Test 2: Week 2 - Anthro 150
Test 2: Week 2 - Anthro 150 Anthro 150
Popular in The Ancient World
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Pletzer on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro 150 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by J. Karsten in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see The Ancient World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer October 12 2015 o Peopling of the Americas 0 Route to the Americas I Beringia land bridge 0 Dry land from 60000 13000 years ago 0 Ice free corridor 40000 21000 years ago and after 14000 years ago 0 Theoretically how humans might ve populated the Americas I Might also have arrived via boat 0 Sail along coastal shoreline 0 Little evidence of earliest migrants I No discovered sites along supposed ice free corridor I Possible coastal sites now underwater I Sites 0 Monte Verde Chile 0 13000 years ago 0 Bogs e I Sphagnan moss I Releases sphagnan gas 0 Removes calcium from remains 0 Calcium is required by lysosomes for autolysis I Oxygen free environment I Highly preserves soft tissue and even fabrics 12 living structures animal hide walls Many wooden tools digging sticks wooden foundations etc Sling stones hunting Bola stones large stone ground into circle I Used to weight rope thrown at animals to wrap around and trip up or slow down I Used for hunting 0 42 species of edible plants I Including potatoes I Many ripened year round 0 nedible medicinal plants present 0 One round building I Paved floor gravel vs dirt I Separated from village I Some sort of ritual structure 0000 0 Possibly a menstruation house 0 Cactus Site Virginia 0 15000 years ago 0 Friedkin Site Texas 0 13200 15500 years ago Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer o Clovis 0 Wisconsin bog sites Southern Wisconsin 0 14500 years ago 0 Mastodon spears points 0 Olympic Peninsula Washington 0 13800 years ago 0 British Colombia 0 160ft below sea level 0 Topper Site South Carolina 0 50000 16000 years ago 0 Meadowcroft Rockshelter Pennsylvania 0 19000 16000 years ago 0 Paisley Caves Oregon 0 14250 years ago 0 Coprolite fossilized feces I Human sequenced DNA 0 Paleoindian Period I Late Pleistocene early Holocene periods I Unique for fluted stone spear points 0 Created through pressure flaking I 11000 9000 years ago I Clovis points 0 200 year duration 0 Followed by regional variations 0 Folsom point in Great Plains o Kennewick Man I Whole skeleton I 7500 BC I Stone projectile point embedded in hip 0 Sign of warfare in Paleoindian period I Diet of fish high levels of N15 I Lacks Native American features 0 European traits 0 Early European settlers 0 Highly unlikely probably just an abnormality 0 Los Angeles tar pits I Constantly being excavated 0 Very time consuming I Uncovered many Pleistocene megafauna 0 Dire wolves bison mammoths etc o Clues what Pleistocene peoples would ve likely hunted o Pleistocene Extinction Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer I 35 species 50 of land mammals extinct by end of epoch I Possible causes 0 Climate change 0 End of ice age warmer temperatures 0 Likely played a large role 0 Over hunting 0 Most likely main cause I Though other less hunted mammals and animals disappeared as well 0 PostPleistocene huntergatherers I Exploited a rich variety of plant and animal species I Mesolithic focusing mainly on European postPleistocene huntergatherers 0 10000 5500 BC I Archaic o 6000 1000 BC in North America 0 Followed by transition to agriculture 0 Some places such as peoples of California did not adopt agriculture until European contact 0 Postglacial European environment I 20 F warmer than Pleistocene I 25 F warmer in Holocene 0 Higher sea levels 0 Rose 400ft compared to 18000 years ago 0 North American east coast moved inland 60 miles 0 New fauna 0 Forest species I European elk moose I Auroch I European red deer elk I Roe deer I Wild boar 0 Change in vegetation o Vedbaek Denmark I Mesolithic period I Coast I Cemetery site 0 Sign of settlement 0 22 individuals 0 Most buried with grave goods 0 Red deer antlers with elderly ritual o Males buried with flint knives 0 Females often with shell jewelry I Remains of 60 species of animals from multiple environments mobile hunters Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer 0 European Mesolithic I Settlements typically along seashore I Zones of artifact deposition 0 Spatial segregation areas of settlement for specific tasks I Living area 0 Hearths pits store food construction materials few artifacts I Middens trash pits October 14 2015 o HunterGatherers o Vaenget Nord I Island Vaedbek I Hazelnut shells I Adzes projectile points burins o Adzes stone axe head I Spatial division of island for certain tasks 0 Past Diets Transition to agriculture I Transition from wild meats and plant varieties to more limited domesticated species 0 End of Paleolithic early Holocene I Impact 0 Social organization agriculture leads to more complex social organizations 0 Technology certain tools are needed to maintain domesticated plants 0 Grinding stones becomes much more common with the transition to agriculture 0 Groups size agriculture allows for larger groups 0 Residence pattern where couples live after marriage 0 Huntergatherers primarily