Intro to Humanities (HU)
Intro to Humanities (HU) HUMA 1100
Salt Lake Community College
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Hindu Creation Myths From the Mg Veda Thousandheaded Purusha thousandeyed thousandfooted he having pervaded the earth on all sides still extends ten fingers beyond it Purusha alone is all thisiwhatever has been and whatever is going to be Further he is the lord of immortality and also of what grows on account of food Such is his greatness greater indeed than this is Purusha All creatures constitute but one quarter of him his threequarters are the immortal in the heaven With his threequarters did Purusha rise up39 one quarter of him again remains here With it did he variously spread out on all sides over what eats and what eats not From him was Viraj born from Viraj evolved Purusha He being born projected himself behind the earth as also before it When the gods performed the sacrifice with Purusha as the oblation then the spring was its clarified butter the summer the sacrificial fuel and the autumn the oblation The sacrificial victim namely Purusha born at the very beginning they sprinkled with sacred water upon the sacrificial grass With him as oblation the gods performed the sacrifice and also the Sadhyas a class of semidivine beings and the rishis ancient seers From that wholly offered sacrificial oblation were born the verses and the sacred chants from it were born the meters the sacrificial formula was born from it From it horses were born and also those animals who have double rows ie upper and lower of teeth cows were born from it from it were born goats and sheep When they divided Purusha in how many different portions did they arrange him What became of his mouth what of his two arms What were his two thighs and his two feet called His mouth became the brahman39 his two arms were made into the raj anya39 his two thighs the vaishyas from his two feet the shudra was born The moon was born from the mind from the eye the sun was born39 from the mouth Indra and Agni from the breath the wind was born From the navel was the atmosphere created from the head the heaven issued forth39 from the two feet was born the earth and the quarters the cardinal directions from the ear Thus did they fashion the worlds Seven were the enclosing sticks in this sacrifice thrice seven were the firesticks made when the gods performing the sacrifice bound down Purusha the sacrificial victim With this sacrificial oblation did the gods offer the sacrifice These were the first norms dharma of sacrifice These greatnesses reached to the sky wherein live the ancient Sadhyas and gods Source The Rig Veda 1090 in Sources afIndian Tradition by Theodore de Bary New York Columbia University Press 1958 pp 1617 From The Law ofManu But in the beginning he assigned their several names actions and conditions created beings even according to the words of the Veda He the Lord also created the class of the gods who are endowed with life and whose nature is action39 and the subtile class of the Sadhyas and the eternal sacrifice But from fire wind and the sun he drew forth the threefold eternal Veda called Rik Yaius and Saman for the due performance of the sacrifice Time and the divisions of time the lunar mansions and the planets the rivers the oceans the mountains plains and uneven groun Austerity speech pleasure desire and anger this whole creation he likewise produced as he desired to call these beings into existence Whatever he assigned to each at the first creation noxiousness or harm lessness gentleness or ferocity virtue or sin truth or falsehood that clung afterwards spontaneously to it As at the change of the seasons each season of its own accord assumes its distinctive marks even so corporeal beings resume in new births their appointed course of action But for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds he created the Brahman the Kshatriya the Vaishya and the Shudra to proceed from his mouth his arms his thighs and his feet To Brahmans he assigned teaching and studying the Veda sacrificing for their own benefit and for others giving and accepting of alms The Kshatriya he commanded to protect the people to bestow gifts to offer sacrifices to study the Veda and to abstain from attaching himself to sensual pleasures The Vaishya to tend cattle to bestow gifts to offer sacrifices to study the Veda to trade to lend money and to cultivate land One occupation only the lord prescribed to the Shudra to serve meekly even these other three castes Source Manu The Law ananu in The SacredBaaks aflhe East vol XXV ed F Max Muller Oxford UK Clarendon Press 1886 pp 1214 24 Document 31 Hindu Creation Myth and the Caste System Analysis and Review Questions In your own words describe the Hindu creation myth Why are creation myths important 1 Ll 2 The word quotsacrificequot appears several times in the first passage 39 What could this tell us about Hinduism Ll Describe the Hindu caste system as given in the two passages 3 Margaret Fuller 18101850 Woman in the Nineteenth Century Freedom as a Right Not a Concession Knowing that there exists in the minds of men a tone of feeling toward women as toward slaves such as is expressed in the common phrase quotTell that to women and childrenquot that the in nite soul can only work through them in already ascertained limits that the gift of reason Man39s highest prerogative is allotted to them in much lower degree that they must be kept from mischief and melancholy by being constantly engaged in active labor which is to be furnished and directed by those better able to think ampc ampc we need not multiply instances for who can review the experience of last week without recalling words which imply whether in jest or earnest these views or views like these knowing this can we wonder that many reformers think that measures are not likely to be taken in behalf of women unless their wishes could be publicly represented by women quotThat can never be necessaryquot cry the other side All men are privately in uenced by women each has his wife sister or female friends and is too much biased by these relations to fail of representing their interests and if this is not enough let them propose and enforce their