Week 5 Lecture Notes - Principles of Human Anatomy
Week 5 Lecture Notes - Principles of Human Anatomy Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy
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Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Dorsey on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy at University of Indianapolis taught by Justin Maiers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Principles of human anatomy in Biology at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Principles of Human Anatomy BIOL 10305 Notes for 28 September 2015 Muscles of the Axial Skeleton Things you should be able to do by the end of this section 0 Understand how muscles interact with the skeleton to cause movement 0 Learn some criteria for naming muscles 0 Know the difference between origin and insertion 0 Locate and identify the muscles of the axial skeleton and their functions The Muscular System 0 Muscle tissue all contractile tissues 0 Skeletal cardiac smooth muscle 0 Only move in one direction 0 Main focus on skeletal muscle 0 How muscles interact to cause movement 0 Criteria for naming muscles 0 Principle of leverage 0 Actions and Interactions of Skeletal Muscles o never push I What one muscle group quotdoesquot another quotundoesquot I Can only pull to do the opposite direction I Can passively use gravity in some cases 0 Origin vs Insertion o the fixed attachment site does not move 0 the end that moves during contraction o o Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Muscles o muscles that are fully contained in one area ie brachium crus or thorax o muscles that originate in one body area but act on a different one typically go across a joint ie the trapezius muscle 0 More Actions and Interactions of Skeletal Muscles 0 Functional Groups I major responsibility for producing specific movement 0 Flexion motion I opposes or reverses particular movement 0 Extension motion I Prime mover and antagonist ofjoint across which they act I helps prime movers o Adds extra force to same movement 0 Reduces undesirable or unnecessary movement 0 Works with the main muscle to aid in movement I synergist that bone or muscle s origin 0 Gives prime mover stable base on which to act 0 Stabilizer I Some muscles may be 0 Prime mover of one movement 0 Antagonist for a different movement 0 Synergist for a third movement 0 Can serve multiple purposes especially in limbs that have ballinsocketjointssynovial joints 0 Naming Skeletal Muscles can combine any of these naming conventions eg extensor carpi radialis longus 0 bone or body region with which muscle is associated eg intercostal inside ribs costalribs eg deltoid muscle deltoidtriangle eg maximus largest minimus smallest longus long brevis short eg rectus fibers run strait transversus fibers run at right anglessideways and oblique fibers run at angles to imaginary defined axis 0 eg biceps 2 origins and triceps 3 origins named according to point of origin and insertion origin named first I Eg sternocleidomastoid muscle does the sandwich quot0 thing 0 named for any action they produce eg flexor or extensor 0 Muscle Mechanics Lever Systems 0 A lever is a combination of the effort load and fulcrum O o rigid bar bone that moves on a fixed point called a fulcrum joint 0 force supplied by muscle contraction applied to lever to move resistance load 0 resistance bone tissues any added weight moved by the effort I What is it moving 0 point where the bone pivots or hinges upon contraction Muscles of Facial Expression 0 The ones listed are the ones that are in the lab there are obviously a lot more Circle shape is referred to as the orbicularis o o 0 Origin Medial palpebral ligament o Insertion Lateral palpebral raphe o Muscles of the Mouth o I Brings cheeks back I For smiling o Oris mouth Origin upper part of pectoral and deltoid fascia Insertion base of mandible skin of lower face and lip releases pressure of skin on the subjacent veins depress mandible pull angle of mouth downwards OOOO O Helps with the balancing of the head In isolation helps with rotating the head to one side Combined it is used for flexion Origin manubrium and medial third of clavicle Insertion mastoid process rotates head to opposite side extends head and flexes vertebral column OOOOOO Huge and does a lot of stuff Origin Occipital bone medial nunchal line ligamentum nuchae spinous process of C7 to T12 Insertion lateral clavicle acromion and spine of scapula Has three regions I Superior intermediate and inferior regions OOOOOO Muscles of Mastication o Goes underneath the zygomatic process and attaches to the coronoid process of the mandible 0 Origin entire rim of the temporal fossa of the skull o Insertion coronoid process of the mandible Two muscles inner and outer masseter muscles Attaches to the bottom of the mandible Origin of inner back side of the Zygomatic Arch Insertion of inner upper surface of the rasmus of the mandible Origin of outer along the Zygomatic Arch Insertion of outer back side of the Zygomatic Arch OOOOOOO Thoracic Cage Muscles o Intrinsic Muscles o I Three layers and they each are angled different directions 0 lie closest to the lungs angled down 0 in the middle goes up at an angle 0 on the outside goes down at an angle imagine how your arms are when your hands are in your pockets I Needed for breathing 0 Breathing in is muscle controlled but breathing out is passive so there are not any antagonists for intercostales externi I Origin lower border of rib I Insertion upper boarder of rib below origin Action elevate ribs adding in forced inspiration 0 On the lower boundaries