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Week of Oct 12

by: Sydney Miller

Week of Oct 12 ANTH 161 001

Sydney Miller
Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Dr. De La Cova

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Week of October 12-16 plus this weeks notes!
Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Dr. De La Cova
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Miller on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 161 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. De La Cova in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 10/20/15
161 ANTHROPOLOGY Oct 13 2015 10192015 Social Species Most nonhuman primates are in some way or another that live in Group the center of Louis Leakey Jane Goodall founded study o Flo was rst to make contact Research provided important inside into Diane Fossey 0 known today as the research provided important insights into gorilla Mercurial personality o Buried next to her beloved Digit amp other gorillas at Karisoke Efforts resulted in the Birute Galdikas Started eld work in 1971 establishing Research has informed our knowledge about 0 Strong supporter of conservation Primate Endangerment Gorillas are Thursday October 15th 2015 Primate Behavior Key social behaviors we will discuss Primates display a wide range of Gibbons amp Siamangs Lesser Apes Monogamous o Raise offspring together 0 Lifelong pair 0 no body change between male amp female 39 60 of their diet is fruit 30 is leaves mom dad 3 dependents Territorial 0 Very boring sex life 0 Estrus 5 months25 years 0 5 copulations a month Orangutans Pongo pygmaeus o no adult interatction o 90 of their time alone common social group females live in in the but no bonding 0 alpha males protect it 35 females 0 2 types of males 0 alpha males well de ned expanded cheeks that puff out huge throat sac extremely large no large cheek pads or throat sac more mobile evolutionary adaptation Gorillas Gorilla gorilla Largest primate 325 lbs m 175 lbs f Alpha male 0 Not territorial roam Female transfer 0 Sometimes a follower male don t like outsiders 0 females groom males amp infants never each other 0 females follow amp approach males more than males approaching females 0 protection Chimpanzees 98 similar to humans 0 all members are not together at 1 point in time smaller groups 0 female amp offspring 0 male will always be dominant to female 0 slight dimorphism 0 Highest ranking male 0 Very violent with interactions every hour Diet similar to our own ripe fruit supplemented One offspring every 5 years min 13 years Very Tuesday October 20 2015 Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes nitiay only humans were thought to use amp create tools 39 Chimps construct removing the leaves amp creating a tool exible amp thin enough that it passes through a termite nest amp catch terminal Bonobos Pan poniscus quotpygmy chimpquot Female bonded but males have status too 0 Not as aggressive as common chimps Don t use tools as much but potential for language capabilities Suggested that they use bipedalism more 0 Sue SavageRumbaugh amp Kanzi o Taught him language Apes amp Language Similarities amp Differences ApeHuman Savannah Baboons Papio cynaphalus female bonded multimale amp female 0 Africa amp Southernmost Arabia 0 40 members 8 to 200 Female form o Aid in agnostic interactions 0 Higher reproduction success 0 Parenting differs 0 Rank is inherited Males in ltrate female dominance hierarchy amp achieve status 0 Males have hierarchythreaten with eye ashes amp yawns o Kidnap child until he gets what he wants Hamadryas Baboons Papio hamadryas Ethiopia Saudi Arabia 0 Can interbreed with other species of baboon o 1 male to 25 females 0 females groom male but not other females 0 females not related 0 take young from amp raise then mate with them 0 female passive have to be 0 males insecure constant vigilance over females control over females Fossils comprise of evolutionary study Center around Placement of fossils allows a better understanding of Placement of fossils allows us to understand factors that shaped evolution FossHs Remains of organisms that have been wholly or partially transformed into rock through long processes of chemical replacement 0 leads to fossilization but doesn t guarantee fossilization Fossils found in Naracoorte Caves South Australia Sediment ex 0 To become a fossil bones must become buried lst soon after death 0 Same factors that can bury bone also works to unearth it amp in some instances transport it Hominid footprint from Laetoli Tanzania 37 million years volcanic ashes Sometimes all were left with Ta phonomy generates information that can be used to understand the fossil record 0 Sequence of disarticulation is 1st removal of limbs than break up of trunk amp removal of skull F Not only do we want to reconstruct our family tree phylogeny we also want to know when important adaptive shifts occurred chronological relationships To do this we need to be able to date our fossils amp know how they formed Geological Time Paleontologist order the evolution of major life forms in o All divided by epoch overh years Useful Dates Cenozoic era 65 mya quotAge of Mammalsquot Paleocene Epoch 66 mya Eocene Epoch 55 mya Primate evolution 1st begins Oligocene Epoch 34 mya period of major primate evolution Miocene Epoch 24 mya period of major primate evolution Pliocene Epoch 5 mya Pleistocene Epoch 2 mya Holocene Epoch 10000 years ago


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