wishes with the pen The beauty of home would be destroyed the delicacy of the sex be violated the dignity of halls of legislation degraded by an attempt to introduce them there Such duties are inconsistent with those of a mother quotand then we have ludicrous pictures of ladies in hysterics at the polls and senate chambers lled with cradles But if in reply we admit as truth that Woman seems destined by nature rather for the inner circle we must add that the arrangements of civilized life have not been as yet such as to secure it to her Her circle if the duller is not the quieter If kept from quotexcitementquot she is not from drudgery Not only the Indian squaw carries the burdens of the camp but the favorites of Louis XIV accompany him in his journeys and the washerwoman stands at her tub and carries home her work at all seasons and in all states of health Those who think the physical circumstances of Woman would make a part in the affairs of national government unsuitable are by no means those who think it impossible for negresses to endure eld work even during pregnancy or for sempstresses to go through their killing labors As to the use of the pen there was quite as much opposition to Woman39s possessing herself of that help to free agency as there is now to her seizing on the rostrum or the desk and she is likely to draw from apermission to plead her cause that way opposite inferences to what might be wished by those who now grant it As to the possibility of her filling with grace and dignity any such position we should think those who had seen the great actresses and heard the Quaker preachers of modern times would not doubt that Woman can express publicly the fulness of thought and creation without losing any of the peculiar beauty of her sex What can pollute and tarnish is to act thus from any motive except that something needs to be said or done Woman could take part in the processions the songs the dances of old religion no one fancied her delicacy was impaired by appearing in public for such a cause As to her home she is not likely to leave it more than she now does for balls theatres meetings for promoting missions revival meetings and others to which she ies in hope of an animation for her existence commensurate with what she sees enjoyed by men Governors of ladies39 fairs are no less engrossed by such a charge than the governor of a state by his presidents of Washingtonian societies no less away from home than presidents of conventions If men look straitly to it they will find that unless their lives are domestic those of the women will not be A house is no home unless it contain food and fire for the mind as well as for the body The female Greek of our day is as much in the street as the male to cry quotWhat newsquot We doubt not it was the same in Athens of old The women shut out from the market place made up for it at the religious festivals For human beings are not so constituted that they can live without expansion If they do not get it in one way they must in another or perish As to men39s representing women fairly at present while we hear from men who owe to their wives not only all that is comfortable or graceful but all that is wise in the arrangement of their lives the frequent remark quotYou cannot reason with a woman quot when from those of delicacy nobleness and poetic culture falls the contemptuous phrase quotwomen and childrenquot and that in no light sally of the hour but in works intended to give a permanent statement of the best experiences when not one man in the million shall I say no not in the hundred million can rise above the belief that Woman was made for Man when such traits as these are daily forced upon the attention can we feel that Man will always do justice to the interests of Woman Can we think that he takes a suf ciently discerning and religious view of her of ce and destiny ever to do her justice except when prompted by sentiment accidentally or transiently that is for the sentiment will vary according relations in which he is placed The lover the poet the artist are likely to view her nobly The father and the philosopher have some chance of liberality the man of the world the legislator for expediency none Under these circumstances without attaching importance in themselves to the changes demanded by the champions of Woman we hail them as signs of the times We would have every arbitrary barrier thrown down We would have every path laid open to Woman as freely as to Man Were this done and a slight temporary fermentation allowed to subside we should see crystallizations more pure and of more various beauty We believe the divine energy would pervade nature to a degree unknown in the history of former ages and that no discordant collision but a ravishing harmony of the spheres would ensue Yet then and only then will mankind be ripe for this when inward and outward freedom for Woman as much as for Man shall be acknowledged as a right not yielded as a concession As the friend of the negro assumes that one man cannot by right hold another in bondage so should the friend of Woman assume that Man cannot by right lay even well meant restrictions on Woman If the negro be a soul if the woman be a soul apparelled in esh to one Master only are they accountable There is but one law for souls and if there is to be an interpreter of it he must come not as man or son of man but as son of God Were thought and feeling once go far elevated that Man should esteem himself the brother and friend but nowise the lord and tutor of Woman were he really bound with her in equal worship arrangements as to function and employment would be of no consequence What Woman needs is not as a woman to act or rule but as a nature to grow as an intellect to discern as a soul to live freely and unimpeded to unfold such powers as were given her when we left our common home If fewer talents were given her yet if allowed the free and full employment of these so that she may render back to the giver his own with usury she will not complain nay I dare to say she will bless and rejoice in her earthly birth place her earthly lot Let us consider what obstructions impede this good era and what signs give reason to hope that it draws near