ea for help in creating out ofthe blood ofTiamat39s demoncommander Kingu the blackhaired men of Mesopotamia The poem concludes as the gods build a temple for Marduk and gather in it to celebrate his mighty deeds Enuma elish was probably composed in the early part of the second millennium BC When on high the heaven had not been named Firm ground below had not been called by name Naught but primordial A su1their begetter And Mummug Tiamat she who bore them all Their waters 4 commingling as a single body No reed hut had been matted no marsh land had appeared When no gods whatever had been brought into being Uncalled by name their destinies undetermined Then it was that the gods were formed within them Lahmu and Lahamu were brought forth by name they were called For aeons they grew in age and stature Anshar and Kishar lwere formed surpassing the others They prolonged the days added on the years Anu Qwas their son of his fathers the rival Yea Anshar39s firstborn Anu was his equal Anu begot in his image Nudimmud 2 This Nudimmud was of his fathers the master Of broad wisdom understanding mighty in strength Mightier by far than his grandfather Anshar He had no rival among the gods his brothers The divine brothers banded together They disturbed Tiamat as they surged back and forth Yea they troubled the mood of Tiamat By their hilarity in the Abode of Heaven Apsu could not lessen their clamour And Tiamat was speechless at their ways Their doings were loathsome unto Unsavoury were their ways they were overbearing Then Apsu the begetter of the great gods Cried out addressing Mummu his vizier 39O Mummu my vizier who rejoicest my spirit Come hither and let us go to Tiamatl39 They went and sat down before Tiamat Exchanging counsel about the gods their firstborn Apsu opening his mouth Said unto resplendent Tiamat 39Their ways are verity loathsome unto me By day find no relief nor repose by night I will destroy I will wreck their ways That quiet may be restored Let us have restl39 As soon as Tiamat heard this She was wroth and called out to her husband She cried out aggrieved as she raged all alone Injecting woe into her mood What Should we destroy that which we have built Their ways are indeed troublesome but let us attend kindlyl39 Then answered Mummu giving counsel to Apsu Illwishing and ungracious was Mummu39s advice 39Do destroy my father the mutinous ways Then shalt thou have relief by day and rest by night When Apsu heard this his face grew radiant Because of the evil he planned against the gods his sons As for Mummu by the neck he embraced him As that one sat down on his knees to kiss him Now whatever they had plotted between them Was repeated unto the gods their first born When the gods heard this they were astir Then lapsed into silence and remained speechless Surpassing in wisdom accomplished resourceful Ea the allwise saw through their L1 scheme A master design against it he devised and set up Made artful his spell against it surpassing and holy He recited it and made is subsist in the deep g As he poured sleep upon him Sound asleep he lay When Apsu he had made prone drenched with sleep Mummu the adviser was impotent to move He loosened his band tore off his tiara Removed his halo and put it on himself Having fettered Apsu he slew him Mummu he bound and left behind lock Having thus upon Apsu established his dwelling He laid hold on Mummu holding him by the noserope After he had vanquished and trodden down his foes Ea his triumph over his enemies secured In his sacred chamber in profound peace he rested He named it 39Apsu39 Efor shrines he assigned it In that same place his cult hut he founded Ea and Damkina his wife dwelled there in splendour In the chamber of fates the abode of destinies A god was engendered most potent and wisest of gods In the heart of Apsu E was Marduk created In the heart of holy Apsu was Marduk created He who begot him was Ea his father She who conceived him was Damkina his mother The breast of goddesses did she suck The nurse that nursed him filled him with awesomeness Alluring was his figure sparkling the lift in his eyes Lordly was his gait commanding from of old When Ea saw him the father who begot him He exulted and glowed his heart filled with gladness He rendered him perfect and endowed him with a double godhead Greatly exalted was he above them exceeding throughout Perfect were his members beyond comprehension Unsuited for understanding difficult to perceive Four were his eyes four were his ears E When he moved his lips fire blazed forth Large were all hearing organs And the eyes in like number scanned all things He was the loftiest of the gods surpassing was his stature His members were enormous he was exceeding tall My little son any little son My son the Sun of Sun of the heavens Clothed with the halo often gods he was strong to the utmost As their awesome flashes were heaped upon him Dis ur e was iama astir night and day The gods in malice contributed to the storm Their insides having plotted evil To Tiamat these brothers said 39When they slew Apsu thy consort Thou didst not aid him but remaindest