Introduction to International Relations
Introduction to International Relations PSC 1003
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kerrigan Unter on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Olson, L in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
PSC 1003 Introduction to International Relations Basic Concepts The State The Treaty of Westphalia 16489 ended the 30 years war established secular rule where leaders not the Church determined the official religion established the principle of sovereignty and the sovereign state The Sovereign State has a bounded territory with a stable population executive power exercises control over the territory and possesses the sole legitimate right to use coercive force within that territory domestic sovereignty population obeys and owes allegiance to the government Intemational legal sovereignty the state is recognized as sovereign by other states in the international system Westphalian sovereignty the state asserts the right to conduct its domestic affairs without interference from other states Nonstate actors voluntary organization that are able to operate and exercise in uence internationally have interest in diverse issue areas political economic social and cultural Intergovemmenta1 Organizations IGOs Nongovemmental Organizations NGOs Multinational Corporations MNCs The Rational Actor Model common model used by realist and liberal perspective to predict actor behavior Characteristics 0 costbenefit analysis by the actor who will seek to maximize benefit while minimizing benefits 0 rankordering of preferences given a set of options where the most preferred outcome represents the maximization of costs while the least preferred represents lowest benefit 0 Transitivity in the ordering of preferences such that if the most preferred outcome is unavailable The actor move to the second then the third and so on in a predictable manner Power most broadly defined as the capacity to in uence others and get the to act in a way that benefits you in some way power potential vs actual power Power potential Determined by geography natural resources and population represents that resources available to an actor that can be mobilized to in uence other actors in the international system Actual Power power potential is enhanced and modified to create tangible sources or public support and leadership Hard vs Soft Power Hard power deals primarily with material capabilities such as military strength and economic power that can be converted to military strengths that can be used to compel other actors Soft power deals more with values and ideas 3 Faces of Power First face Actor A uses threat or rewards to change Actor B s behavior against B s initial preferences B knows this is happening and overtly feels the effect of A s power Second face A controls the agenda in a way that limits the options available to B B may or may not know that A is exercising power over B s available options Third face A helps create or shape B s basic beliefs values and perceptions B is unlikely to recognized the effect of A s power Smart Power Using the full spectrum of power based on the contextual intelligence available and depending on the actors involved understanding that in certain contexts coercion may be necessary while in others diplomacy may be effective recognizes that one end of the spectrum may undermine the other and actors in the international system must understand the relationship between their hard power and soft power resources The Levels of Analysis System structure examines the nature of the international system and how this in uences the behavior of actors process looks at the actual interactions between actors and what impact this has on behavior Domestic looks at internal processes and institutions in order to predict how an actor will behave internationally emphasizes institutional structures decisionmaking processes the internal organization of the actor and how various organizations within the actor interact with one another Individual focuses on leadership might examine the psychology or personality of the leader the institutional constraints on the leader and situations such as crises where these constraints might be relaxed Foreign Policy Level falls between the system level and the domestic level examines the decisionmaking by foreign policy elites assumes that decisionmakers need to appeal to audiences at both the domestic level and the system level emphasizes the idea that interests must be balanced between the international and the domestic