of the lungs Pulls by flattening out Pulls everything else down Flattens on contraction Looks a little like a parachute Origin inferior internal surface of rib cage and sternum Insertion central tendon 0 Erector Spinae Muscles Three muscles to the pneumonic quotI Love Spaghetti 0 Highest Insertion C4C6 vertebrae 0 Highest Insertion mastoid process of the temporal bone 0 Highest Insertion external occipital protuberance Origin sacrum in general more specifics go with gross anatomy Trunk extension rotation and lateral flexion of vertebral column pulls spine upright o Abdominal Muscles 0 Origin anterlaterol border of the lower 8 ribs Insertion anterior rectus sheath iliac crest and pubic crest On the side and are diagonal Does not go all the way to the midline Sime fiber direction as the external costal muscles 0 quothand in pocket direction 0 Origin iliac crest Insertion pubic crest costal cartilage of the 812th ribs Fiber direction is the opposite direction of the external obliques o Origin thoracolumbar fascia iliac crest lateral 12 of inguinal ligament and costal cartilages 712 Insertion xiphoid process linea alba pubic crest and pectin pubis via conjoint tendon Deep to everything else Looks like a quotWWE champion belt 0 Origin pubic crest Insertion xiphoid process costal cartilage of the 57th ribs Makes the quotsix pack that everyone wants Fiber direction straight up and down o I Linea alba is the midline that holds together side to side I The muscles don t have a bone to attach to so they attach to the semilunar line I Sheath is for protection and helps the muscles slide across other muscles that are going in completely different directions 0 I Important because it serves as an attachment point for the muscles on top but still allows for things to pass underneath Principles of Human Anatomy BIOL 10305 Notes from 30 September 2015 Bones of the Upper Limb Things you should be able to do by the end of this section about the upper and lower limbs 1 Identify skeletal features common to upper and lower limbs 2 Describe the functional reasons for differences between the upper and lower limb skeletons Comparison of Upper and Lower Limbs o Quadruped origin 0 Humans evolved from quadrupeds I Animals that move on four feet 0 Quadruped limbs very similar to humans 0 Humans became bipedal creatures so I Only lower limbs support body weight I Upper limbs are free to do other things 0 Upper and Lower Limbs 0 Share common features based on evolutionary history 0 Exhibit differences based on primary limb functions 0 Proximal part supported by a girdle of bones I Pectoral girdle holding the upper limbs in place I Pelvic girdle articulating with the lower limbs o Similarities o Proximal part of each limb has one large bone 0 Distal part of each limb with two bones that are able to slightly pivot 0 Wrist and proximal foot contain multiple bones that allow for a range of movement 0 Feet and hands I Have 5 metacarpals or metatarsals I Each with a total of 14 phalanges 0 Differences 0 Lower limb is weight bearing I Some mobility is sacrificed for greater stability 0 Upper limb is not weight bearing I Arms and forearms are relatively lighter I Relatively more mobile I Can be used for multiple activities I More mobile joints that are less stable which are also more frequently injured Things you should be able to do by the end of this section about the pectoral girdle 1 Identify and locate the clavicle and its landmarks 2 Describe the landmarks and features of the scapula The Pectoral Girdle and Its Functions o Articulates with trunk 0 Supports the upper limbs o Consists of the clavicles and the scapulae o Aka Collarbone Elongated Sshaped bone Extends between the manubrium of the sternum and the acromion of the scapula OO O I Roughly pyramidalgumdropflat shaped I Articulates with manubrium of sternum I Forms the sternoclavicularjoint O I Broad and flattened like a butter knife I Articulates with the acromion of the scapula I Forms acromioclavicularjoint Superior surface of the clavicle is relatively smooth Inferior surface is roughened CO I Rough tuberosity on inferior surface near the acromial end I Sticks out 0 I Inferiorly located prominence at the sternal end 0 Remember costalribs so this is on the bottom of the medial end near the ribs I Attachment of shoulder s costoclavicular ligament I Goes into the bone 0 o Broad flat triangular bone Aka Shoulder Blade Easily palpitated on superolateral back region I It s easy to feel on your back Flat side is deep Spine is superficial Shoulder needs lots of spots for muscles and tendons to attach Parts of the scapula 00 0000 0 Ridge of bone on posterior aspect 0 Large posterior process forming shoulder s bony tip 0 Continuous with spine 0 Smaller more anterior projection 0 Site for muscle attachment 0 Looks like a small little hook 0 Provides passage for nerve and blood vessels 0 Borders of the Scapula I Distinguish between borders because there are different muscles that attach there 0 Horizontal edge superior to scapula spine 0 Edge closest to the vertebrae 0 Edge closest to the axilla o Angles of the Scapula 0 Between superior and medial borders 0 Between medial and lateral borders 0 Primarily made up of the glenoid cavity 0 Cupshaped shallow o o Scapula landmarks o Broad of the scapula o Subscapularis muscle overlies this fossa 0 Deep Depression o Supraspinatus muscle o Infraspinatus muscle Things you should be able to do by the end of this section about the upper limb 1 Describe the articulations of the humerus List landmarks and features of the humerus Compare and contrast the features of the