still Although he fashioned the awesome Saw 1 Thy insides are diluted and so we can have no rest Let Apsu thy consort be in thy mind And Mummu who has been vanquished Thou art left alone Several ofthe preceding lines are fragmentary The gods incite Tiamat to avenge Apsu and Mummu She is pleased and proposes to do battle against the offending gods But first she bears a horrible brood of helperseleven monsters 39Sharp of tooth unsparing of fang With venom for blood she has filled their bodies39 From among the gods her firstborn who formed her Assembly She elevated Kingu made him chief among them The leading of the ranks command of the Assembly The raising weapons for the encounter advancing to combat ln battle the commandinchief These to his hand she entrusted as she seated him in the Council 39l have cast for thee the spell exalting thee in the Assembly of the gods To counsel all the gods l have given thee full power Verily thou art supreme my only consort art thou Thy utterance shall prevail over all the Anunnaki She gave him the Tablets of Fate fastened on his breast 39As for thee thy command shall be unchangeable Thy word shall endurel39 As soon as Kingu was elevated possessed of the rank of Anu For the gods her sons they decreed the fate 39Your word shall make the fire subside Shall humble the 39PowerWeapon so potent in its sweepl39 Ea again learns of the plot but this time he has no ready response for it He goes to his grandfather Anshar and repeats the entire story of Tiamat39s fury and her preparations for battle Anshar is profoundly disturbed Finally he dispatches Anu saying 3960 and stand thou up to Tiamatthat her mood be calmed that her heart expand But when Anu sees the hosts ofTiamat he loses his nerve and returns to Anshar He came abjectly to his father Anshar As though he were Tiamat thus he addressed him 39My hand suffices not for me to subdue thee39 Speechless was Anshar as he stared at the ground Frowning and shaking his head at Ea All the Anunnaki gathered at that place Their lips closed tight they sat in silence 39No god39 thought they 39can go to battle and Facing Tiamat escape with his life39 Lord Anshar father of the gods rose up in grandeur And having pondered in his heart he said to the Anunnaki 39He whose strength is potent shall be our avenger He who is keen in battle Marduk the hero39 Ea warns Marduk of Anshar39s plan and advises him to go before Anshar boldly Marduk obeys and Anshar seeing the hero is instantly calmed 39Anshar be not muted open wide thy lips I will go and attain thy heart39s desire What male is it who has pressed his fight against thee It is but Tiamat a woman that opposes thee with weapons 0 my fathercreator be glad and rejoice The neck of Tiamat thou shalt soon tread upon My son thou who knowest all wisdom Calm Tiamat with thy holy spell On the stormchariot proceed with all speed From her presence they shall not drive thee Turn them back39 The lord rejoiced at the word of his father His heart exulting he said to his father 39Creator ofthe gods destiny of the great gods If indeed as your avenger Am to vanquish Tiamat and save your lives Set up the Assembly proclaim supreme my destiny When jointly in Ubshukinna E you have sat down rejoicing Let my word instead of you determine the fates Unalterable shall be what I may bring into being Neither recalled nor changed shall be the command of my lips39 Anshar is prepared to accept Marduk39s terms He sends his vizier Gaga to a still older generation of gods Lahtnu and Lahamu Gaga is instructed to repeat the entire story to them and to invite the gods to assemble at a banquet for fixing Marduk39s decrees When Lahtnu and Lahainu heard this they cried out aloud All the lgigi wailed in distress 39How strange that they should have made this decision We cannot fathom the doings of Tiamat39 They made ready to leave on theirjourney All the great gods who decree the fates They entered before Anshar filling Ubshuhinna They kissed one another in the Assembly They held converse as they sat down to the banquet They ate festive bread partook of the wine They wetted their drinking tubes with sweet intoxicant As they drank the strong drink their bodies swelled They became very languid as their spirits rose For Marduk their avenger they fixed the decrees They erected for him a princely throne Facing his fathers he sat down presiding 39Thou art the most honoured of the great gods Thy decree is unrivaled thy command is Anu 2 Thou Marduk art the most honoured ofthe great gods We have granted thee Kingship over the universe entire When in the Assembly thou sittest thy word shall be supreme Thy weapons shall not fail they shall smash thy foesl 0 lord spare the life of him who trusts thee But pour out the life of the god who seized evi39 Having placed in their midst a piece of cloth They addressed themselves to Marduk their firstborn 39Lord truly thy decree is first among gods Say but to wreck or create it shall be open thy mouth the cloth will vanish Speak again and the cloth shall be whole At the word of his mouth the cloth vanished He spoke again and the cloth was