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by: Regan Dougherty

201ch1011notesstudysoup.pdf NHM 201

Regan Dougherty
GPA 4.0
Nutrition Through the Lifecycle
Denise DeSalvo

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About this Document

chapter 10/11 notes
Nutrition Through the Lifecycle
Denise DeSalvo
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 201 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Denise DeSalvo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Through the Lifecycle in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 10/20/15
Thursday October 15 2015 Chapters 10 and 11 Toddler and Preschooler Nutrition Toddlers 1 3 years rapid increase in gross and fine motor skills Preschoolers 3 5 years increasing autonomy broader social circumstances increasing language skills expanding self control Adequate nutrition is required to achieve full growth and development Undernutrition impairs cognitive development and the ability to explore the environment Growth velocity the rate at which we see changeincrease in heightweight Reduced intakeslower growth in this stage than in infancy Weight triples from birth to 1 year old slight decline from toddlers to preschoolers How to Measure Growth calibrated scales and height board Toddlers under 2 years weigh without clothes or diaper determine recumbent length measured laying down Children over age 2 years weigh with light clothing measure stature with no shoes standing CDC Growth Charts are used at this stage of the life cycle gender specific age specific BMI is appropriate to use for children over the age of 2 years good guideline for assessing overweightunderweight in children and adults BMI fluctuates through childhood Thursday October 15 2015 BMI in Children BMI gt 85 to 95 indicates overweight BMI gt 95 indicates obesity BMI lt 5 indicates underweight We are looking at percentiles on growth charts for these percentiles Different than adults where a BMI value is calculated Cognitive Development of Toddlers toddlers orbit around parents will go off and do things but need to return to their parents periodically more interactive vocabulary expands increase in feeding skills need for independence need rituals and routine Development of Feeding Skills of Toddlers 9 10 months weaning from bottle begins 12 14 months completely weaned 12 months refined pincer grasp 18 24 months use tongue to clean lips development of rotary chewing Feeding Behaviors of Toddlers rituals in feeding are common strong preferences and dislikes parentadult is a role model food jags serve new foods with familiar foods diminished appetite decreased interest in food is normal toddlersized portions 1 tablespoon of food per year of age Thursday October 15 2015 primary intake nutrientdense meals and snacks avoid grazing and sugary snacks Innate Ability to Control Energy Intake Children have an innate ability to adjust caloric intake to meet caloric needs We should be able to identify parental behaviors that interrupt that ex clean your plate lnnate ability diminishes as children get more social Parents should make sure that they are making healthy foods available to children children will not always select the healthy option Make food fun helps get children to eat healthier options Preschoolers typically don t like their foods to be mixed touching spicy too hotcold Food Preferences offer new foods with foods the child is used to restrict special foods and promote healthy foods Children are influenced by food ads in the media Parent vs Child Responsibilities Parent what is eaten environment in which food is offered when and where Child how much they eat whether they eat a particular mealsnack EER estimated energy requirement FORMULAS WILL BE GIVEN ON TEST 13 36 months EER 89 x weight kg 100 20 kcal 3 8 years Boys EER 885 619 x age years PA x 267 x weight kg 903 x height m 20 kcal Girls EER 1353 308 x age years PA x 100 x weight kg 934 x height m 20 kcal PA physical activity Thursday October 15 2015 Physical Activity Levels PALs sedentary PA 100 PAL between 10 and 14 low active PA 100 PAL between 14 and 16 active PA 100 PAL between 16 and 19 very active PA 100 PAL between 19 and 25 Nutrient Needs Protein 1 3 years 11 gkg 4 8 years 095 gkg Vitamins and Minerals iron calcium and zinc table 106 Iron and zinc may be a concern because the children are not eating large quantities yet iron and zinc are found in red meat Iron may also be an issue because of socioeconomic status Calcium may be a concern for bone health CALCIUM IN AN 8 OZ GLASS OF MILK 300 mg Common Nutrition Problems iron deficiency anemia results in delays in cognitive development and behavioral disturbances measure hematocrithemoglobin dental caries causes bedtime bottle with juicemilk Streptococcus mutans sticky carbohydrate foods prevention fluoride constipation elevated blood lead levels food security food safety Vitamin and mineral supplements are only needed in special situations 60 minutes of physical activity is recommended each day Special Conditions Ch 11 Thursday October 15 2015 Developmental delay may not be hitting milestones at the appropriate time vs Developmental disability disability caused by severe physicalmental impairment before the age of 22 happen for a wide variety of reasons DelayedDisabled Population prenatal drugalcohol abuse child abuse ELBW babies this is improving Many service are available to children with developmental delaysdisabilities Altered Feeding Characteristics issues with mouth may not be able to hold utensils may not want to eat may want to eat too much may require tube feeding increased time energy financial resources when feeding Concerns growth energy needs lowhigh weight for stature increasedreduced energy needs DRls are only a starting point needs should be determined on a casebycase basis Nutrition assessment to determine if nutrition services are needed is growth on track are feeding skill appropriate etc Failure to Thrive FTT inadequate weight or height gain growth declines more than 2 growth percentiles Thursday October 15 2015


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