Global Inequality Notes
Global Inequality Notes SOC 201S
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asif Khan on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 201S at Old Dominion University taught by JONATHAN W LOPEZ in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY in Sociology at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Global Inequality Notes The Global Divide gt Global resource divide is immense 0 Industrial Revolution and increased agricultural productivity resulted in explosive economic growth 0 Ensuing rise in living standards not evenly distributed across world I Divide within countries in terms of income wealth poverty and social mobility also significant Perspectives on Global Stratification gt The Rise of Modernization o ModernizationFarreaching process by which nations pass from traditional forms of social organization toward forms characteristic of post Industrial Revolution societies I Concepts of modernization and development contain an ethnocentric bias I Such modernization represents a form of cultural imperialism gt The Legacy of Colonialism o ColonialismMaintenance of political social economic and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period 0 NeocolonialismContinuing dependence of former colonies on foreign countries 0 World Systems AnalysisView of the global economic system as one divided between certain industrialized nations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and exploited Wallerstein o Dependency TheoryContends that industrialized nations continue to exploit developing countries for their own gain I Growing share of human and natural resources of developing countries redistributed to core industrialized nations 0 GlobalizationWorldwide integration of government policies cultures social movements and financial markets through trade and exchange of ideas gt The Growth of Multinational Corporations 0 Multinational CorporationCommercial organization headquartered in one country that does business around the world I Total revenue of multinational businesses are on par with total value of goods and services exchanged in entire nations I Over onefourth of US goods and services related to export or import of goods gt Modernization 0 Some see relationship between multinationals and developing countries as beneficial I Industries and jobs I Promote rapid development I Facilitate exchange of ideas and technology around the world making world more interdependent gt Dependency 0 Critics say multinationals exploit local workers to maximize profits Cheap foreign labor bad for industrialized country labor loses jobs and developing nation labor climate of investment may include repressive antilabor laws Investment by multinationals initially contributes to host nation s wealth but eventually increases economic inequality within developing nations Stratification around the World gt Income and Wealth o In at least 20 nations most af uent 10 of the population receives at least 40 of all income 0 Top 10 of world s population own 85 of global household wealth and top 1 own over 45 0 Women in developing countries face significant obstacles gt Poverty 0 UN Millennium Project aims to eliminate global poverty by 2015 Goal of cutting the developing world s poverty rate in half was met early Industrial nations must set aside 07 of gross national product for developing nations Gross National Income GNITotal value of a nation s goods and services US delivers more total aid dollars than any other nation the rate of GNI it contributes places it 19th out of 23 industrialized nations such as United Kingdom France and Germany gt Social Mobility o Intergenerational Mobility Across Countries I Varies across countries I Macrolevel social and economic changes often overshadow microlevel movement from one occupation to another 0 Gender Differences and Mobility I Effects of development on women s social standing and mobility not necessarily positive Universal Human Rights gt Defining Human Rights 0 Human RightsUniversal moral rights that all people possess by virtue of being human I Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by United Nations in 1948 I 1990s introduced ethnic cleansing into world vocabulary as euphemism for forcible expulsion and murder I Transnational crime of human trafficking is ongoing concern gt Principle and Practice 0 US war on terrorism has raised additional concerns about human rights 0 Cultural insiders and outsiders can disagree about what constitutes a violation 0 In 1993 US opted for absolute definition of human rights insisting Universal Declaration of Human Rights set single standard for acceptable behavior around the world gt Human Rights Activism 0 Most initiatives come from social movements not governments 0 Awareness has been growing of lesbian and gay rights as aspect of universal human rights
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