restored When the gods his fathers saw the fruit of his word Joyfully they did him homage 39Marduk is king They conferred on him sceptre throne and palu They gave him matchess weapons that ward off the foes Bel39s destiny thus fixed the gods his fathers Caused him to go the way of success and attainment He constructed a bow marked it as his weapon Attached thereto the arrow fixed its bowcord He raised the mace made his right hand grasp it Bow and quiver he hung at his side In front of him he set the lightning With a blazing flame he filled his body He then made a net to enfold Tiamat therein The four winds he stationed that nothing of her might escape The South Wind the North Wind the East Wind the West Wind Close to his side he held the net the gift of his father Anu He brought forth lmhullu 39the Evil Wind39 the Whirlwind the Hurricane The Fourfold Wind the Sevenfold Wind the Cyclone the Matchless Wind Then he sent forth the winds he had brought forth the seven ofthem To stir up the inside ofTiamat they rose up behind him Then the lord raised up the floodstorm his mighty weapon He mounted the stormchariot irresistible and terrifying He harnessed and yoked to it a teamof four The Killer the Relentless the Trampler the Swift Sharp were their teeth bearing poison They were versed in ravage in destruction skilled l is a 0 his head was turbaned The lord went forth and followed his course Towards the raging Tiamat he set his face In his lips he held a of red paste a A plant to put out poison was grasped in his hand Then they milled about him the gods milled about him The lord approached to scan the inside ofTiamat And of Kingu her consort the scheme to perceive As he looks on his g course becomes upset His will is distracted and his doings are confused And when the gods his helpers who marched at his side Saw the valiant hero blurred became their vision Tiamat uttered a cry without turning her neck Framing savage defiance in her lips 39Too important art thou for the lord of the gods to rise up against thee Is it in their place that they have gathered or in thy place Thereupon the lord having raised the floodstorm his mighty weapon To enraged Tiamat he sent word as follows 39Mightily art thou risen art haughtily exalted Thou hast charged thine own heart to stir up conflict So that sons reject their own fathers And thou who hast borne them dost hate Thou hast aggrandized Kingu to be thy consort A rule not rightfully his thou hast substituted for the rule of Anu Against Anshar king of the gods thou seekest evil Against the gods my fathers thou hast confirmed thy wickedness Though drawn up be thy forces girded on thy weapons Stand thou up that l and thou meet in single combatl39 When Tiamat heard this She was like one possessed she took leave of her senses ln fury Tiamat cried out aloud To the roots her legs shook both together She recited a charm keeps casting her spell While the gods of battle sharpen their weapons Then joined issue Tiamat and Marduk wisest of gods They swayed in single combat locked in battle The lord spread out his net to enfold her The Evil Wind which followed behind he let loose in her face When Tiamat opened her mouth to consume him He drove in the Evil Wind that she close not her lips As the fierce winds charged her belly Her body was distended and her mouth was wide open He released the arrow it tore her belly lt cut through her insides splitting the heart Having thus subdued her he extinguished her life He cast down her carcass to stand upon it After he had slain Tiamat the leader Her band was shattered her troupe broken up Tiamat39s helpers panic and run but Marduk captures and fetters all of them And Kingu who had been made chief among them He bound and accounted him to Uggae amp He took from him the Tablets of Fate not rightfully his Sealed them with a seal a and fastened them on his breast When he had vanquished and subdued his adversaries An urne ac o iamat whom he had bound The lord trod on the legs of Tiamat With his unsparing mace he crushed her skull When the arteries of her blood he had severed The North Wind bore it to places undisclosed On seeing this his fathers were joyful and jubilant They brought gifts of homage they to him Then the lord paused to view her dead body That he might divide the monster and do artful works He split her like a shellfish into two parts Half of her he set up and ceiled as sky Pulled down the bar and posted guards He bade them to allow not her waters to escape He crossed the heavens and surveyed its regions He squared Apsu39s quarter the abode of Nudimmud As the lord measured the dimensions of Apsu The Great Abode its likeness he fixed as Esharra The Great Abode Esharra which he made as the firmament Anu Enlil and Ea he made occupy their places Much of Tablet V is broken Marduk puts the heavens in order establishing the zodiac and telling the moon how to shine When Marduk hears the words of the gods His heart prompts him to fashion artful works Opening his mouth he addresses Ea To impart the plan he addresses Ea To impart the plan he had conceived in his heart 39Blood I