Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception
Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception PSY 1410
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by BrittanyElizabeth on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1410 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Mary Ellen Fromuth in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Chapter 3 Sensation Detecting environmental stimuli and transmitting information about them through the nervous system Perception Interpretations of sensations into subjective experiences Some people say that they are the same thing Terms and Concepts 1 Transduction The process of converting incoming physical energy into neural activity 2 Absolute Threshold The minimal amount of stimuli that can be detected about 50 of the time 3 Adaptation The decrease in response of sensory receptors With continued stimulation Example Visual System saccades of tiny movements of the eye The body is setup to notice change Visual Anatomy Cornea Outer protective layer Pupil regulates the amount of light that enters the eye Lens Accommodation The ability of the lens to chance its shape Near Point The nearest distance at which you can see an object Without blur Retina Layers 1 Photoreceptors 1 Rods not a lot of detail perinatal at night When its most effective colorless About 120 rods 2 Cones acuity Centrain Over 1 million Cones 1 Fovea gives the most detailed vision highest acuity gives color vision 0 Biopolar cells 0 Ganglion Cells Optic Nerve Blind Spot 0 Functioning Coding of Information 0 Transduction Condition 0 Feature Detectors I Hubel and Wiesel Theories of Color Vision 1 Young Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory 1867 Red Green Blue Yellow Green Violet 2 Hearing Theory quotOpponent Processquot 1870 Red Green Blue Yellow Black White 3 Combination Colorblindness Most color blind people can only see yellow blue 0 510 males 0 lt1 of females 0 Trichromats normal color Vision 0 Dichromats See only 2 primary colors 0 Monochromats completely color blind Audition Hearing Introduction 0 Frequency 0 Number of Vibrations per second is Pitch 0 Amplitude Loudness 0 Timbre Complexity 0 Pure tone or complex tone Human Ear Structure 0 Outer ear 0 Ear Drum Tympanic Membrane Separates th outer and middle ear 0 Middle Ear 0 Ossicles Little Bones I Hammer Malleus Anvil Incus Stirrup Straps 0 Oval Window Ossicles touch the oval Window Separates the middle and inner ear 0 Inner Ear 0 Cochlea I Basilar Membrane I Organ of Corti Contains little hair cells sits on the Basilar membrane I Tectorial Membrane Over the organ of Corti Coding of Auditory Information 0 Loudness 0 Rate of firing 0 Pitch 1 Place Theory Helmholtz 1863 1 Where place Location on the Basilar Membrane Similar to a piano 2 Frequency Theory Rutherford 1886 1 Number of vibrations and rate of firing 2 Volley Theory Weaver and Bray 1937 3 Neurons combining to match frequency A group of Neurons 3 Reconciling the Theories 1 Lowest Frequency 2 Low Moderate Both Frequency Place 3 High Place Conduction Hearing Loss Deafness Example Too much ear wax Nerve Hearing Loss Deafness Example Damage Cochlea very loud sound messes up hair in organ of Corti Perception A Theories of Pattern Perception Bottom up theories Top up theories Interactive theories B Gestalt Psychology The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Organizational is part of perception Innate of Visual Perception Organization of Visual Perception Holistic Perception Gestalt 0 Similarity 0 Proximity 0 Closure 0 Continuity 0 Simplicity C Depth Perception 1 Binocular Cue 0 Binocular Retinal Disparity A depth cue based on the difference between the retinal images recieved by each eye 0 Stereopsis The process of figuring out depth based on retinal disparity 2 Monocular Cues 0 Linear Perspective As objects become more distant they decrease in size and appear closer together I Example Railroad tracks 0 Texture Gradient Progressive change in texture that signals distance D Perceptual Object Constancy 0 Size Constancy knowing the size remains the same 0 Shape Constancy Knowing the shape remains the same 0 Color Constancy Knowing the color remains the same E Perception Theories Nature Biological Versus Nurture Environmental 0 Empiricist Believes it is learned 0 Nativist Believes some type of knowledge is innate Inbom F Factors which In uence Perception 1 Culture and Environment 2 Differential Training 0 Our experience varies depending on perception 3 Perceptual Set readiness to perceive or respond in a certain way Expectancies