HSTA 101H 5-9 October Notes
HSTA 101H 5-9 October Notes HSTA 101H - 00
Popular in American History I
HSTA 101H - 00
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
HSTA 255 - 01
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTA 101H - 00 at University of Montana taught by Kyle G. Volk (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see American History I in History at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Revolutionary America 5 October 2015 o The American Revolution was the first time that New World Colonists fought to break from a European Empire 0 America was the first modern selfgoverning republic o Equality was a basis for sociopolitical order setting aside hereditary privileges of monarchyaristocracy 0 Creation of the American StateGovernmentEmpire constitution in 1787 as well as commercial might and westward expansion made the government more powerful o The turning point that sparked American Revolution was the French and Indian War 0 The war ends with the treaty of Paris Great Britain become the most powerful empire in the Old and New Worlds 0 British colonists were proud of the victory and cherished quotBritish Liberty I They felt as if they played a critical part in the war I Colonists celebrated British Constitution 0 British parliament was the quotprotector of liberties 0 quotNot merely as I am a colonist but as I am a Briton Benjamin Franklin 0 Transformations happened between 1763 and 1776 the ending of colonists love 0 The rebellion was not inevitable normal natural or necessary 0 The colonies changed to independent states and the British colonists became American citizens 0 Roots of the Revolution 0 Removal of the French from America left Britain and Colonies with no common enemy 0 Huge cost of war doubled Britain s debt taking up 60 of the imperial budget I 173 million pounds in debt at the end of the FrenchIndian War 0 Added costs of British Empire growing Mostly military I Parliament hoped the colonists would help pay hence the raised taxes 0 British recognition of illicit colonial trading ignoring British trade regulations I Smugglingcorruption 1733 Molasses Act I Grenville was the Prime Minister at the time tasked with reigning in the colonies o Enforced the navigation acts using the British Navy o Creates viceadmiralty courts which end jury trials that often ruled in favor of those evading trade regulations Eliminated jury nullification o The Molasses Act was enforced introduced a new Sugar Act of 1764 o Molasses and its significance to the American Colonies O Rum was the 1 mass marketed product in the colonies and 2 most important industry I 1 most important industry was shipping building ships Molasses was a byproduct of making sugar in the Caribbean I In 1770 Colonists imported 65 million gallons of this byproduct to make rum Colonists imported molasses from the French Caribbean not British simply because it was cheaper I British planters complained to Parliament for the lost business 0 Led to the 1733 Molasses Act tariff so high on French trading that it almost forced British trading 0 Colonists ignored the regulation and profited from it Sugar act of 1764 lowered the duty of molasses tariff hoping to lead the willing compliance of the colonists I Encouraged trade with the French and taxed it for the crown changing the regulationtax strategy I Colonists perceived this as a tax to raise revenue and were not happy I Significance This was the first time the parliament acted no just to regulate trade but to raise money 0 English Political theory was centered around parliament taxes and property 0 0 Parliament not the king had exclusive power to tax John Locke Property must not be taken from owners without consent I This was essential to British citizens Property was a source of personal independence life and liberty I Without it people could be starved into submission Colonists were not represented in Parliament had given no consent for taxation I Sugar act deprived colonists from their most essential British Rights I quotNo Taxation Without Representation I Violated the British constitution The Role of Ideas in the Revolution 7 October 2015 o Colonial sea ports Philadelphia New York City Boston were sites of revolutionary crowd actionradicalism o Mobs and protests ie tarring and feathering British Customs Officers 0 Patriots such as John Adams thought it was a little too much 0 Economic decline post 1764 Economic underpinnings of the revolution 0 Seaports filled with Atlantic working class I This is why quotrabblesquot were in the seaports 0 Post FrenchIndian War recession 0 Conditions worsen with colonial resistance to British policies I Nonimportation agreements colonists refused to import British goods 0 1775 Concord with Lexington first battles of the revolution 0 1774 Coercive Intolerable Acts closed the Boston harbor until people paid Britain back for the Tea Party I Also suspended popular government loyalists were appointed to office I Meant to make an example of the colony but galvanized colonial activity 0 Concord becomes the stockpile for wartime goods