Liberalism and the Post-Cold War World
Liberalism and the Post-Cold War World PSC 1003
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kerrigan Unter on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Olson, L in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
PSC 1003 Liberalism and the PostCold War World The Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait The first challenge to the new sense of optimism after the fall of the Soviet Union For liberals this example represents how collective security is supposed to work 0 Iraq invades Kuwait a clear act of aggression o The US submits a resolution to the Security Council for authorization to come to Kuwait s aid 0 After Security Council approval the US and a broad coalition of supporters attack Iraqi forces in Kuwait 0 The mission concludes once Iraq withdraws 0 Iraq is contained through a sanctions regime to insure it is deterred from similar action in the future However future challenges would not fit this mold particularly as the UN began to transition from peacekeeping duties to peaceenforcement activities The UN and International Security The UN Charter authorizes UN intervention in a con ict in 2 distinct ways Peacekeeping authorization o Authorized by Chapter 6 of the UN Charter 0 Requires the consent of both belligerent parties in a con ict 0 UN forces are sent in to serve as a buffer between belligerent parties while a ceasefire or a peace is negotiated 0 Either party can withdraw consent requiring the peacekeeping force leave Peaceenforcement authorization 0 Falls under Chapter 7 of the UN Charter 0 Allows the UN to send a military force into a continuing armed con ict to enforce a UN Resolution Somalia First significant challenge would be in Somalia undergoing a famine and governmental collapse after the ouster of Siad Barre Country torn about by competing warlords who used food assistance as a tool for solidifying power In response to public pressure the UN with US support intervened to provide food aid This limited mandate quickly fell victim to mission creep o The US began taking sides directly opposing Mohammad Farah Aideed a powerful warlord in Mogadishu Would lead to the Blackhawk Down Incident the death of several American servicemen and an American withdrawal The failure to resolve this crisis led to ongoing instability in the region including the rise in piracy the emergence of alQaeda inspired radicals a takeover of the government by an Islamist group and a subsequent Ethiopian invasion The Breakup of Yugoslavia Sparked in 1989 by Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic s turn towards nationalism Also exacerbated by Croatian President Franjo Tudjman s increased nationalist rhetoric Began with the secession of Slovenia followed by Croatia Croatian secession involved some con ict between the Yugoslav army and Croatian separatists In 1992 BosniaHercegovina the most multiethnic province sought to secede Both Serbian and Croatian separatists in Bosnia supported by their respective conationals began seizing territory and engaging in ethnic cleansing The International Response to Yugoslavia The UN response was in general ineffective A peacekeeping force was sent to Yugoslavia under Chapter 6 authorization to allow a resolution of con ict in Croatia In Bosnia both Chapter 6 and eventually Chapter 7 authorizations were granted giving UN forces a more active role in protecting civilians At the height of the war the UN set up safeareas in Srebrenica Zepa and Gorazde in Eastern Bosnia where refugees were promised protection 0 Serb forces overran the UN positions and in Srebrenica massacred 8000 Bosnian Muslim men and expelled 2530 thousand women children and elderly The Resolution of the Yugoslav Con ict For much of the war the United States stayed out allowing the UN and European forces to deal with the issue After mounting public pressure however the US took a more active role The US acted through NATO rather than the UN engaging in air strikes of Serbian targets coordinated with a new BosnianCroatian alliance against Serb forces For many liberals NATO s intervention would prove instrumental and prove that regional collective security organizations could be more effective than the UN Rwanda The greatest failure for the UN in the 1990 s A Chapter 6 peacekeeping force was in place to implement a peace accord reached between Hutus and Tutsis The death of the Rwandan president would spark the genocide Westem states particularly the US would refuse to expand the UN s mandate so the forces on the ground could take a more active role in protecting Tutsi civilians In the end the UN and the West would stand by as the most rapid genocide in history occurred Liberal View of Ethnic Con ict Ethnic con ict is not the product of ancient hatreds spontaneously resurging For liberals elite manipulation of weak institutions is the primary cause of ethnic con ict Building institutions at the domestic level is most effective approach to prevent ethnic con ict Economic Interdependency While the hope for using collective security organizations to prevent con ict was called into question during the 1990 s liberals will argue that strong interdependent ties have been created Technological developments such as the communications revolution and the Internet have facilitated economic ties The integration of the global economy has convinced most states that participation in free trade is the best path towards development and economic growth
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