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Weekly Notes 10/19/2015

by: Alexis Harman

Weekly Notes 10/19/2015 SRST 200

Alexis Harman
GPA 3.67
History of Sports and Leisure in America
Mark Shriver

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About this Document

One week covering four chapters of notes!
History of Sports and Leisure in America
Mark Shriver
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Harman on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SRST 200 at George Mason University taught by Mark Shriver in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see History of Sports and Leisure in America in Physical Education at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 10/20/15
SRST 200 History of Sports and Leisure 10192015 New Standards for Old Sports 0 Puritans failing too harsh o Reestablishes the monarchy the catholic church the social activities of the time o Monarchs and the welltodo in England become patrons of sports 0 1 It divides a pleasant diversion for the masses 0 2 Provides an occasion to gamble Late 17th early 18th century 0 Modernization of Sports 0 Become more formalized and more structured 0 Organization of more sports teams 0 More governing bodies 0 Prearranged contests 0 Contests are publicized in the press 0 Location and so forth and then summary and recaps 0 Sports heros 0 Complete schedules listed 0 Recordkeeping 0 Entrepreneurship Without Puritans in control see 0 Local festivals and customs 0 Return of animal fights o Maypoles and dancing 0 Return of running races 0 Cotswald Games Modernization of Sports are due to one main reason GAMBLING o Became the need to present unfair advantage 0 Why laws and regulations were being established during this time King Charles 0 Avid bowler 0 Even more so he loved gambling o 1670 King Charles request that a formal set of rules are distinguished for gambling 0 not for fair play but to make betting odds more even 0 While he was banned from England stayed in Holland 0 Was exposed to other sports ice skating I Used to use ox horns but then metal became popular 0 Brought it back to England 0 Divided for masses and wealthy o For wealthy gambling was determined by style and grace o For masses gambling was determined by speed and competitive races 0 Big fan of water sports 0 Yachting boating etc 0 Horse racing 0 Built fine race track and brought in horses from around the world 0 Built the popularity of horse racing 0 Dies in 1685 William of Orange and Queen Anne follow King Charles 0 Nobles and wealthy are pursuing with passion Next King in Charge didn t care for horse racing 0 Horse racing handed down from nobility to the lessertodo o Becomes more accessible exposed to more people 0 Establish rules for betting odds more even Mid 18th century 0 Horse racing courses develop own racing rules 0 1750 creation of the Jockey Club 0 Created in London England 0 Owners and breeders all rich 0 Establishes several things for horse racing I Rules of behavior and dress for the jockeys I Appoint judges I Higher starters I Clerks and racing officials I Create and list penalties for cheating or not following rules 0 Brings order and reading to horse racing in their own best interest to do so 0 1770 first horse racing calendar was published news and events of horse racing as well as schedule 0 Other sports as well start to see the formalization 0 Boxing Jack Broughton I Separating boxing from wrestling or swordfighting I Father of Scientific Boxing I Introduces first set of written rules for boxing I Rules he creates o Forbid hitting below the belt especially when down 0 Banned any wrestling holds below waist o Broke up the bout into rounds opponent was off ring or stage or knocked out 0 He also provided 30 seconds if someone was knocked out of the game I Never a time limit on the round or number of rounds unlike boxing today I Governed boxing for over 100 years I Since Broughton only two times changed I We now fight under Queensberry rules 0 Cricket I Peasant game in 17th century begins to attract welltodo I Event for high stakes gambling for masses and wealthy I In 1787 creation of MCC Marylebone Cricket Club created in London I By the end of the 18th century only game that is played by wealthy and masses I Played all over the entire country only sport everyone was familiar with extremely popular I Rules and customs established in this time I 1754 royal and ancient golf club at St Andrew s Scotland introduces a set of 13 rules for golf I 1764 St Andrew s creates a standard number of holes for a round of golf 18 o Odd s fairer larger wages Puritans failing in America gambling back on the rise 0 Sports in America become governed by gambling besides boxing Rules for boxing were for humane reasons People going into New York came from Netherlands a lot of Pastimes carried with them 0 Nine pin bowling o Boa ng 0 Ice skating o Sledding 0 Virginia and Carolinas settlers from Scotts and Irish 0 Foot races 0 Crudgling matches dueing swords 0 Wrestling contests Coastal region of America Wealthier 0 Horse racing Sport develops in America in a pattern 1 Climate urban or rural environment 2 Tradition determined by people who settled in those regions their customs 3 Religion New England puritans Virginia was different Religion determined different pastimes and sports 4 Landscape terrain is different everywhere determines what games are to be played amp weather 17th 18th century in America gambling extremely popular Virginia no exception 0 Wealthy could bet large sums of money on the drop of a hat 0 What they would bet on 0 Card games