Principles of Information Technology
Principles of Information Technology ITEC 110
Popular in Course
Popular in Management Sciences And Information Technology
This 175 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myrtis Volkman on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ITEC 110 at Radford University taught by Maung Htay in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/224663/itec-110-radford-university in Management Sciences And Information Technology at Radford University.
Reviews for Principles of Information Technology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/19/15
Connecting with Computer Science Greg Anderson David Freer Robert Hilton software tools for techies Objectives Learn What tasks you need to be prepared to accomplish Within the computer industry and which tools can help you succeed in completing the tasks 0 Learn how even computer scientists have to use word processors to create documents Learn What tools can be used to create a presentation Learn about the different types of graphics and What tools allow you to create and modify them Connecting with Computer Science Objectives continued 0 Refresh your understanding of email and how it bene ts the computer industry Learn What tools are used to compress les Understand how les can be shared through the use of FTP Learn about creating spreadsheets to manage projects and which spreadsheet tools are best to use Connecting with Computer Science Objectives continued Realize that there are many different programming languages to choose from and that using a particular programming environment may make it easier to create an application Learn that Web development is an essential task to add to your skills Learn about database design and maintenance tools Learn that project management is essential to the success of a project Connecting with Computer Science Why You Need to Know About Software Tools Speci c tools designed for speci c tasks Scissors cut fabric paper threads etc Hammers drive nails into a board Software products are also customized tools Word processors are used to create documents Desktop publishers are used to create brochures Bene t of picking the right tool from the box Enhance progress toward task completion Connecting with Computer Science Different Tools for Different Rules Learning about a task precedes tool selection Tasks are grouped into 3 main categories Of ce tasks Programming tasks Internet or Web Tasks Meeting the challenge of matching tool to task A critical factor in achieving goals The chief objective of Chapter 2 Connecting with Computer Science Of ce Tools Office tools support overall professional development Office tools help generate the following Documents Presentations Spreadsheets Budgets Work schedules Connecting with Computer Science Figure 2 1 Office tools play a supporting role in computer science Office Tools resentation software I Connecting with Computer Science Document Tools Documentcreation tools improve experiences of career education and personal life 0 List of speci c document tools Word processors Text Editors Desktop publishing software Connecting with Computer Science Word Processors Word Processor multipurpose document creation tool 0 A partial list of items generated by word processor Letters resumes design documents project proposals faxes memos assignments resumes Broad range of capabilities Formatting options such as font selection Graphics Spell and grammar check Microsoft Word the word processor of choice for both Windows and Mac operating systems Connecting with Computer Science Figure 22 Microsoft Word is a popular wordprocessing tool ammmmwmbwm nsmanvlnnnv l n mm mmmznnaisan m lw tnv4AHtj A string wakede a bar and asked the calendar fora drink The bmdn lookedax the swing and nd 39Wait a minuu Aren39t you a strungquot To which H mng replied Why yes I In The bmeeder said 69 out of here min We don serve your lype One drink and you will be 11 our the plane tying people up and causing pwblems The swing Ie tlze ban and ood mere on the rough cement I then begun to get angry at the may by the bartde and becme so angry that it l39aw half down ml the rough semen and began twisting and I39IITBIILE andtuming and twisting It continued to mm and mm on the rough cement until nally 139 get up and walked luck into the bar The string went up w the bartender and said 39Give me a drunk The bmnder lookedat the string and said quotWait a minute Aren39t you I string To which the wing iepli i I m a ayed knot in Malg m u j1E 3IvagFlmnnmnz JimRe mD0 4l vA man s in mg an39cu39sn invhaaE Thua39g Connecting with Computer Science Word Processors continued StarOf ce Writer popular word processor in UNIX and Linux operating system environments Connecting with Computer Science Figure 23 StarOf ce Writer is a wordprocessing tool used in UNIX and Linux E e E MNMW IWWM x A wltaxxw 39 I 395quot iJPv m acme vim LisjBIu E 3234 5239s Q 14 3 953 H 4 75 A 5 7 47dc a A 3 me x v r w if g Destmatlon New York Clty In known as We city lhal never slum W39iIh aver H000 Icahnmun a world anom Il ltalu Inllkl hundred of an galle u and museums and some a Ilu mm ru utirwd e ikyummrw In lhe world Nrw York City is the ullimrclwml c xtinaliun Whuhw Ilk lu skllllnq In Times Square 0 Chrhlnvn culling u Muy Tliankauwlnu Day named a illumhqivinq nr huppmq In the mnnqllma any mm x 39 Nrwv nu 7 age llu l nl Ht a mum cdqr truml 5 New York y h I will inp InreruanunI Vkillol CM Japan 393 la n a 9mm Matt 55 um STD WP Cou esy of Sun Microsystems Inc Connecting with Computer Science Text Editors Text editor generic tool with basic editing capabilities Used for entry of straight text such as program commands Text editors built into most operating systems Windows Notepad Unix and Linux Vi Connecting with Computer Science Figure 244 Notepad is a simple text editor that comes with Windows 53 Untitled Notepad Five Edit Format Heb Jack said quotHoney here39s Johnnyquot 1 2H22HIHIIHIIZEZZHZ 39testlxlquot 3 lines characters LI Connecting with Computer Science Desktop Publishers Desktop publisher tool emphasizing the generation and coordination of graphical content Provide pagelayout for brochures magazines newspapers and books Relationship to word processors Embed document input into templates gures photos May share most features including a text editor Connecting with Computer Science Presentation Tools 0 Presentation software supports oral presentation with Visual and acoustic effects Example Microsoft PowerPoint data projector A picture is worth a thousand words Add sensory dimension to spoken word Some special PowerPoint Techniques Slide transitions Custom animation Connecting with Computer Science Figure 2 6r A presentation tool helps you present information in an organized attractive w ail Eamwmmw amww SJEJLI Dene I fquot ange t1 mmr im vi IEITsuImis ByK lslAndersm zamusnwmn uAWamlsawmmwwave pmmcedhgr sea 93 landslda or vath mmn a Mmypwphhrkmnn Meannaming amimhuil m t 30Moral39acls o Immimkmlwmfmahm mph a mrbam mmhmedfeet Lulu Tmmlcmm nm lh mmmdg Ih baa dWm Elmmmcmnm a Toda bttmacm ikwhph 10C nru39ia1rmrgovamnmtal mummmm 3le Wmhsjuhymmahmi wagered cmtsa m are mm in had minimal m 5aExpertsDesa39ibigfaunalrisl GUIIsmme o u ohasbomhmsoftsammbhwgm haw 39shsuy divsaeafewol 39am ulna 2 mm le a Wv EIO 111mi alv E E i Mn Seam I Girl to add notes 1 i Connecting with Computer Science Spreadsheet Tools Spreadsheet document that organizes information in rows and columns Tool of choice for budgets Utilized by project leaders and managers Powerful tool Microsoft Excel Allows category de nitions Accommodates math operations functions and graphs Connecting with Computer Science Figure 2 7 With a spreadsheet you can organize information in rows and columns and perform calculations 0mm gti1n uthakhbmrwnnlahwwmwm a mum no E1 in Kim a x am an zav I Vquot quot quotaquotiquoti UH quot 39 u39J n in39u all a I a r LL hlgm E M naemos h 5 C l J K L Berkeley Blake Productions SixMunih Finan ciai Projection a a 9 equot a 439 mun5m summon unmnanu nudism 5 r n n u n in him quot11 a quotmummy mum1m 5545233 mama 7 a a m uan mun usnmnnm usmnm umnnnm m Equ pmunt urnm 