Liberalism: The Cold War
Liberalism: The Cold War PSC 1003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kerrigan Unter on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Olson, L in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
PSC 1003 Liberalism The Cold War The Post World War II Settlement Unlike after World War I the US committed to participation in the international system The US was instrumental in negotiating and backing international institutions which according to liberals were committed to creating interdependent ties between states For liberals Cold War tensions increased when there was little communication between the US and the USSR but decreased when the two superpowers engaged in diplomatic communication The United Nations Replaced the League of Nations as the collective security organization of the postWorld War II era remedying several of the structural problems in the League Made a distinction between the Security Council and the General Assembly 0 The General Assembly was made up of all members based on the sovereign equality of states with majority rule in place for passing resolutions 0 The Security Council was tasked with matters of peace and security If a resolution was before the Security Council the General Assembly could not raise the issue 0 Gave the 5 permanent members the US Britain France the USSR and China veto power over any resolution thus granting special rights to the Great Powers NA TO For liberals the US provision of a security guarantee for Western Europe and Japan as well was intended to mitigate the selfhelp nature of the international system With the US security guarantee American power was less threatening to the European states Allowed Western Europe to reorder its preferences deemphasizing national security and emphasizing other primarily economic interests The Bretton Woods System A free trade system intended to develop interdependent ties between states Supported by the US and backed by several international institutions Included a fixedexchange rate system based on dollar gold convertibility o The US set the price of gold at 35 per ounce and maintained this value through market interventions 0 Other states pegged the value of their currency to the dollar and increased their dollar reserves 0 The US pledged to redeem dollars for gold 0 This standard served to stabilize international currency markets Bretton Woods Institutions The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development IBRD aka The World Bank 0 Original purpose was to dispense Marshall Plan assistance to Western European states 0 Once this purpose was completed the World Bank began providing low cost loans to states particularly in the developing world usually for infrastructure projects The International Monetary Fund IMF 0 Original purpose was to maintain the dollargold convertibility standard 0 Once the US dropped the fixed exchange rate system in 1971 the IMF took on a new role as a lender of last resort 0 Provided loans to states to resolve shortterm balance of payments crises generally brought about by a state s inability to service its existing debt The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT 0 Not a formal institution but rather a regime o Existed as periodic usually every 10 years trade talks with the intention of lowering tariff barriers that were put in place during the interwar years 0 Would become the World Trade Organization a formal institution in 1995 European Coal and Steel Commission Created a free trade system in coal and steel between France and West Germany An early institution in what would eventually develop into the European Union For liberals the ECSC represents the first step in a path dependent process Intended to reconcile France and West Germany who had been hostile to one another since the end of the FrancoPrussian War in 1871 The USSoviet Relationship For liberals the 1950 s represents a period of low communication low trust and high tensions between the 2 superpowers This tension would culminate in the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 For liberals the Cuban Missile Crisis represents victory for diplomacy rather than for the use of hard power The Cuban Missile Crisis Because there was no direct communication between Washington and Moscow liberals emphasize the back channel diplomacy that occurred throughout the crisis Most of the communication went through intermediaries such as UN Secretary General U Thant Early in the crisis Kennedy signaled a willingness to remove the Jupiter missiles from Turkey in exchange for a Soviet withdrawal of the missiles from Cuba Resolution of the crisis led to the creation of the hotline phone a direct link between Washington and Moscow De tente Beginning in the late 1960 s and into the 1970 s an easing of tensions due to increased communication between the US and the USSR occurred Started with Willy Brandt chancellor of West Germany normalizing relations with East Germany Would lead to several important agreements between the US and USSR The US and China In the early 1970 s a US table tennis team travelled to China in what became known as ping pong diplomacy 0 An example of tracktwo diplomacy 0 Established cultural ties that lay the foundation for future more formal diplomatic negotiations In 1972 Nixon would visit China and recognize the Communist government as the legitimate government of China USSoviet Relations in the 1970s Increased communication led to the development of trust and the establishment of interdependency The US and Soviets negotiated 0 SALT I which set ceilings on nuclear arsenals o The ABM Treaty which limited the number of antiballistic missile sites Height of detente reached with the Helsinki Accords The Helsinki Accords Negotiated in 1975 Focused on 3 baskets o Arms control SALT II was negotiated but never ratified by the US Senate 0 Trade restrictions were eased and the US began providing aid to the USSR which was suffering from a grain shortage 0 Human rights led to the creation of monitoring groups especially in Eastern Europe Liberals emphasize the linkages created with these baskets Linking trade to human rights is a way of incentivizing behavior and exercising soft power The End ofDe tente In 1978 the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan In response Carter put an embargo on grain shipments to the USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow Once elected Reagan would take a more confrontational position calling the USSR an evil empire and increasing defense spending The Soviets placed SS20 missiles in Eastern Europe the US responded by placing Minuteman missiles in Western Europe Able Archer In 1983 NATO engaged in military exercises including plans for evacuating Western European leaders The USSR believed the US was planning to launch a preemptive nuclear attack The Soviets placed their defenses at the highest level of readiness while the US and NATO didn t know this was going on For liberals the breakdown in communication lead to this close call with nuclear war Reagan and Gorbachev After Able Archer Reagan recommitted to negotiations with the Soviets especially after Gorbachev came to power in 1985 The two leaders held multiple summit meetings and negotiated the INF Treaty which removed missiles from Europe 0 This represented the first time the nuclear arsenals on both sides were reduced Also began negotiations on START I The Fall of the Soviet Union Gorbachev s policies of glasnost openness and perestroika restructuring were intended to allow the USSR to catch up to the US Increased communication and trust between the US and the USSR gave Gorbachev the domestic political space to pass these policies in the face of opposition from hardliners In 1989 Hungary opened its border to Austria leading many to leave Eastern European satellite states 0 In contrast to similar events in the past Gorbachev did not intervene and prevent it following what became known as the Sinatra Doctrine 0 Eastern European states one after another overthrew the Communist governments and moved toward democracy