o Dice o Backgammon 0 Quarter horses 0 Ruling Gentry in Virginia are brought together by two reasons 0 Present a united front to the governors of England 0 Shifting composition in the workforce whiteindentured servants changing to African Americans 0 Gambling was one of the only ways they could get together to socialize o 3 elements of the welltodo culture were exhibited in this type of gambling I 1 Individualism great planters required large tracts of land 9 led to Isolationism didn t always have a chance to see neighbors very routine structured lives I most plantation owners thought it was their natural right to give orders and no one can stop them I 2 Competitivenessextremely competitive thought personal honor was at stake fear of slipping back down into common ranks I 3 Materialism determined social standing by what you owned not just size of plantation but number of slaves you owned how many buildings you had quality of your clothes all to show that you were better than others 0 Owning a horse had two specific cultural factors 0 Social necessity needed help for planting and as a means for transportation 0 Viewed as an extension of its owner a man was only as good as his horse 0 Horsemanship skills had to be better than common planter o Quarterhorse was the favorite event for the wealthy to bet on 0 Only a quartermile 0 Most owners owned and raced their own horse 0 2 ways to set up wager I 1 Regular set up race established ahead of time Saturday afternoon I 2 Spontaneous wager o 2 types of bets I 1 Main bet contestants themselves I 2 Side bet everybody else betting Legal proceedings happened bring enough people with you to be fair Several people as witnesses judges someone to hold prize money or bet Participating in these races distinguished you from the masses Only raced the people in your standing so it was fair Anyone below your standing expected to win if you lost huge upset seen as slipping among the common planters when lost lost almost everything OOOOO Chapter 8 Influence of the Industrial Revolution mid 1700 s 0 Birth of Mass Leisure 0 1 Alters landscape 0 New kind of citizen factory worker 0 New kind of society urban society 0 Because of rapid growth due to jobs needed to provide Sanitation New housing Law enforcement Increase government Food supply 0 Factories cities etc 00000 0 no one thinks of leaving any free space 0 New forms of recreation o In 19th century gymnastics becomes important sport I Moving balancing climbing vaulting 0 Age of Enlightenment people challenge faith 0 Improve them through science People look into the human body and movement Introduction in anatomy and physiology Health and human motion Key figure Johann Friedrich GutsMuth I Teacher and educator in Germany I Grandfather of Modern Physical Education I Creates german gymnastics I 1800 puts out a book Gymnastics for Youth 0 Guide for healthy exercise and activities for kids In school 0000 0 Should be doing running vaulting jumping and balancing o Creates rope ladders hanging ladders wooden saw horses 0 Per Henrik Ling Swedish I Swedish gymnastics thought Johann s were too cumbersome I Thought they needed to be freeflowing to remove stiffness and awkwardness in individuals I Thought Gymnastics produce medical benefits I Becomes incorporated into military units group following command of instructor I Creates Royal Gymnastics Central Institute in Stockholm Sweden in 1813 I Calisthetics gross motor movements without weights rhythmic 0 Frederick Ludwig Jahn I Father of German Gymnastics I Believed future of Germany is in it s youth I German education only focused on academically but nothing physically I Climbing bars poles ladders and ropes I Calls his place of exercise Turnplatz grow significantly I No differentiation in clothing couldn t tell if someone was rich or poor 0 Reinvention of Highland Games because of increase in nationalism 0 Pole vaulting stone or shutput tug of war jumping contests cable toss Industrial Revolution IR and the Effects on England Expansion people moving from rural to cities due to jobs Loss of identity 4 ways IR Leads to the demise of public sports 0 1 No open spaces for people to enjoy no parks 0 2 Lack of free time 6 days a week 1214 hours a day 0 3 Public sports on Sunday in England were still outlawed o 4 Attitude of the ruling class did not like people playing sports and pasttimes Evangelical movement happening during IR 0 Do not promote sports because of gambling sexual issues etc Due to length of cricket working class wouldn t be a spectator because of so little free time However working class loved boxing and wrestling 0 Animal sports are being forbidden by law 0 Boxing and wrestling matches were illegal in city limits so went outside 0 Used railway lines to get to and from games Lycum Movement selfimprovement Cities and towns supported things like lectures on art books and science Put on by the masses not what the masses wanted 0 Would enjoy an amusement park dance hall circuses etc 6 popular spectator sports 0 Horse racing Trotting races don t need a fast horse so many people could be involved Pedestrian races Yachting became popular in the press Rowing races free enjoy the outdoors 0 Boxing Most popular participant sports 0 10 pin bowling o Billiards 0 Football always associated with common person almost dies because of IR I Due to no formal rules of what version is playing where I Not many open fields to play on I Becomes popular in colleges and universities I Elite private schools are adapting football into their schools COO 0000


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