5mm 94313 iJ lJ DSH 255 1 Marketing 2933 Luvquot nu Pas1231 unmzmu 12 Research mmwmmu 137030 mums 19 1 Gun r Iquot z 3 man ms 75 11 mannamu 1 7 1s 39 1r 239 hr 73 LIV w Vuwwwwm 7 s then 4 25 39 uL an Mn an N Jr a 29 39 3 3 33 31 35 3a 3 38 3931 an v u quot mammmm aomjm 4 r runeunsan IDL E Q A I Connecting with Computer Science Project Scheduling and Management Tools Project SchedulersManagers tools track status of project development Ingredients for successful project De ne and organize major tasks Map course of project Mark milestones on the path toward completion Adhere to budget constraints Seek ways of improving ef ciency Popular Tool Microsoft Project Charts project progress Outputs info in various report formats Connecting with Computer Science Figure 23 Project management software tracks the schedule of tasks that need to be completed n W r n m 39ruml r IIlIIHullnwmpm 3393 3151 mg mm mm procm 1a Len11 0ij Mike m Memne 6163123 mmmer1mnemulswes 39mr Review legal mm am 5 lamIRAN 539 a 3m g 392 3 displur tools and inmniuni for compnmng that step 5 a date to schedule frurn De ne general nunturn limes Lu Ha tnks In NH project Organize Lash mt Dhasrs Schedule tasks Link in or mhch more msk neww um was Iron rm Mage M Carma mummy my new Declmn ml m In cam Infurnutlon mu m ll and column of custom Aasmremsmmmm 39fhmt m 1 mm mm Tkgwdhnes and mrmnm Mm mm momma henaw am cam muons after lammq cur ugh You Know conundrum to huIdtrnu r21 o t1nm mm mm rmmm and away people In tasks 1 TachiDIl nun1mm Estatim mount chsacmm Dmeaup mums pm Fmee pmm you Wmm pmunmie Datum pm pphmim Corqu mama r my pnxu an new man d 1l pm Damn m r man go Frud pruiud1mtu urlu mun prdmnrr ram1 Ll Ll Ll me V x run saIL a esy of Microsoft Corp Connecting with Computer Science Programming Tools 0 Programs consist of many components Various components call for various tools Partial list of tasks supported by toolkit Graphics Diagram and owchart construction Database management Technical support Connecting with Computer Science Figure 29 Programming tools play a supporting role in computer science Programming Tools Connecting with Computer Science Creating Graphics Graphic content takes a number of forms Picture Photo Logo Animation Map Resources Internet downloads with permission Graphics tools Connecting with Computer Science Graphic Formats Variety of graphic formats BMP bitmap 167 million colors no animation GIF Graphics Interchange Format allows 256 colors and includes transparency feature JPG Joint Photographic Experts Group most ef cient storage method and Internet friendly TIF Tag Image File Format format of choice for professional photographers Right image should match right task Connecting with Computer Science Graphic Compression Graphic compression reduces le size Two compression techniques Lossless compression removes redundant areas Lossy compression removes redundant areas and information not perceptible by the human eye Choose compression technique based on need Lossy compression trades quality for ef ciency Most Video compression MPEG and JPEG formats use Lossy compression Connecting with Computer Science Working With Graphics Selection of graphics tool based on features 4 ways to modify graphics not inclusive Scaling resizing image Rotating repositioning image based on 3600 circle Cropping Trimming portions of images Format conversion Converting image from one le format to another Tradeoff between image control and quality Connecting with Computer Science gure2105cahngrem2esan knage 3 Mic I Ml 5104 I39m M Emmi1 n Ht 116 Ivan arv I wlnr A39N Ih n rv prw Wri AEJEJ 21h H jneuwruxmaD MEMEmmw jc amuanmawmwj EHEHEEEERIE REUK B 5134 1192 Connecting with Computer Science Figure 24 l Rotation 1 gm FIIE Edit View Image Effects mac5 Layers omects Selectmns Mrssit quotNann jow Help a as aagllawufa imglnem 71E an Egg Fi g 39 lm EQH E mal b k kw g w Image 1200 x 1600 x 16 Mllion 54 IVEytes 965 1210 Connecting with Computer Science Figwre 2 12Cmpp ng Summit SMmeImaqez 7 gl lzJ amp Ml 1 g Fa5U L vrm Eire4 keg1r Shah karmaquot M14 jDri39D xenla mmg mil Hylm all l hjn l Jmlgn l unnngmalE 57 Q EIQ gtQW R kKN EE ham62515661I6MIOn13mm5 Connecting with Computer Science Working with Graphics continued Economic classes of graphics tools Proprietary for sale Freeware absolutely free Shareware initial free trial use followed up with fee Popular graphics tools Macromedia Fireworks JASC Paint Shop Pro Adobe Photoshop Connecting with Computer Science Diagramming Tools 0 Diagramming software tool that creates diagrams analogous to builder s blueprint Flowcharts Geometric symbols that model program ow Roadmap for system development UML Universal Modeling Language diagrams Represent objectoriented systems and designs Comprehensive tool Microsoft Visio Produces owcharts plus a number of other diagrams such as organizational hierarchies graphs and maps Connecting with Computer Science Figure 213 Microsoft Visio creates a wide variety of diagrams including flowcharts l EII Est m lnm Firm Ind Ehlol W Isl 39m wrsIw V v nj 1317 459535 r may k Ekn 1m 13 io iDIUEgEEJ gg39 1fs amazemme 0 Quantum 139 x mm Tm d manninglug ETmmhgamdm Gymmat rmlmwbyubds anagrams New t a D mama mu Equ DMM Amman Bast mthart b Omarmm Cruz E Gnu nal hawkrum r be mm 45 a W mammutusm DWMMI mummmwnrz nermm mummy Mm syun 5 1 TQHEdal39am kaFblewun Mancunian pub E1 Mcmscit at Hap 3 SR 3 Inna Connecting with Computer Science Integrated Development Environments Integrated Development Environment IDE single user interface incorporating programming tools such as text editor compiler debugger Product choice dependent on features needed developer language used and cost Connecting with Computer Science Database Tools 0 De nition of terms Database data warehouse comprised of tables Table data organized by rows and columns Row represents a record of information Column represents a eld Within a record Database purpose facilitate information collection and sharing Chief tool database management system DBMS Stores extracts organizes and maintains data Connecting with Computer Science Database Tools Variety of database formats Oracle with or Without Toad support SQL server Microsoft Access MySQL Criteria for product selection Purchasing entity corporation small business individual Cost Features Connecting with Computer Science Figure 21410ad is a support tool for Oracle Internet inmate 7 VW l Fl3 tic2 View 5300010 10 4510 NortonAntlUlrus v l smm 13 OAD39s pave rFuI SQL Edltor allows you Kr treate and lest mulllple statements in the same screen In uni axlmpla typing I tabla Ham and a quot39 bring up I Ilst of columns hints on dwnil from hllh results output In spreadsheet Farm13 A IUAD UULSI I IlUD ILIIl JJ suL 395LLLLI IJWVLW DUH1IU5VIDUW MIISJJRDEIIJJAILOWURD llIR Jails get 91d qumum guns Qababass 1001 we D85 Dahgg Endow ab 1100001034003 01 miwamtaveeMMEJIm nanmum uan 100 5 0 E11 b1 Ell510 a Evaenlfgnc39gla G vl av cm 0 5 51050 ID CIVCRDER39SORDERDATE OTLORDERJJNES ARTID 11139 5101111110103 100 VALUE 30300711 QT LQLHAND Clul339Mi T i Em a H14 ouc0125011015 011301115 PRIC 1 2 3 1 I m 4 Fm OPLFARTS 210312012129 CU0RDERLINES 5 WERE 0UPAPTS HRLID OLCEDERJIHESJ s 7 8 s 1 1 SELECT I FRO USERTampBLIB SELECT 1 PRO USERTABOOI039MNS BIN 11311100 SUPPUERJD r r 1 100 31311959 100002 111 155 4 3000 1040 1554101 2 102 2111111095 100862 111 1554 3000 1040 1554101 3 103 31311990 100362 111 1554 3000 10410 15541101 4 104 312011000 100052 111 155 4 3000 1040 155 4 101 5 105 31311500 100362 111 155 41 3000 1040 15541 101 70 100131000 100002 111 1554 3000 1040 1554101 7 100 311331093 100352 111 155761 3000 1040 15531101 0 201 31211500 100002 111 155 4 3000 1040 1554 101 is 202 34311 900 100002 111 155 4 3000 1040 1554101 J10 204 31311000 100002 111 155 4 3000 1040 1554101 T42 QUEST meonaaz II Courtesy of Quest Software Connecting with Computer Science Figure 215 Microsoft Access pro vides a visual interface for working with databases mx L39hhruu iwcus EaEdthl WSWM I when a9le Emas nlrl 39a a s39 41ku any Emu HEW K 1 FEM 1 Ge ldabmbewnmw 2 re ux b39a39umumerd LE Generatormaria data E W9 Title Artist ICa tCode NumDowrloads 1 GuodfnrthBSnul Dingo Banger