Nationalism and Conflict
Nationalism and Conflict PSC 1003
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kerrigan Unter on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Olson, L in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
PSC 1003 Nationalism and Con ict The Nation and the State Nation a group that shares some form of common identity such as language history ethnicity or culture The nationstate exists where a nation resides within the boundaries of a particular state This is usually the products of state attempts to unify a people by appealing to a peoples similarity through patriotism national holidays at national language or some other unifying characteristic The Nation and the Imagined Community where in the premodern world people identified with one another based on facetoface interactions with the rise of the modern state this is no longer possible as political communities increase in size individuals identify with others as members of the same nation even if they have never nor will never meet face to face Stories of Peoplehood National identity is based on the stories people tell themselves about who they are their history their culture and their place in the world this is a dynamic competitive process where multiple narratives engage in discursive interaction seeking to become the dominant narrative the type of story a people tells itself can serve as a predictor for con ict 0 Inclusive narratives revolve around the idea that any person can become part of the nation 0 Exclusive narratives focus on exclusion of the Other usually another group living in the same territory These types of narratives are more prone to con ict Nationalism and the NationState governments could appeal to a sense of national belonging to rally a population behind the government as the nationstate emerges national armies rather than mercenaries are used to fight wars in countries like Napoleonic France the people following the ideals of the Frech Revolution grant legitimacy to the nation increasing both the hard power and the soft power of the state Nationalism in the 19th century national minorities in the Ottoman Empire and AustriaHungary consistently pressured these states for independence other Great Powers frequently sided with these movements 0 The British backed Greek independence from the Ottomans in the 1820s 0 The Russians backed Slavic independence movements in the Ottoman Empire and AustriaHungary for the identity theorists such alliances were the product of a shared identity rather than calculations of power or advantage Types of Nationalism in the 19th century liberalism promoted the spread of democracy free trade and international institutions Britain was the most prominent example of a liberal state militant nationalism advocated national aggrandizement and expansion based on the idea of superiority if the state s national culture Bismark and Prussia were the strongest proponents of this nationalism Socialism emerged as an international movement that sought the overthrow of capitalism and existing forms of government Autocratic states were particularly threatened by this movement leading Prussia AustriaHungary and Russia to form the Holy Alliance to combat socialism Militant Nationalism and the Outbreak of World War I Bismark pursued an irredentist form of nationalism seeking to unify all German speaking people even if it meant taking territory from other states this was combined with a Social Darwinist outlook in the sense that German unification was about national survival and competition between Germans and French and Germans and Slavic peoples furthermore a strong sense of militarism pervaded German national culture Led Bismark to violate the rules of the balance of power system Shared identity rather than national security interests would also lead Britain to all with France in 1904 rather than with Germany Nationalism in the Interwar Years Wilson s 14 points included a doctrine of selfdetermination which states that national peoples should be able to govern themselves within their own territories led to the breakup of the Ottoman Empire and the AustriaHungary and the creation of many of the Eastern European states that exist today however national minorities still existed in these new states and the demanded to be allowed to join with their conationals the idea was that democracy would take hold in these new states but during the 1920s and the 1930s democracy would fail Germany and the Versailles Treaty the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I was punitive towards Germany 0 Germany was required to accept guilt for the war which included severe limitations on its military 0 Also required to pay reparations Germany viewed the Versailles Treaty as an affront and the new Weimar Republic immediately began seeking to undermine the Treaty The Soviet Union In 1917 the Tsar of Russian was overthrown replaced by the Provisional Government which was in turn overthrown by Lenin and the Bolsheviks who instituted a Communist government The Soviet Union negotiates a separate peace with Germany and pulled out of the war early To punish the new USSR the victorious powers excluded the Soviets form the new international institutions create at the end of World War I The Soviet Union like Germany would be dissatisfied with the postWorld War I settlement eventually leading the two to cooperate in the Treaty of Rapallo which allowed German military to test new weaponry on Soviet territory in violation of the Treaty of Versailles Ideology in the Interwar Years liberalism which sought again to spread free market ideas and democracy The Great Depression would undermine these attempts socialism was no longer revolutionary but emerged as socialdemocracy economically socialist but committed to democratic forms of government communisms was revolutionary and expansionists seeking through organizations like Comintem to spread revolution throughout Europe Fascism mirrored the militant nationalism of the preWorld War I era espousing national pride and the exclusion of the Other Fascist states like Mussolini s Italy and Hitler s Germany made irredentist demands with Hitler rising to power by appealing to German dissatisfaction with the Versailles Treaty
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