10/13/15 week notes
10/13/15 week notes 2107k
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Affra Mohamed on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2107k at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Arnauk in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Bilogy notes for Last week First Law of thermodynamics energy changes form and transforms energy Second law of thermodynamics entropy happens and order takes work and a state shifts to disorder and work is needed to maintain order Energy transformation not ef cient and so energy is lost as entropy Entropy is lost as heat energy Example Chicken loses 90 of its energy is lost during its lifetime and humans consume the chicken they only get 10 of the energy Chemical Reactions Equilibrium increase reactants gt and increase products lt Site of active cellular respiration Endergonic energy takes energy to create nonspontaneous Endergonic takes energy for reaction to happen ATp is exergonic and this is when reaction doesn39t get started without energy spontaneous and need activation energy to start the reaction Energy Available total energyH energy available to do work energy lost to entropy disorder Total energy needs to have more energy enough to get over entropy loss of energy to establish order and this is not a bad thing good thing More heat higher temp molecules move faster and when molecules move fast more disorder So temperature effects disorder f enthalpy less than entropy disorder and if enthalpy is greater than entropy there is order In coupled reactions if it uses hydrolysis then exergonic reaction and if it has dehydration synthesis where water is released it is endergonic synthesis Rate of Reaction All reactions require an input of energy and this is called activation energy and an enzyme accelerates the reaction by reducing the activation energy Enzymes getting reactants closer to together facilitator and if they bring them together catalysts and enzymes can physically bring them together and enzymes can lower the activation energy And vitamins help enzymes do their work Enzymes are catalyzed reactions when a substrate binds to enzyme enzyme substrate Enzymes don39t get destroyed by a reaction they are proteins Schematic model of an enzyme If we altar the shape of enzyme enzyme turned off Protein folding brings speci c amino acids together to form active sites Shape change in enzymes happens all the time to stop the reaction to occur Inhibitors and Activators Inhibitors a Competitive competing with substrate together into binding site b Noncompetitive allosteric other go to some other site shifts structure closes binding site Enzymes made with functions to turn on and off Glycogen chain glucose with a protein and it gets broken down into glucose to obtain energy So after energy wan to stop glycogen synthesis using inhibitors negative feedback reaction Chapter 9 Cellular respiration Breakdown of carbohydrates lipids and proteins Release the energy to do work of the cell and cellular respiration is a catabolic reaction At the end you get ATP Glycolysis Kreb Cycle electron transport chain Glycolysis uses glucose produces ATP produces NADH and uses a lot of ATP Kreb Cycle produces ATP makes FADH2 and little NADH Electron transport chain uses 02 releases C02 produces a lot of ATP no ATP is used NADH and FADH2 are used to make ATP and produces H20 C6H1206 6C02 gt 6H20 6C02 energy ATP We energize by sticking phosphates building energy and take off phosphates to release energy H has an electron on it Oxidation loses electron and reduction gains electrons And electrons come in the form of H 02 is a good electron acceptor in the electron transport Glucose gets broken down in glycolysis and lipids go straight to kreb cycle Cellular respiration stages Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm and it breaks down glucose and the end products are 2 pyruvates and pyruvate gets converted to Actyl COA and then it goes into Kreb cycle Kreb cycle is in matrix of midochondria Electron transport chain is in the intercellular membrane of the midochondria matrix Folded mitochondria membrane more surface area and more electron transport chains