ALT 2 Two Two ALT 3 Three Three ALT 4 Few Four ALT 5 Fm Frve CL 5 59 51 CL 7 Semen Swen E2 E3 Eight Elgm E2 g Elan Eight Ez 1RenardliJ39 I 1 bllllllofg ham Connecting with Computer Science Technical Support Tools 0 Example tool pcAnywhere Affords control of PC at remote location Via Internet Activities on remote PC simulcast on controlling PC Requires software installation at both sites Technicians greatly empowered with tools such as pcAnywhere Connecting with Computer Science Figure 23916 pcAnywhere allows you to remoter access another computer 17 err cashmherehlmew a E 39 39 Remote l Quick Connect We W Connect to Start Mode Quick Deploy and Emmet gowct com Remote 03er Hosts I File Trawsfer TCPIIP 9 T39al39de39 m Favorites 39 1 Modern US Robmos 56K lance PC Rernnm Cartel e1 ism etworkj Cable DSL Temp Rem a Corml I Comrd Guam Remote Mmogernent TG JIP Remote Managemerl pcAer39nere Tools E31 Option Sets at SeriollD Sets mm Add I X Delete l 39 Properties IE Refresh I SlartComeclion Explore CurlunkDiredaly m New Folder Dads r Direct 0 Connecting with Computer Science Internet Tools Areas impacted by the Internet aka the Net Research Communication Commerce Internet tools Browsers Email software File transfer software Remote access software Connecting with Computer Science Figure 217 Internet tools are increasing y important in cumputer science Internet Tools Connecting with Computer Science Web Browsers Browser Internet interface program Retrieves and displays Web pages and other les Provides user with visual friendly environment Popular browsers Microsoft Internet Explorer Netscape Navigator Mozilla Mosaic LynX Opera Connecting with Computer Science Figure 218 Microsoft Internet Explorer is a popular browser rum T 1mm huh1quot File Em View Fumes Tools Hslp Backvpvlg l samh mees gmedlal blls v vl THOMSON toun39n Yl c o quot401 iV Hessnmlnbulus lemml m mtr nnlannlu mrelsmm Ahnnt Us than Am Us I career Ownamiss meww About Us Copyrlg s Privacy Palsy amp Permissicrrs mam Welc am e Became Team SIMS 1 989 Course TEI cnnology has been publishlng Inn cartame ms 96mg mm and cr ea mvui electronlc lB39all39Ill l g solutions tn help enncclo rs mach m sum bluderll Ielr1nd Indmunalb expand IlIeII Il lIErEttlh and Ourmissmn is to help people teach and learn abnul technulogy Course Technology and its employees have never been better posi oned lo ful ll this missron than we are today The breadih of our produd portfolio the slrenqm of GI technology IOOIS arm the COHEqu Ul our I JlSll IDUDOH I5 mngmg i mu unrivaled tnraughouttne U3 am abroad Our goal is to produce dynamic banks In all Ethnologyrelated RESQURCES disclplmes as well as complete mstructlunal resource materials and quotJ9 powerful Ian hm logyha sad a 552 ssmam and earni ng salutm us than sumass n ur cuslome rs39 ne ads and expectations Use our wehsrte to nd Unique eras rum our Sm 10 best suit your needs Opportunities 10 pamclpam In Discusslcns with fellow educators on emerging technolog rends qumsm share Ideas on W Feedhack39mu may need from nur sk ha y m a area napla A lIula urv u 4rn I39I39Auvan poo 1 sl Connecting with Computer Science Email Tools Email communication format that leverages the Internet for delivery of electronic post Email bene ts Global reach at the touch of a button Speedy and low cost transmission Common tools Microsoft Outlook or Outlook Express Netscape Navigator Novell GroupWise ELM Pine Connecting with Computer Science Figure 219 Microsoft Outlook Express gum 1 File Edit View Tools Message Help l a 331 133 Create Mall Se n f e x Mime Fiwd hi Du 00k Express I foldeis X 3 Outlookqunmss 3 Local Fnldm n lnbml 1 Find a Hengequot Outbox 119 of the day X Sent mars E mquot 6 Delaednems Them is 1 unread Hall mossa e In your Inbox When quotF39l39lquotg 3 a message In a l Draft See ug a Mall account newsg oupl fst select the message to whio ynu39re replying Newsgroups Than alin Reply Set ug a Newsgrou gs act1 unt V A Er K Group 130 905 9 raply to the entire newsgroup or click Raul to send an M Contact mail reply to the and author only lquot Rename meCryslalPdaLe m gnu sh air 2 sh Wheel span a nd Peogle r when Outlook Express starts 90 directly to mygnbdagafg39 n E Wulm Onlirue Connecting with Computer Science Figure 220 Pine is a UNHXILinux email software product Ftnmmand Prumpt tdnet itmusmebemdu Ag 39I 39 395 HELP Get help using Pine C COHPOGE HESSHGE Compose and send a message I FOLDER INDEX llien nessnges in current folder L Select Ll folder Lu vim1 Fl DD ESS BOOK Update address hunk S SEIIIP Configure or update Pin Q QUIT Exit the Fina program Copyright 1989 1997 PIIIIE is a trademark of the University of Hashingtnn Folder quotIHBOXquot J 39ened with 2 nessa egl 2 Help PreuCnd Heante 0 OTHER GHIIIS E ListFldrs HextCmd NBLock Connecting with Computer Science Compressing Files Data compression technique used to reduce size and transmission speed of a le Decompression restores compressed le to original format Compression formats Have deep mathematical foundations Come in wide variety such as zip tar lzh Popular compression tool WinZip Connecting with Computer Science Figure 221 WinZip compresses and decompresses files 112 He ctions O ions Help 3 a G 0 Naw Omn Fannie ndd Extract 39n39lsw Instal 39Mza39d Hm 1 Im Slze Ratlo Packed nurtures DEFiIe 1112120013101111 519 5 34 0 Install Apokatlan 1112712001310 AM 110592 66 311133 A Readme Document 111212001310 AM 2065 55 11 925 A TextDomnt 1112712001310 AM 11401 66 31352 A Tammanyan 1112112001sun AM 7592 65 0500 A TextDocment IIIBTRUDIBHEI AM 3935 55 1110 A Tmnomnt 1112712001310 AM 5725 51 2626 A TextDoanent 11122001310A11 314 36 201 1391 EISetupmz WZFIIa IIIZTJ39ZUDIBHDAM 1053955 0 1653 A 4 1 Selectedo lesmbytes lTataIQFIes156KE 1 47439 Connecting with Computer Science File Transfer Tools 0 File Transfer Protocol FTP system used to transmit les across the Internet Provides common location called FTP site for storage and retrieval FTP site de ned and accessed by FTP address FTP sites possess electronic security gates Purpose provide more compleX and secure communication structure than email Many tools available such as WSFTP Pro Connecting with Computer Science Figure 222 WSFTP Pro 3 we I P Pro File Edlt View Sites Options Tools Help Correct Eisnerquotled Transfers Edits Batch rM39hpawt Options VIEWS I Ageless I V a v QserlD Passgnld I Pug I 39 Anungnom CszFIEIGFlArrl FILESWSFTPPH LI Val LI l 39 T Cthir Name I Size I Type mng ir Fl w MkDi HkDrr CONNECTan 15 KB w EFIFIURwav 10 KB W EULAM 3 KB Te viaw View rwnd e 23 KB A 39539 FTP nsIUlils dquot 43 KB A EHECUE Execute E1 fw39dl 257 KB A Hemmi Rename 3 1113032ch 293 KB Cc I31 ftpmo32dll 435 KB A was a relate i rtpschsdm 49 KB A I I flpsclplle e A HE BSh FHE39I 81 rmunc39exe I 97 KB 11 Dirlnfo I I Dirlrlfc Mn obiectl39s H734 KB jE ubieclfs 100 thes INSUCKDLL WinSock 2D SFTP Pro Velsion 803 20011216 gunned I 7354 I dp I thiom Ahout I E i I Connecting with Computer Science Web Development Tools 0 De nition help create and maintain Web sites Various products Adobe GoLive Macromedia Dreamweaver MX Microsoft FrontPage Selection criteria Cost Ease of use Level of expertise Professional need Connecting with Computer Science Figure 223 Dreamweaver incorporates WYSIWYG during Web development m Minewth Jquot 39u gt39r r mn39m39le a WBML MS Enlust I F F39 r39mv I quotEquot 1I I In JIHEiD lt BIN J IEquot V r 3 an I V39LIlquot39nIJ F39 lL J39 lb 7 I 39 39 H1 maywa I I m quotIan a lL39IlIJJ ElEntAhnlr39lmpiwm0312 mny u tauan n3 39 mad WI n I mum wowcolor wmurq n inkspun 1 F Oquot Jammie m THUMHUN V is LEJIJM39J TIZHNEJ Iari mm 234 mm vile an m OUR CM39MOG quot 1 quot nousu ath I was i quotW anneal I omnuhl mun 1 sn uueuls ef uent 39 4 Mmsm MossUp mum luknsm thWI ili Eonv um A E Maulranr nl cm w II gm YIEElmmm Connecting with Computer Science Figure 224 Microsoft FrontPage focuses on ease of use when creating Web pages J a Ed 5n 1mg anet land was an Emmi ab Jnsnunim 53H LT G39nvz39w mu a 139 1r WM pmu 39chFvJfont mm n 1 g 55 Egammig m anmzwmnm Tedv39nlow mama thaw mlT Whin m I I39UNI39JUN h JH4 5 TuteioschTesdHem flllll r urwmmu v O r ml Qrmmlecmw mm mummy 9 cm I I I a mmmm I a WWW I l