rice flower meat wheelbarrows guns cannons etc I 700 British soldiers sent to take down rebel leaders John Hancock Samuel Adams I Paul Revere quotThe British are coming I Shot heard around the world that no one claimed beginning of the war 0 Uncertainty in Concord leading up to the war 1770 hidden factors behind revolution 0 Concord settled in 1635 as a farming community founded by the Puritans o Socioeconomic order threatened as competition increased for access to land for farming raising foodstuffs cattle grazing I Absence of primogeniture fathers give all land to their first son I Colonists divide land among all sons causing decrease of farm size over generations 0 3rel generation farmers buy nearby land to ensure enough to give their sons 0 4th generation farmers have no more land to buy old farmlands are exhausted I No money to buy more land small inheritance due to the post French ndian War recession o Patriarchy male power in the household controlled children labor particularly sons I Men prided in ability to provide for children s future good inheritance of land or dowries when daughters got married I Providing these things were key to controlling children s labor I Declined weakened as a result of socioeconomic changes I Declined prospects led to daughters leaving the home earlier 0 Working as house maids or something else to make their own money 0 Married down in status rather than up ceasing elite growth I Sons left home much earlier no longer helping on farms 0 Joined the frontier looking for their own land Loyalists and Opponents of the Revolution 9 October 2015 0 Thomas Brown age 24 wealthy man that came to the colonies in 1774 o Settled in Augusta GA with intentions of making a plantation o Bought a 5600 acre estate then obtained more landlaborers through political influences o Intended to live in the quotBritish Colonies for the rest of his life quietly I Selfinterest made him loyal to the King and British Empire 0 August 1775 150 armed men demanded him to join to revolution he refused I One hit his head with butt of musket dragged him to town I Tied him to a tree tarred him set his feet on fire partially scalped him I After this he transformed from noncombatant to enemy of revolution 0 Lead the loyalist militia known as quotKing s Rangers 0 Complicating Revolution 0 Beyond the quotglorious case of liberty revolution ordeal and chaos messy I Major decision for people was rebellionradical or loyaltyconservative 0 Taxes socioeconomics coercion all important factors 0 Loyalists made up between 15 and 13 of all EuroAmerican Colonists I As many as 500000 white colonists were loyalists becoming the first minority in US History I Great Diversity geographic class ethnicity time of immigration to New World occupation social status religion 0 Beyond royal officials o Cosmopolitan UrbanDwellers and Backcountry Farmers alike I Jacob Bailey Anglican Minister born into Puritan family in MA 0 Educated at Harvard converted to Church of England 0 Breaking from king is like breaking from the church 0 Rebelling was treason and sacrilege o 1779 fled New England with family for Nova Scotia 0 Common practice for scared loyalists at the time I Loyalist Ideals 0 Security stability freedom within the British Empire 0 Feared economic decline threat of anarchyslavery 0 Dominant and normal position before 1775 before LexingtonConcord o In response to Intolerable Acts Continental Congress 1774 remains loyal to the Crown I quotUnion of Britain and the Colonies on a Constitutional Foundation toasted 0 Need for reform within empire not independence I Joseph Galloway quotPlan for Home Rule 1774 0 Appropriate representation in British parliament is impractical o Suggests colonial parliament 0 quotGrand Council with president general 0 Representatives from each colony 0 Power to run internal colonial affairs 0 Veto legislation from British Parliament bearing on colonies taxes 0 Maintains benefits of imperial trade and military protection 0 Avoids quotall the horrors of civil war and inevitable quotwin of America 0 5 states support 6 oppose the plan fails to pass congress 0 Future path of Canada 1867 passes this plan 0 Significance 0 Last attempt to preserve ties with Britain 0 Reveals loyalist thinking They wanted to reform not rebel After his plan fails he become superintendent of police in Philadelphia joined the British army o In 1778 returns to Britain for good I Post 1775 being a loyalist becomes increasingly dangerous Peer pressure and mob violenceassaults o Patriots were persecutors Many people joined revolution to escape mob persecution 0 Was it free choice In every colony public officials worked to repress loyalist ideasspeech 0 Contrast to US foundations in free speech Committees of safety and inspection Police were domestic enemy o Patrolled speech taxes militia service o If you opposed the revolution you were in trouble 0 Loyalty oaths Swear to the revolution or be punished Revolutionary State Governments 1776 o Treason acts aiding the British meant death or forfeiture of property 0 Banned speaking out against the revolution