radius and the ulna Explain how the radius ulna and humerus articulate Differentiate between supination and pronation of the forearm Locate and identify the carpals and metacarpals Describe the phalanges and their relative locations NP P PP Iquot Bones of the Upper Limb 0 Components of the upper limb o Brachium arm 0 Antebrachium forearm I quotbeforequot so before your hand is the antebrachium 0 Hand 0 Bones of the upper limb o 1 humerus 1 radius and 1 ulna 8 carpal bones 5 metacarpal bones 14 phalanges 3 D m 3 m 0000 Humerus 0 Components of the humerus o Longest and largest upper limb bone 0 Proximal end with a hemispherical I Articulates with glenoid cavity of scapula o positioned lateral to head I Helps form rounded contour of shoulder I Tubercle bump is smaller and more medial to the head Intertubercular sulcus o I Between the two tubercles I Depression containing tendon of long head of the biceps brachii muscle I Groove is where the long head of the biceps comes through I Between tubercles and head I Groove marking location of former epiphyseal plate I On the other side of the greater and lesser tubercle and only refers to next to the actual head I Narrowing of the bone I Immediately distal to the tubercles I Common fracture site I General one that we think of from the shaft to the head with a roughened area I Deltoid tuberosity bump where the deltoid connects I Extends along lateral surface for half the length of the humerus I Deltoid muscle attachment I Located adjacent to deltoid tuberosity I Location of radial nerve and some blood vessels I Where the radius meets the humerus Together the bones of the humerus radius and ulna form the elbow joint and I Bony side projections on distal humerus I Provide surface for muscle attachment I Palpitated on sides of elbow I Ulnar nerve travels posterior to medial epicondyle 0 quotfunny bone I means quoton top of Distal end with 2 curved surfaces I Articulation with bones of forearm I located laterally o Articulates with radius 0 Ball shaped I located medially o Articulates with trochlear notch of ulna o Spindle shaped Distal end with 3 depressions 2 on anterior surface 1 on posterior surface o Anterolaterally placed 0 Accommodates radial head o Is where the radius touches when it moves for pronation and supination o Anteromedially placed 0 Accommodates coronoid process of ulna o Posteriorly placed 0 Accommodates olecranon of ulna when elbow is extended 0 Slows the elbow to extend Radius and Ulna o Radius and ulna form the forearm 0 Bones are parallel o Radius is located laterally and always goes to the thumb 0 Components of the radius 0 Discshaped at proximal end I Articulates with Capitulum of humerus I Head is flat flat end is proximal and curved end is distal Narrow extends from head to o I Attachment site for biceps brachii muscle I Little bump besides the head insertion point for biceps power flexion for the arm 0 of the radius curves slightly bony projection at distal end I Helps move over the ulna 0 on distal medial surface I Articulates with medial surface of distal ulna I Where the ulna and radius touch I SUPER IMPORTANT 0 Components of the Ulna o Longer medially placed bone of the forearm o Cshaped at the proximal end I Interlocks with trochlea of the humerus I quotCU shape on the top 0 projection on the posterosuperior trochlear notch I Forms posterior bump of the elbow I Part of the ulna that sticks into the olecranon fossa o inferior lip of trochlear notch I Articulates with humerus I Goes to the coronoid fossa I More anterior o at proximal end of bone 0 Shaft terminates in knoblike o Posteromedial o Styloid gt stylus gt pencil pointy end 0 May be palpitated on medial side of wrist o Borders between radius and ulna 0 or nterosseous borders I Facing each other I Crest is created by membrane 0 Where the membrane is that attaches the two bones 0 Connected by an I Dense regular CT I Keeps radius and ulna a fixed distance apart I Pivot of rotation for the forearm O O O O In anatomic position the palm of the hand faces anteriorly Radius and ulna are parallel Radius is on the lateral side of the forearm The ulna is on the medial side 00000 O Radius and ulna pivoting along interosseous membrane Palm of hand faces posteriorly Head of radius still on lateral side of elbow Distal end of radius has crossed over More medial structure Moves at the distal end and the radius becomes more medial at the distal end Carpals Metacarpals and Phalanges O O O O O O 0 Wrist bones Allow multiple movements at wrist Arranged in 2 rows of4 bones each Proximal row from lateral to medial Distal row from lateral to medial Pneumonia There is a small synovial joint capsule over each of the carpals 00000 00000 Bones in palm of hand Articulate with distal carpal bones Support the palm Roman numerals IV denote metacarpal bones I Always start with the thumb 3 in 2quot l through 5th fingers 2 phalanges in thumb pollex articulates with the head of the metacarpal is the tip of the finger is between proximal and distal phalanges NP P PP N Study Questions How does the sternal end and the acromial end of the clavicle differ Which fossae are located on the scapula and what is located in each fossa What is the difference between the anatomical neck and the surgical neck of the humerus What portion of the humerus articulates with the radial head What portion of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna Describe how the radius and ulna are positioned when the forearm s pronated List the eight carpal bones proximal row first from lateral to medial
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