DIEMNewme I I mm 3 ma 5cm I karts 39 s I I my s new f nmmuamam I mum mmlrihi tl 5229 ILI Connecting with Computer Science Extra Web Tools Extra Web tools enhance Web site appearance Popular product Macromedia Flash MX Provides animation and interactivity Helps distinguish a site from the commonplace Web developer goals Drive traf c to site Induce visitors to return Connecting with Computer Science One Last Thought Using is believing Experiment with the various tools available Discover pros and cons for yourself Construct an inventory matching tool to task Sustain marketability With dynamic toolkit Connecting with Computer Science Summary Computer scientists interested in career development need a well stocked software toolbox Speci c tools are tted to speci c tasks 0 There are three broad task categories Of ce Programming Web or Internet Connecting with Computer Science Connecting with Computer Science Greg Anderson David Ferro Robert Hilton programming Objectives 1 0 Learn What a program is and how it can be developed Understand the difference between a lowlevel and highlevel language Be introduced to lowlevel languages using the Assembly programming language as an example Learn about the structure of a program including algorithms and pseudocode Connecting with Computer Science Objectives continued 1 Gain an understanding of the basics of highlevel programming languages using Java as an example Learn about variables and how they are used Be introduced to the Java operators Explore the different control structures used in programming Understand the terms associated with obj ect oriented programming Connecting with Computer Science What Is a Program 1 A collection of statements that solve a problem Must be converted into a language that the computer understands Algorithm logically ordered set of statements Conversion process uses an interpreter or compiler Interpreter translates statements onebyone Compiler reads all of the statements and creates a nished program Connecting with Computer Science 1 Speak Computer 1 0 Determine what language you want to use Assembly for controlling hardware Java and J ayaScript for Internet applications Lisp for working with arti cial intelligence Visual Basic for a simple yet powerful GUI programming environment Others include C C Smalltalk Delphi and ADA FORTRAN and COBOL Connecting with Computer Science Types of Programming Languages Lowlevel Geared towards computer less understandable or like human language Machine language is lowestlevel language Assembly resides between lowestlevel and higher level languages Assembler converts assembly code to machine language Highlevel Humanfriendly language Connecting with Computer Science lowlevel languages Figure 111 Different types of programming languages Connecting with Computer Science Lowlevel Languages Machine language includes only binary numbers Assembly uses more Englishlike statements Each statement corresponds to one machine instruction Programs run faster than programs in higherlevel languages Closely tied to particular CPU type Harder to read and understand than higherlevel languages Connecting with Computer Science Assembly Language Statements 1 Consists of alphabetic instructions with operations and register indications mov moves values around mov OX 8 add adds one to value to another mov OX 3 mov dX 8 add dX cx sub subtracts one value from another Connecting with Computer Science Assembly Language Statements continued inc increments a value in the register inc dX cmp compares two values mov OX 4 mov dx 7 cmp dx cx zero ag is set if dX CX O j nz jumps to a speci c location in the program jnz stop Jumps to the section named stop if the zero ag is set Connecting with Computer Science 1 Highlevel Languages Easier to write read and maintain than lowlevel languages Accomplishes much more in a single statement Generally slower Must be either compiler or interpreted Many incorporate IDEs integrated development environment 8 Interface that includes an editor compiler graphic designer and more Connecting with Computer Science EellPhnnePatkage ETde n frmFa Erie git mew Eruject guild thug louls Vdnduw elp hmvwm watwmv vatwebug via waaae n 383 i st seepagermMemsLDessgnJaminemeuembDesignEmmetImamrrmFamdyvbDesgn 39rmFamilbe lt1 b x Sulu onExelnve aIIPhone 1 X 5 3990 txtNumberPhunes j I yVaIidating L F 5 i E B Public Class fmrmny T RSIDIUtiDIiIICEIiPhDHEPEEkEgES1 E InhEruS 39 n H F F El r 5 2 P nnePac ages x re Rerevences E Assemblylnfu vb frmFam ymb rrmxndividuamb Pr1vate Sub bchleeC11DkByVal sender As System0bject ByVal e As SystemEvencArgs He hmm ain39vb Close the window Mammalko necioseu End Sub 3 Prlvate Sub btnCalculateClickEyVa1 sender AS System0hjeut HyVal e are SystemJ JVEntAKQ SEtup vanehie LG thd number of phunes Dim phones As Integer 4 gt Get nuthr Hf ph nes Esnlut Eclass cmtm phones ValiuxNumbErPhonesTex I Pm artles 1 gtlt Calculata the per phone e e If radModellUUChecked True Then phonesubcobal 2995 ElseIf redundelll heckad True Then pho esubtntal 55 v 4 w H l I Output a gtlt 2 Task Lbst E Output Properties 9 Dynamic Help 1 Hms Ready H H mm Call a H I Figure 112 Microsoft Visual Studio NET makes software development easier Connecting with Computer Science Structure of a Program Program structure is based upon algorithms and is often represented using pseudocode Algorithm consists of executable steps to solve a problem Pseudocode readable description of an algorithm written in human language Template for What needs to be converted into programming language syntax Connecting with Computer Science Example of Pseudocode Converting the temperature from Celsius to Fahrenheit Ask the user for a temperature in Fahrenheit Apply the entered temperature to the formula Celsius Temp 59 Fahrenheit Temp 32 Display the result saying Fahrenheit Temp converted to Celsius is XX Connecting with Computer Science Choosing and Testing the Algorithm 1 0 There can be many different ways to perform a task or accomplish a goal Determine which algorithm is the best one to use for the project based on a myriad of factors To test the algorithm pretend that you are the end user and trying to run the program Celsius conversion example What if the user does not enter a number value Modify pseudocode to test for valid values Connecting with Computer Science Modi cations to Pseudocode Based on Testing Ask the user for a temperature in Fahrenheit If the value entered is numerical Apply the entered temperature to the formula Celsius Temp 59 Fahrenheit Temp 32 Display the result saying Fahrenheit Temp converted to Celsius is XX Else Display a message stating that the value entered is NOT allowed Connecting with Computer Science 1 Syntax of a Programming Language 1 Writing a program can be compared to following a recipe the algorithm and pseudocode to correctly combine the ingredients to produce a result program Ingredients include Variables Operators Control Structures Objects Connecting with Computer Science Learning to Cook With Java 1 0 Java is a highlevel programming language developed by Sun Corporation Familiar syntax similar syntax to C Portable Can run on other computers without recompiling Powerful Rich library of routines for many tasks Popular Used to develop a variety of applications Connecting with Computer Science Variables 1 Variable name used to identify a certain location and value in computer memory Provides way to access computer memory without knowing actual hardware address When you associate an identi er with a variable it is called declaring that variable Declarations usually de ne attributes such as identi er name type and content int numTicketsBought Connecting with Computer Science Identi ers and Naming Conventions Rules for declaring a variable in Java Use only letters underscores and numbers Begin the name with a letter Avoid Java reserved words that have speci c programmmg meamngs Naming conventions Give variables meaningful names Lowercase the rst character of the rst word and uppercase the rst letter of subsequent words Connecting with Computer Science Variable Types 0 All variables are strongly typed Must declare the type of data each