patrilocal I Live with husband s family after marriage I Men responsible for hunting 0 Agriculturalists primarily matrilocal I Live with wife s family after marriage I Women responsible for majority of labor associated with agriculture 0 Transportation 0 Domesticated transportation animals horses 0 Sedentary lifestyle stationary villages less travel 0 Trade becomes more common to get resources that cannot be produced in immediate environment I Determining past diets Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer 0 Traditional approaches 0 Dental health cavities I Caused by increased sugar in diet I Grains and cereals 0 Bone chemistry 0 Uses carbon isotopes C13C12 0 C13 found in grasses sugar cane corn marine resources plants and animals I 6C13 0 Marine 613C levels of 18 to 10 o Vedbaek site 134 to 153 613C 0 Heavy reliance on marine resources in Mesolithic o Neolithic Denmark values decline sharply o Reliance shift back to nonmarine resources 0 Nitrogen isotopes 515N o Trophic level place in food chain I Drops 23 per trophic level I Terrestrial consumers land carnivores 610 I Marine consumers 1520 I Cultural Resource Management Careers in Anthropology o Serves important purpose 0 Industry formed after passing of 1970s Environmental Impact Survey law 0 Any construction done with federal money needs to undergo a series of checkpoints including archaeological survey 0 Important Site Carrier Mills Illinois 0 Dug prior to federal strip mining 0 Black earth site I 4000 1500 BC 0 Middle Archaic 4000 3000 BC I Near lakes rivers Shawnee hills I Covers 13 acres I 3 middens 0 Lots of sand 0 Ash fecal matter organic matter 0 57000 animal bones from 77 species 0 Mainly turtles bowfin deer turkey Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer O I Turtle shells used for cups and bowls Other raccoon opossum elk rabbit beaver 0 Hickory acorns hazelnuts walnut shells 0 Stone and bone tools I Cemetery 154 midArchaic burials o 21 infants 0 Life expectancy O O 0 Height 0 O O Males 32 Females 38 Males 5 6 Females 5 2 Height is directly related to health 0 Burial position 0 Half extended half flexed I Flexed quotfetalquot position 0 Grave goods 0 O 0 Both artifacts and ecofacts present 25 of burials contained grave goods Males sustenance tools knives arrowheads etc Females tools for processing raw materials ex Scrapers for cleaning hides Perforated marine shell with an infant I Likely from the Gulf of Mexico landlocked site I Evidence of trade Copper wedge placed above neck of headless skeleton A medicine bundle with a 43yearold man 0 999 of human history spent as huntergatherers Small egalitarian societies Organized kin family groups Ephemeral earned leadership Seasonal rounds different sites for different seasons Labor divides by sex quotoriginal affluent society generally healthy very little hard work 0001 of world population still huntergatherers Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer o The Process of Domestication 0 Origin of agriculture 10000 years ago 0 Domesticate I Strawberry I Almond 0 The wild ancestor was poisonous I Corn 0 From teosinte 0 Plant domestication growing a plant and changing it genetically in ways that make it more useful to humans I Selective breeding process that leads to and is a part of domestication I Modern genetically modified organisms selective breeding done more quickly through selective gene splicing 0 Ancient farmers I No model for plant domestication o How did they do it 0 Was it intentional o How could they have done it unintentionally o What makes some plants easier to domesticate than others 0 Plants and animals must spread offspring seeds I Adaptations for spreading seed 0 Carried by wind 0 Float on water 0 Animal transport 0 Fruit I Eaten 0 Seeds excreted elsewhere 0 Natural selection 0 Humans unconsciously pick plants to collect based on I Size bigger better more food I Taste 0 Seed 0 Fruit 0 Almond I Fleshiness seedlessness oily seeds fibers 0 Unconscious selection selects for certain nonvisible traits I Plants have mechanisms to scatter seeds humans select against those traits 0 Select for o Nonshattering rachis prevents seeds from scattering makes it easier to collect 0 Non popping pea pods Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer I Germination inhibitors naturally occur to prevent all seeds from growing immediately the following year favorable to continue genetic line even after a poor growing year 0 Tough glume outer covering of plantseed to prevent immediate germination 0 Selected against by humans I Plant reproduction o Selffertilization October 16 2015 o The Process of Domestication 0 Why are some plants so quotdomesticatablequot I Depends on the amount of genetic changes needed to become crops 0 Fewer needed changes easier I Wheat barley peas 10000 years ago I Fruit and nut trees much later not until 4000 BC o Grown from cuttings o Bananas changed so much that they can only be grown from clippings o Difficult because many take 3 years to produce I Classical Era saw the domestication of more difficult fruit trees 0 Why not oak trees acorns I Acorns used to be very important I Contain tannins poisonous I Very slow growth I Squirrels 0 Made selective breeding nearly impossible 0 Spread seeds of undesirable trees 0 Dug