Liberalism and Identity Perspectives
Liberalism and Identity Perspectives PSC 1003
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kerrigan Unter on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Olson, L in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
PSC 1003 Liberalism and Identity Perspectives The International System liberals agree that the international system is anarchic but they argue that the effects of anarchy can be mitigated examine the process from the systematic process level of analysis focus on how interactions between states can foster cooperation and interdependence Interdependence refers to the complexity of interactions between states such that states forge a variety of ties between one another These can be political social cultural or economic when interdependence is high cooperation is easier and con ict is less likely because states are linked together to such a degree that con ict will be more costly Path Dependence an additional mechanism that fosters interdependent ties between actors certain outcomes can only come about by particular casual mechanisms as a certain path is pursued new outcomes challenges and opportunities often unintended emerge for liberals what is important is that when path dependence process reaches a certain point it cannot be turned back without significant costs Complex Interdependence for liberals this represents the most stable international system deep ties exist between actors which are reinforced by international institutions the shadow of the future the knowledge that actors will have to interact with no another multiple times will constrain actor behavior however interdependent ties must be maintained through trade diplomacy and other types of interactions If these ties weaken or become broken actors will believe they have reached the last move increasing the likelihood of con ict Actors in the International System liberals emphasize the role of both state and nonstate actors multiple actors in the system allows for multiple channels of communication deepening the interdependent ties that exist between them liberals will also be more likely to employ multiple levels of analysis Actor Behavior liberals generally apply the rational actor model to actor behavior the depart from realists in the sense that there is no fixed hierarchy of interests 0 Securest interests matter but such interests are not necessarily paramount 0 Depending on the actors involved and the issues are at play interests will vary Thus economic interests may be the most important given a particular set of actors 0 Power will also shift based on the issuearea and the actors involved Liberals will emphasize bother hard and soft power liberals further assume that international relations can be a nonzero sum game and that actors focus on absolute gains 0 If an actor gains something form an interaction it will be satisfied Mutual gains become possible further strengthening interdependent ties 0 Relative gains will still matter but disparities can be resolved through the process of bargaining 0 When con ict emerges as a result of differences in relative gain this is due to an unsuccessful bargaining process Trust and Cooperation when interdependency is high trust can be developed between actors such that intentions can be trusted One actor can say it is doing something and other actors will believe it with the possibility of trust and cooperation collective goods can be pursued Power and Knowledge theory developed by French poststructuralist Michel Foucault Foucault argues power is uid and depends on social context in international relations power whether hard or soft matters in the sense that the powerful are able to in uence the knowledge values and norms of the international system power is uid and ows through discursive relationships which in turn produces knowledge values and norms Actor Identity examines how actors construct their own internal and external identities which in uences their behavior in the international system actors can hold multiple identities Where one identity may be more salient given a certain social context also examines the idea of relative identities which is how actors view themselves in relation to other actors in the system cooperation tends to be more likely Where actors hold a shared identity such as the idea of the democratic peace
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