variable can hold Eight different types see Tables 111 to 114 Syntax for declaring a variable type variableNames 0 Examples float salary boolean deserveRaise Connecting with Computer Science Table 111 Java integer data types data type storage requirement int 4 bytes short 2 bytes long 8 bytes byte 1 byte Connecting with Computer Science values 2147483648 to 2147483647 32768 to 32767 9223372036854775808L to 9223372036854775807L Long integers have the suffix of L 128t0127 Table 112 Java floatingpoint data types data type storage requirement values float 4 bytes 340282347E38F approx 6 7 decimal digits double 8 bytes 179769313486231570E308 15 significant digits Connecting with Computer Science Table 113 Jana character data type data type storage requirement values char 2 bytes Character is stored using single queries and stared ae Unicode Connecting with Computer Science Table 114 Java Boolean data type data type storage requirement values boolean 1 byte true or false Connecting with Computer Science String Data Type The char data type contains one character Within a single quotation mark The String data type contains one or more characters inside a pair of double quotes String sFirstName Joe String sLastName Blow The String concatenation operator combines strings into one value String sFullName sFullName sLastName sFirstName Connecting with Computer Science Hungarian Notation 1 Variable naming method Gives each variable an identi er at the beginning of the variable name describing the data type of the variable Only used for the sake of readability Does not require the variable to hold the speci ed data type Connecting with Computer Science Table 115 Java Hungarian notation notation si Connecting with Computer Science data type char oat int long short example cMiddlelnit fSaIary iStudentCount IiSecondsLived siStudentsPaid Variable Content 1 0 Variable initialization provides an initial value when the variable is rst declared Best to initialize variables rather than to assume the programming language will assign a default value Use two statements int iStudentCount iStudentCount 456 Or combine into one statement int iStudentCount 456 Connecting with Computer Science Operators Symbols used to manipulate data Classi ed by data type Math operators for addition subtraction multiplication division and modulus Mathematical shortcuts for binary arithmetic shortcuts iFirstNum iFirstNum iSecondNum is the same as iFirstNum iSecondNum Connecting with Computer Science Table 116 Mathematical operators operator Connecting with Computer Science description addition subtraction division modulus or remainder multiplication addition and then assignment subtraction and then assignment multiplication and then assignment division and then assignment modulus and then assignment Operators continued 1 Increment and decrement operators Adds or subtracts 1 from the value of the variable Preincrements or predecrements execute the increment or decrement rst on the line of code Postincrements or postdecrements execute the increment or decrement last on the line of code int iCount 5 int iResult O iResult iCount 10 Sum of the variables is 15 iCount is incremented last giving it the value of 6 after sum is calculated Connecting with Computer Science Operators continued 1 Relational operators Table 117 Compares values Logical operators Table 118 Builds a truth table when comparing expressions An expression is a programming statement that returns a value when executed Connecting with Computer Science Table 117 Java relational operators operator meaning notequalto lt less than gt greater than lt less than or equal to gt greater than or equal to equals Connecting with Computer Science Table 1 18 Java logical operators operator ampamp Connecting with Computer Science meaning not and or Table 119 Sample Boolean expressions expression iFirstNum gt iSecondNum ampamp iThirdNum gt2 iFourthNum iFirstNum lt iSecondNum ampamp iThirdNum gt2 iFourthNum iFirstNum iSecondNum ampamp iThirdNum iFourthNum iFirstNum iSecondNum ampamp iThirdNum l iFourthNum iFirstNum gt iSecondNum iThirdNum gt iFourthNum iFirstNum lt2 iSecondNum iThirdNum gt iFourthNum iFirstNum iSecondNum iThirdNum iFourthNum iFirstNum iSecondNum iThirdNum iFourthNum Connecting with Computer Science value T and T equals T F and T equals F F and F equals F T and T equals T T or T equals T F orT equals T F or F equals F T or T equals T explanation 15 gt 10 and 20 gt215 15 lt 10 and 20 gt15 15 10 and 20 215 15 10 and 20 15 15 gt 10 or 20 gt15 15 lt2 10 or 20 gt215 15 2100r 20 15 15 10 or 20 15 Precedence The order in which operators appear can determine the output Symbols that have a higher precedence are executed before those with a lower precedence 23 4 outputs 20 2 5 2 outputs 8 Connecting with Computer Science Figure 115 Order of relational and mathematical precedence Connecting with Computer Science Java Control Structures and Program Flow 0 A control structure is an instruction that dictates the order in which program statements are executed Four type of control structures in highlevel languages Invocation Top down Selection Repetition Connecting with Computer Science Invocation Every Java program has a function called main as the starting point public static void mainString args public scope means that it is visible for any other source code to use static indicates that the function belongs to the class void indicates that there is no return value String args can receive parameters or values when the program is executed Connecting with Computer Science Top Down Also Called Sequence 1 Program statements are executed in series from the top line to the bottom line one at a time Most common form of programming control structure found in every programming language Implemented by typing in statements that do not call other pieces of source code Connecting with Computer Science Blocks of Code 1 0 A single block statement encloses several statements with an opening and closing brace Enclosed statements are related in functionality Leaving out braces can cause your program to function incorrectly Braces are required in some circumstances Most often used when working with control structures such as invocation selection and repetition Connecting with Computer Science Output Data 1 You can output data to the current output device through the use of the Systemoutprint or Systemoutprintln statements print leaves the current insertion point of the cursor at the end of the data being output println moves the insertion point to the next line after the data is output The n newline escape sequence tells the system to move to the next line The expression can use concatenation operator Connecting with Computer Science Table 1110 Sample Java output statements statement Systemoutprintn15 10 Systemoutprintn15 iFirstNum SystemoutprintnquotComputer Scientists have better memory quot SystemoutprintnquotComputer Scientists nhave better memory quot SystemoutprintnquotiFirstNum 15 quot 15 iFirstNum Connecting with Computer Science output 25 30 Computer Scientists have better memory Computer Scientists have better memory lFirstNum 15 30 Input Data 1 Systemin provides methods for retrieving data from the current input device Involves creating new variables to read in characters from the input stream The characters are read one by one into another variable that acts as a memory buffer holding the newly created string This value can then be assigned to a declared String variable by calling the readLineO method Connecting with Computer Science More on Invocation Invocation is the act of calling something or someone Java implements invocation through the use of calling functions and methods A function performs a task and can return a value A method is a function that belongs to a class When a function name is encountered the system passes control to the rst line of code Within that function The system returns control to the original calling point after the function is executed Connecting with Computer Science Selection if statement syntax if condition one or more statements ifelse statement syntax if condition one or more statements else one or