will mass and cause bones to be I will establish a savage quotmanquot shall be his name Verily savageman I will create He shall be charged with the service of the gods That they might be at ease The ways of the gods I will artfully alter Though alike revered into two groups they shall be divided39 Ea answered him speaking a word to him To relate to him a scheme for the relief of the gods 39Let but one of their brothers be handed over He alone shall perish that mankind may be fashioned 3 Let the great gods be here in Assembly Let the guilty be handed over that they may endure39 Marduk summoned the great gods to Assembly Presiding graciously he issued instructions To his utterance the gods pay heed The king addresses a word to the Anunnaki 39if your former statement was true Do now the truth on oath by me declare Who was it that contrived the uprising And made Tiamat rebel and joined battle Let him be handed over who contrived the uprising His guilt I will make him bear that you may dwell in peace The lgigi the great gods replied to him To Lugaidimmerankia Q counselor ofthe gods their lord 39It was Kingu who contrived the uprising And made Tiamat rebel and joined battle They bound him holding him before Ea They imposed on him his guilt and severed his blood vessels Out of his blood they fashioned mankind He imposed the service and let free the gods After the creation of mankind Marduk divides the Anunnaki and assigns them to their proper stations three hundred in heaven three hundred on the earth After he had ordered all the instructions To the Anunnaki of heaven and earth had allotted their portions The Anunnaki opened their mouths And said to Marduk their lord 39Now 0 lord thou who hast caused our deliverance What shall be our homage to thee Let us build a shrine to thee whose name shall be called 39Lo a chamber for our nightly rest39 let us repose in it Let us build a shrine a recess for his abode On the day that we arrive gwe shall repose in it39 When Marduk heard this Brightly glowed his features like the day 39Like that of lofty Babylon whose building you have requested Let its brickwork be fashioned You shall name it quotThe Sanctuary The Anunnaki applied the implement For one whole year they moulded bricks When the second year arrived They raised high the head of Esagila equaling Apsu a Having built a stagetower as high as Apsu They set up in it an abode for Marduk Enlil and Ea In their presence he adorned it in grandeur To the base of Esharra its horns took down After they had achieved the building of Esagila The Anunnaki themselves erected their shrines all of them gathered they had built as his dwelling The gods his fathers at his banquet he seated 39This is Babylon the place that is your home Make merry in its precincts occupy its broad places39 The great gods took their seats They set up festive drink sat down to a banquet After they had made merry within it In Esagila the splendid had performed their rites The norms had been fixed and all their portents All the gods apportioned the stations of heaven and earth The fifty great gods took their seats The seven gods of destiny set up the three hundred in heaven Enlil raised the bow his weapon and laid it before them The gods his fathers saw the net he had made When they beheld the bow how skillful its shape His fathers praised the work he had wrought Raising it Anu spoke up in the Assembly of the gods As he kissed the bow The remainder of the epic is a long hymn of praise to Marduk lt culminates in a recitation of his fifty names attributes reflecting his power and mighty deeds Notes 1 God of subterranean waters the primeval sweetwater ocean 2 An epithet of Tiamat perhaps meaning 39mother39 A waterdeity the primeval saltwater ocean ie the fresh waters of Apsu and the marine waters of Tiamat 5 The waters of Apsu and Tiamat 6 The first generation of gods 7 Gods 4 a The skygod 9 One of the names of Ea the earth and watergod 1 Ea the earth and watergod 11 That of Apsu and his vizier Mummu 12 ie caused it to be in the waters of Apsu 13 39The Deep 14 See note 13 5 cf Ezekiel 16 16 The weapon of the sungod 17 The gods who joined Tiamat in her war 13 Here a collective name ofthe nether world gods 19 Tiamat and Kingu 2 The assembly hall of the gods 21 A collective name of the heaven gods 22 ie it has the authority of the skygod Anu 23 ie Marduk39s destiny 24 Red being the magic colour for warding off evil influence 25 ie Kingu39s course 26 God of death 27 By this action Marduk legalized his ownership of the Tablets of Fate 23 The god ofthe wind ie of the earth 2quot Out of his blood 3 Meaning 39The king ofthe gods of heaven and earth Ea 32 For the New Year39s Festival 33 Name of the temple of Marduk in Babylon 34 Meaning apparently that the height of Esagila corresponded to the depth of Apsu39s waters Translation by E A Speiser in Ancient Near Eastern Texts Princeton 1950 pp 6072 as reprinted in lsaac Mendelsohn ed Religions of the Ancient Near East Library of Religion paperbook series New York 1955 PP 1946 notes by Mendelsohn httpalexm here rumirrorswwwenteractcomjwal EliadeOSShtml