up planted seeds I Bitterness controlled by many genes polygenic 0 Extremely difficult to figure out exactly which genes 0 Bitterness in almond controlled by only one gene 0 Strawberries and raspberries I Not domesticated until classical era I Major challenge to domestication o Thrushes birds 0 Consumed and then spread seeds 0 Prevented selective breeding 0 Solution 0 Invention of nets to cover plants and deter birds 0 Anna Karenina Principle Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer I quotHappy families are all alike every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way 0 Domesticatable species have similar traits that allow them to be domesticated 0 Species that have not been domesticated each have unique traits or reasons that make them difficult or undesirable to domestication I Strongly applies to animal domestication 0 Only a very tiny percentage of the earth s animal species have been domesticated 0 Ex Zebras are very similar to horses physically 0 But lacks characteristics needed for domestication 0 Highly temperamental o Domesticating animals I Selectively bred in captivity and modified from a wild ancestor for human use I Human selection of most useful animals often leads to new species I Natural selection 0 Changing forces and selective pressures in human vs wild environments I Changes associated with domestication 0 Size 0 Auroch cow selected to be smaller more manageable 0 Guinea pig selected to be larger more meat 0 Hair 0 Sheep selected to keep hair rather than shed o Llama and Alpaca selected for better quality and longer hair 0 Milk 0 Cows goats and sheep selected to produce greater quantities of milk 0 Brains o Majority of domesticated animals selected for smaller brain size I To be more docile 0 Sense organs 0 Selected to be smaller again more docile o Horns 0 Selected to be very small or nonexistent I Taming animals 0 Not the same as domesticating 0 Does not involve genetic change 0 Training 0 Nearly any animal can become tame or trained I Bear zoo animals I Not domesticated 0 Ex Cheetah I Often tamed I Cannot be domesticated Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer 0 Will not breed in captivity o Ainu people Japan 0 Tame bears 0 Kill bears after they reach 1 year of age I Bears have never remained tame into adulthood I 148 species of large wild terrestrial herbivores 0 Only 14 domesticated 0 Anna Karenina Principle traits needed for successful domestication 0 Diet broad must be easy to feed I Generally herbivores Growth rate faster better Captive breeding must be able to breed in captivity Temperament docile Tendency to panic similar to temperament must be relatively calm o Herds must have a dominance hierarchy nonterritorial I In the most successful domestications humans have inserted themselves into the dominance hierarchy of the species being domesticated 0 Ex Dogs 0 Become alpha 0000 o Origins of Agriculture 0 Agriculture a way of obtaining food involving domesticated plants and animals 0 More than a subsistence change I Change in relationship with environment 0 Extensive vs Intensive exploitation 0 Extensive exploitation huntergatherers relies on a wide variety of species involves travel 0 Intensive exploitation agriculturalists reliance limited to a few domesticated species cultivate resources in a small manageable area 0 Requirements of success in agriculture I Propagation breed animalsplant seeds ensure reproduction I Husbandry prepare protect provide 0 Prepare land for propagation 0 Protect crops from destruction and livestock from predators 0 Provide water for crops and food for livestock I Harvestslaughter I Storagemaintenance 0 Store foodseeds for unproductive seasons and replanting 0 Store meat in the form of live animals I Cultivation prepare for planting of crops 0 Plow land Anthro 150 The Ancient World Lecture by Dr Jordan Karsten Notes by Elizabeth Petzer 0 Tracking change in domesticated plants I Examining charred seeds from archaeological sites I Root crops ie potatoes 0 Very little evidence 0 No hard parts to preserve 0 Some clues in bog sites and other sites where soft materials can be preserved 0 Animal domestication I Secondary products any products or benefits besides meat 0 Milk 0 Traction plowing o Horns hides 0 Transportation 0 Bird eggs 0 Importance of storage I Regulate food usage 0 Leads to culture change 0 Governments form for the purpose of regulating food distribution I Accumulate surplus o Creates free time o Allows for task specialization 0 Not everyone needs to farm hunt or gather anymore 0 Primary vs secondary centers of agricultural development I Primary where original domestication of a species occurred I Secondary places that adopted used of a species after it had been domesticated elsewhere I Primary centers domesticated 0 Southwest Asia goat wheat barley 0 East Asia chicken cattle pig rice 0 Africa oil palm 0 North America goose sunflower o Mesoamerica beans corn 0 South America llama alpaca 0 South Asia 0 New Guinea potatoes 0 Theories for Domestication I Oasis Hypothesis 0 Following Pleistocene increase in temperature and aridity 0 Only livable areas around oases life congregates there 0 Humans forced to domesticate in order to survive o Ideally applies to domestication around the globe