more statements Connecting with Computer Science Selection continued 1 ifelseif statement syntax if condition one or more statements else if one or more statements m can contain multiple else ifs else one or more statements Performs certain blocks of code depending on the state of a variable Within the program While it is running Connecting with Computer Science Selection continued switch statement syntax switch expression case valuel statementl break case value2 statement2 break default optional statement3 Connecting with Computer Science Repetition Looping 1 for statement syntax for variable declaration expression incrementdecrement statementss Post or preoperations are commonly used when updating the variable used as the counter in the for loop for iCount l iCount lt 5 iCount for and while loops are precondition loops The expression is checked before any code is executed within the loop Connecting with Computer Science Repetition continued while statement syntax while expression statements do while statement syntax do statements while expression do while loops are postcondition loops Executes at least once before expression is evaluated Connecting with Computer Science Ready Set Go 0 Purchase and download Java Sun Microsystems offers a version of Java and the JDK for free Choose an editor to write the program Use an IDE or a simple text editor such as NotePad Compile the program with the javac command javac MyProgljava Execute the program with the java command java MyProgl Connecting with Computer Science ObjectOriented Programming 1 A style of programming that involves representing items things and people as objects rather than basing the logic around actions 0 An object includes three distinct features Characteristics attributes Work Responses to events OOP provides reusability and maintainability Connecting with Computer Science Object Alarm Figure 117 An object has characteristics work and responses Connecting with Computer Science Characteristics Color 0 Current time 0 Wake time 0 Station tuned to 0 etc Work 0 Display current time 0 Play radio station 0 etc Responses 0 When alarm time reached play alarm When Snooze button pressed delay alarm for 5 minutes 0 etc How OOP Works 1 0 Making a mold Implement a class or template Creating the gure De ne the characteristic of the mold Putting the gure to work De ne the actions the gure can perform as well as its responses to certain events Connecting with Computer Science OOP Terminology 1 Class A template used for de ning new object types along with their properties and behavior Object A selfcontained entity that consists of both data and procedures Instantiation The process of creating an object based on a class Constructor A class method used for instantiating an object Connecting with Computer Science OOP Terminology continued 1 0 Property also called attribute Characteristic of an object 0 Method Work performed by an object de ned Within the class 0 Event An action recognized by a class Event handler How a class responds to an event Connecting with Computer Science Defines Characteristics properties or Class attributes Work methods 0 Responses events or event handlers Crew n gt Creating an object instantiation U object of class kungFuDoll Figure 118 Making a plastic doll shows OOP concepts in action Connecting with Computer Science Inheritance 1 The process of providing more class functions by creating more speci c classes based on generic classes Parent class Generic class from which other classes can be created Subclass A more speci c class based upon a parent class Calling a method is a chain reaction up through parent classes until it is found Connecting with Computer Science Employee Manager Salesperson Figure 119 Inheritance promotes code reusability Connecting with Computer Science Encapsulation 1 Process of hiding an obj ect s operations from other objects Treats an object as a black box Do not have to know how an object works in order to use it Helps cut down on the potential errors to occur Isolates errors to the problem object Connecting with Computer Science Polymorphism 1 An object s ability to use the same expression to denote different operations When an operation is called the system at runtime determines how the operation is used Example Using the Draw operation for all geometric shapes squares triangles and circles When Draw is called the system decides which object s method to call to display the shape correctly Connecting with Computer Science Java and GOP 1 0 Everything in Java revolves around classes and their properties and methods You can reduce the amount of code you are producing by reusing objects you have created or by using someone else s objects Use resources to show the available objects and libraries you can use Programs algorithms and tasks have already been implemented by someone else Connecting with Computer Science Choosing a Programming Language Considerations Functionality Vendor stability Popularity Job market Price Ease of learning Performance Connecting with Computer Science One Last Thought 1 0 A program will do whatever you tell it to do In most cases if the program doesn t work correctly it is the fault of the person who wrote the program not the computer Be a responsible programmer You can create new and wonderful programs to help society Or the program you write might have serious rami cations on society Connecting with Computer Science Summary 0 A program is only as good as the programmers who wrote it Programs are used everywhere and in almost everything you do A program can either be interpreted or compiled Lowlevel languages are more closely related to the machine languages that a computer understands Assembler is a lowlevel programming language Connecting with Computer Science Summary continued 1 Highlevel languages are more closely related to human language Algorithms are created for solving problems through some logical method Pseudocode is a way to use human language to map out how a program is suppose to work Creating the algorithm is one of the most important steps in writing a program Connecting with Computer Science Summary continued 1 Java is a highlevel programming language that was initially designed for the Internet Variables are temporary storage locations with a speci c data type Used for calculations and storage Java uses mathematical relational and logical operators Four control structures used Within a program top down invocation selection and repetition Connecting with Computer Science Connecting with Computer Science Greg Anderson David Ferro Robert Hilton cha the Internet Objectives 0 Learn What the Internet really is 0 Become familiar with the architecture of the Internet Become familiar with Internetrelated protocols Understand how the TCPIP protocols relate to the Internet 0 Learn how IP addresses identify devices connected to the Internet Connecting with Computer Science Objectives continued 0 Learn how DHCP can be used to assign IP addresses Learn how routers are used throughout the Internet Learn how a DNS server translates a URL into an IP address Learn how port numbers are used with IP addresses to expand Internet capabilities Learn how NAT is used in networking Connecting with Computer Science Objectives continued Learn how to determine your own TCPIP con guration Learn how HTML and XML are used with the World Wide Web Learn how to develop a simple Web page using HTML Learn how search engines make the World Wide Web more usable Connecting with Computer Science Why You Need to Know About The Internet Internet as revolutionary information technology Impacts most spheres of human thought and action Ecommerce information exchange embedded devices 0 Intersection with computer science Networks Protocols Server and client programs Connecting with Computer Science What is the Internet The Internet global collection of LANs and WANs Internet service provider ISP connects desktop to the Net No single entity owns the Internet Some groups propose rules Other groups provide maintenance Sum of Net activities serves the larger social good Connecting with Computer Science The Architecture of the Internet Anatomy of a connection Desktop linked Via modemtransceiver to LAN of ISP ISP switching center called a pointofpresence POP POP connected to larger ISP with larger POP Larger ISP connects to national or international ISPs called national backbone providers NBPs Network equipment and protocols critical to process Connecting with Computer Science Figure 71 Internet data can pass through several levels of ISPs national backbone provider 39 r a A V regional ISP local ISP Connecting with Computer Science Protocols Protocol set of rules that facilitate communication 0 Many protocols involved with the Internet HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol FTP File Transfer Protocol Protocols especially Vital for networking Connecting with Computer Science TCP and IP TCP Transmission Control Protocol Responsible for the reliable delivery of data Separates data into manageable xedsize packets Establishes virtual circuit for transmission Manages packet sequencing Retransmits packets received in error Header appended to data segment contains relevant information Connecting with Computer Science Table 1 TCP header fields ii header field size in bits Source port 16 Destination port 16 Sequence number 32 Acknowledgment ACK number 32 Data offset 4 Reserved 6 Flags 6 Window 16 Checksum 16 Urgent pointer 16 Options 32 Connectng with Computer Science Table 72 IP version 4 datagram header i1 header field size in bits Version 4 Header length 4 Type of service 8 Total length of datagram 16 Packet identification 16 Flags 4 Fragment offset 12 Time to live fl39TL 8 Protocol number 8 Header checksum 16 Source IP address 32 Destination IP address 32 IP options 32 Connectng with Computer Science TCP and IP continued IP layer adds address header to TCP packets Most widespread version IPv4 has 32 bit value New version of IP IPv6 has 128bit addresses IPv4 address hierarchy First part identi es network class A B C D E Middle part identi es the host on the network Final part identi es the node connected to the host Connecting with Computer Science Figure 72 IP address classes 1 2 3 class ml V r N Z V 4 i E ls class 739 lli Ill C ll Connecting with Computer Science TCP and IP continued Class indicates entity size and IP address allocation IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority maintains global highlevel registry of IP addresses ARIN American Registry for Internet Numbers Agency allocates IP addresses to NBPs and ISPs ISPs allocate addresses to other ISPs and home users IP supports subnet Connecting with Computer Science DHCP DHCP Dynamic Host Con guration Protocol Allows for automatic assignment of IP addresses Computer uses DHCP to get IP address from router Flexibility for Database Administrator Sets up server to allocate block of addresses One time cost to con gure computer for DHCP Connecting with Computer Science Routers Router Computer linked to different communication lines Routes packets on to line closer to destination Joins networks together including the Internet Monitors communication lines for congestion May send message packets along different paths 0 Routers work in a manner similar to post office Connecting with Computer Science Figure 73 Routers provide many alternate routes for packets camputer routers Connecting with Computer Science HighLevel Protocols Suite of protocols can be compared to 081 layers TCP1P spans Session Transport Network layers SMTP HTTP FTP above TCP1P in 081 model Highlevel protocols use TCP1P to accomplish tasks TCP splits messages into packets if necessary TCP layer adds header forwards to IP for address IP sends packets to Data Link and Physical layers Connecting with Computer Science Figure 74 TCPIIP protocols compared to the OSI model network user OSI model TCPIP Application layer FTP type of communication email file transfer Web page SMTP Presentation layer encryption data conversion HTTP ASCII to EBCDIC BCD to binary etc Session layer Telnet starts stops session maintains order TCP delivery ensured UDP delivery not ensures dellvery of entlre le ensured or message 4 Transport layer Network layer routes data to different LANs and IP WANs based on network address Data Link MAC layer transmits packets from node to node based on station address Connecting with Computer Science SMTP SMTP Simple Mail Transport Protocol SMTP Used to send email messages over the Internet Establishes link from email client to email server Handshaking creates parameters of communication Receipt of email handled by another protocol POP3 Post Of ce Protocol version 3 IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol Connecting with Computer Science FTP FTP File Transfer Protocol Provides ef cient transmission of data les Requires client and server programs like SMTP Most OSs include commandline FTP client Windows type FTP at the command prompt or Specify server address in the IE address bar Connecting with Computer Science Hgme75Commmm4meHss on liulllulmld plump flp Hicrosofti indows XP Version 5 12600 0 Copyright 19352001 Microsoft Corp CDocunents and SettingsKrhhiltongtftp ftp open ftpaolcom gohnected to ftpaolcon 2 22 NNN NN EEEEEE NH 0 NH 000 0000 LL 22 NNN EE HH H H HR 00 00 00 LL 22 NN N NN EEEE H H H H HR 09 00 00 LL 22 NN NNN EE HHHH 00quot 0909000 00 00 LL g2 NN NNN EEEEEE HH NH an 00 0000 LLLLLL g Please be advised all activity on this server is logged 2 NOTIBE NOTICE 25 22 0NLV GUEST RECESS IS HCCEPTED RT THIS SITE 22 Buest loglns are quotftpquot or quotanonymousquot Please use your full emall 2g ddress as the passuord when accessing the archive as a guest user 2 220 ftpnenaolcon FTP server SunOS 58 ready User ftp aolconnone Connecting with Computer Science Telnet Telnet Internet standard protocol for remote login to a UNIX host Telnet runs on top of TCPIP Allows client computer remote control over host Most 088 include a commandline Telnet client Connecting with Computer Science HTTP 0 HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP Developed in 1990 by Tim BernersLee Allows Web browsers and Web servers to communicate Central to the idea of the World Wide Web Example httpwwwcoursecom http tells browser you are retrieving Web page with Hypertext Transfer Protocol Connecting with Computer Science URLs and DNS 0 Development of the Domain Name System DNS Layers natural language name over IP address Provides user friendly interface with Internet 0 Uniform Resource Locator URL Consists of the domain name followed by speci c folder andor lenames DNS server resolves domain names from URLs into IP addresses Connecting with Computer Science Figure 77 Structuwe of a URL domain name folder I l l httpwwwcoursecommyfoldermyfiehtm protocol host network filename name name Connecting with Computer Science URLS and DNS continued DNS server computer maintained by ISP Performs lookup on URL Uniform Resource Locator Responsible for a portion of the world s domains Communicates with other DNS servers Domain levels Top level domains TLDs com edu gov net org Server at each level has knowledge of lowerlevel Example facultyweberedu Connecting with Computer Science Table 73 Toplevel domain names used on the Internet TLD aero arpa biz com coop edu gov info int mil museum name net org pro car mx Connecting with Computer Science meaning Air transport industry Address and Routing Parameter Area Business Commercial Cooperative US educational US government Information International organization US military Museum Individuals by name Network Organization Profession Canada and Mexico and other countries are represented by two letter codes ii Port Numbers Port number address speci cation below IP layer Port functions like apartment number in address Most protocols have a standard port number A possible 65636 port numbers for each IP address Specify port by appending number to domain or IP address Example http1921682338080 192168233 speci es the IP address 8080 speci es port number Connecting with Computer Science Table 74 Commonly used TCPlIP port number assignments port number 21 23 25 53 68 80 110 139 Connecting with Computer Science protocol 21 FTP File Transfer Protocol Telnet SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol DNS Domain Name System service DHCP Dynamic Host Control Protocol HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol POP3 Post Office Protocol version 3 NetBIOS it NAT NAT Network Address Translation protocol Multiple computers share one Internet connection Dependent on DHCP and port numbers NAT structure Internal range 19216800 to 192168255255 Only IP address presented to the Internet 192168 Internal nodes use port number with IP address TCP routes messages to node with matching port Connecting with Computer Science Checking Your Con guration 0 Type IPCONFIG command at in console Window Screen re ects Current IP address Subnet mask Address of your gateway to the Internet More information use IPCONFIG ALL command Connecting with Computer Science Figure 78 Executing the IPCONFIG command at the command prompt CunnilundPrmnp ITp Microsoft Windows XP Version 512600 C Copyright 1985 2001 Microsoft Corp CwindowsgtIPCONFIG Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Belkin Connect Ethernet Connection specific DNS Suffix IP Address 192168033 Subnet Mask 255 2552550 Default Gateway 19216801 CWindowsgt Connecting with Computer Science HTML Web page Largest class text les Contains text information and HTML Hypertext Markup Language tags HTML tags Formatting commands Browser uses tags to display graphical content Knowledge needed to use Web page design tools Connecting with Computer Science it Table 75 Common HTML tags tag purpose ltHTMLgt ltIHTMLgt Used to provide a boundary for the HTML docu ment everything between the ltHTMLgt and the ltIHTMLgt is considered to be part of the Web page ltHEADgt ltIHEADgt The ltHEADgt tags are placed inside the ltHTMLgt tags the ltHEADgt tags provide a boundary for items that are not part of the document but are used to direct the browser to do certain things Connecting with Computer Science Table 7 5 Continued tag ltTITLEgt ltITITLEgt ltBODYgt ltBODYgt ltBRgt ltPgt ltIPgt ltFONTgt ltIFONTgt ltAgt ltIAgt ltIMGgt Connecting with Computer Science purpose The ltTITLEgt tags are used to surround the Web document39s title This is the title that ap pears in the title bar of the browsers when the page is displayed The ltTITLEgt tags go inside of the ltHEADgt tags The ltBODYgt tags enclose the part of the Web page document that is to be displayed in the browser the ltBODYgt tags are placed inside of the ltHTMLgt tags but not inside the ltHEADgt tags ltBRgt is used to force the browser display area to go to a new line Note that the ltBRgt is a single tag There is no closing tag for the ltBRgt tag The ltPgt tags are used to define a paragraph in the Web document and to cause a paragraph break to take place The ltFONTgt tags are used to specify the font for the text between the tags the opening ltFONTgt tag has special arguments that are used to specify the type size and color of the font for the included text The ltAgt tag pair is used to specify a link to an other Web page or a specific location on the current page the opening ltAgt tag has arguments that reference the linked page or position The ltIMGgt tag is used to insert an image in the document the ltIMGgt tag has arguments that are used to specify the location and size of the image to be displayed Table 75 Continued tag ltFORMgt ltIFDHMgt ltNPUTgt ltTABLEgt ltITABLEgt ltTRgt ltTRgt ltTDgt ltITDgt Connecting with Computer Science purpose The ltFORMgt tags are used to provide the bound aries for an input form on the Web page other tags are placed inside of the ltFORMgt tag to create items such as input boxes and buttons on the Web Page The ltINPUTgt tag is used to specify data input ob jects inside of the ltFORMgt tags these tags allow data input to take place on a Web page The ltTABLEgt tags are used to define an area on the Web page that displays tabular data in rows and columns The ltTRgt tags are placed inside of the ltTABLEgt tags to signify the start of a table row The ltTDgt tags are placed inside of the ltTRgt tags to define a column within the row of a table Creating a Simple Web Page Open Notepad window Type in the HTML document shown in Figure 79 Save le to disk with htm or html extension Use Windows Explorer to locate le Browser displays document formatted in HTML code 0 HTML is free form and not case sensitive Hyperlinks connection to another page Connecting with Computer Science Figure 79 HTML tags for a simple Web page lthtmlgt ltheadgt lttitlegtMy First Web Pageltltitlegt ltheadgt ltb0dygt ltpgtMy First Web Textltbrgt ltbgtltfont sizequot3quot facequotArialquotgtMy First Tableltfontgtltbgtltpgt lttable widthquot30quot borderquot1quotgt lttrgt lttdgtltbgtProtocolltbgtlttdgtlttdgtltbgtPurposeltbgtlttdgt lttrgt lttrgt lttdgtTCPlttdgtlttdgtReliab1e Deliverylttdgt lttrgt lttrgt lttdgtIPltltdgtlttdgtAddressinglttdgt lttrgt lttrgt lttdgtHTTPltltdgtlttdgtWeb Pagesltjtdgt lttrgt lttablegt ltb0dygt lthtmlgt Connecting with Computer Science Figure 710 Simple Web page as displayed on the browser screen 3 My Firs Vch Page Microsoft Internet Explore 7 Fie Edlt mew Favovle Tcds Help J g as Q in i m mms am e aid 33 4 mum55 cxm MM M39 A L39 l Go Lrv39 Ilcrrzcnt rmh39nu rm Ur ucezm 30103 dimgfh lE ptluns My First Web Text My First Table Fromm Purpose TCP Reliable Delivery IP Addressing HTTP Web Pages Connecting with Computer Science Creating a Simple Web Page continued Web Server Programs provide dynamic Web pages DHTML Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language HTMLDHTML and scripting code Completely dynamic Web pages CGI ASP J SP PHP and Python Web services program contains data used by other programs or Web pages Connecting with Computer Science XML SGML speci cation source for HTML and XML 0 HTML limitation does not affect Web page content XML Extensible Markup Language Similar to HTML in structure Also provides data and metadata information about data Can be used to display Web pages Most important use transfer data Connecting with Computer Science Hgme743ammeXMLdamdowmem ltxml versionquotl0quot encodingquotISO 8859lquotgt ltxml sty1esheet type textxslquot hrefquotsamplexslquotgt ltdvdlibrarygt ltdvdgt ltidgtDOl46ltidgt lttitlegtThe Lord of the Rings The Return of the Kinglttitlegt ltratinggtPG l3ltratinggt ltpricegt2495ltpricegt ltreviewgtltreviewgt ltfdvdgt ltdvdgt ltidgtD3218ltidgt lttitlegtDumb and Dumberltltitlegt ltratinggtPG l3ltratinggt ltpricegtl495ltpricegt ltreviewltreviewgt ltfdvdgt ltdvdgt ltidgtD4482ltidgt lttitlegtMom and Dad Save The Worldlttitlegt ltratinggtPGltratinggt ltpricegt895ltpricegt ltreviewgtltreviewgt ltfdvdgt ltdvdlibrarygt Connecting with Computer Science Using the Internet 0 Internet as tremendous resource Invest time to develop searching skills Professional home student life Search engines Replace newsgroups as primary search vehicle Connecting with Computer Science Search Engines Most common search method crawling Uses program called a bot for robot or a spider Bot starts with a few pages submitted for indexing Indexed pages scanned for links to other Web pages Process continues for every retrieved page Index to page made from relevant words and keywords of ltMETAgt tag Computer scientists design and maintain search engines Connecting with Computer Science One Last Thought The Internet has grown into global forum Information gathering and communication Entertainment and Ecommerce Some issues Anonymity and reliability of information Identity theft and Virus replication Computer scientist and Internet coevolve Connecting with Computer Science Summary 0 Internet is a collection of LANs and WANs No single entity controls the Internet Hierarchy of ISPs and NBPs manage connections Protocols are critical in Internet Operation TCP1P lies at heart of protocol suite TCP manages data delivery Connecting with Computer Science Summary continued 0 IP provides for addressing Every node in the Internet has a unique address DHCP automatically assigns addresses Routers key hardware component of Internet Highlevel protocols HTTP FTP SMTP POP3 and IMAP Uniform resource locator URL speci es address Connecting with Computer Science
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'