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Weekly Notes (Oct. 19, 21 and 23)

by: Elizabeth Valente

Weekly Notes (Oct. 19, 21 and 23) BSC 2023

Marketplace > Florida International University > BSC 2023 > Weekly Notes Oct 19 21 and 23
Elizabeth Valente
Human Biology
Paul Sharp

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About this Document

Human Biology
Paul Sharp
Class Notes
Digestive System, Skeletal System, Human Biology, FIU
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Valente on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views.


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Date Created: 10/20/15
Digestive and Skeletal System Weekly Notes Oct 19 21 and 23 Digestive System Continues Trypsin Small intestine Pepsin Stomach Plants store glucose as starch Type 1 Diabetes Pancreas does not produce insulin or amounts of insulin Typically before 15 Type 2 Diabetes Pancreas does not make enough insulin or body s cells are insulin resistant Typically after 40 Liver Large dark red internal organ with the following functions 0 Detoxifies blood hepatic portal vein brings blood to liver from GI tract capillaries 0 Stores glucose as glycogen iron vitamins A D E K and 312 Produces plasma protein and urea Produces bile stored in the gallbladder to emulsify fats Regulates cholesterol Urea Primary nitrogenous waste derived from amino acid breakdown in liver Jaundice Yellowish tint to the skin caused by abnormal bilirubin bile pigment in blood indicating liver malfunction Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver often caused by hepatitis B virus Cirrhosis Chronic irreversible injury to liver tissue caused by alcohol consumption hepatitis Large Intestine Last major portion of the digestive tract extending from the small intestine to the anus and consisting of cecum colon rectum and anal canaL 0 Approx 5 feet long 0 Function is to absorb water 0 Does not absorb nutrients 0 Can absorb vitamin K and B complex vitamins Cecum The blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine has vermiform appendix Vermiform Appendix Small tubular appendage that extends out from the cecum Aids in fighting infections Colon The major portion of the large intestine consisting of the ascending colon transverse colon descending colon and sigmoid colon Rectum Terminal end of the digestive tube last 20 cm of large intestine stores feces Anus Outlet of the digestive tract where defecation occurs Skeletal System System of protection and support Is composed of bones cartilages joints and ligaments Starts forming at about 6 weeks embryo about 12mm long 206 named bones of the skeletal system Makes up 20 of body weight FuncUons 1 Supports the body 2 Protects soft body parts Produces blood cells Stores minerals and fats Permits flexible body movement along with the muscles 91 Axial Skeleton Forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull vertebral column and the rib cage Appendicular Skeleton Arms and legs Consists of bones of the upper and lower limbs and their girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton Cartilage White flexible semiopaque connective tissue Chondrocytes are the mature cell form of cartilage Has no nerves or blood vessels well suited for padding joints Ligament Band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone Contains cells called fibroblasts Tendon Cord of fibrous tissue attaching muscle to bone Contains cells called fibroblasts Chemical Composition of Bone Bone has both organic and inorganic components Every week we recycle 5 to 7 of our bone mass 0 Ex 200 lb person 40 lb bone 2b recycle bone per week A Organic Components Include osteoblasts osteoctyes and osteoclasts Bones are composed of living tissues B Inorganic Components Consists of hydroxyapatites mineral salts Largely composed of calcium phosphate Ossification Process of bone formation Osteoblasts Boneforming cells Secretes the organic matrix of bone mucopolysaccharides amp collagen fibrils Promote the deposition of calcium salts into the matrix Osteoctyes Mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts They maintain the structure of the bone Osteoclasts Large cells that reabsorb or break down bone matrix Assist in returning calcium and phosphate to the blood Structure of a Long Bone Diaphysis Elongated shaft of a long bone Medullary Cavity Marrow cavity Cavity inside shaft of long bone Walls composed of compact bone Filled with yellow bone marrow which stores fat Epiphysis The end of a long bone attached to the shaft Composed largely of spongy bone Contains red bone marrow and produces all types of blood cells Coated with articular cartilage Periosteum Fibrous connective tissue covering of long bone Contains blood vessels lymphatic vessels and nerves Compact Bone Highly organized and composed of tubular units called osteons Within osteons osteocytes mature bone cells occupy small cavities lacunae Canaliculi connect lacunae to one another and to central canal contains small blood vessels and nerve fibers Spongy Bone Has an unorganized appearance compared to compact bone Composed of numerous struts or thin plates trabeculae separated by uneven spaces Spaces are often filled with red bone marrow Intramembranous Ossification Flat bones that develop between sheets of embryotic fibrous connective tissue Ex skull clavicles and mandible Skeletal Muscular System 3 types 1 Smooth Muscle Consisting of spindleshaped nonstriated muscle cells Located in the walls of hollow internal organs and blood vessels Has single nucleus in cell Involuntary muscle slow to react does not fatigue easily 2 Cardiac Muscle Specialized muscle of the heart striated ha 1 or 2 nuclei per cell Cardiac cells interlock and intercalated disks Involuntary muscle 3 Skeletal Muscle Composed of cylindrical multinucleate cells with obvious striations Consists of muscles attached to the body s skeleton Voluntary muscle FuncUons 0 Support 0 Movement of bones and other body structures 0 Maintenance of body temperature 0 Movement of fluids in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems 0 Protection of internal organs and the stabilization ofjoints o Muscles pad the bones o Muscular wall in abdominal region protect internal organs 0 Muscles tendons help hold bones together at joints Muscles Work In Pairs 0 Each muscle is concerned with the movement of only 1 bone 0 When muscles contract they shorten muscles ONLY can PULL not push Origin The end of a muscle attached to stationary bone Insertion The end of a muscle attached to a movable bone When muscle contracts it pulls on tendons at its insertion and the bone moves Nervous system stimulates and appropriate group of muscles Ex prime mover and synergists Antagonist The muscle that acts opposite to the prime mover Sarcolemma Plasma membrane of a muscle fiber forms the tubules T system Encases hundreds to thousands of myofibrils T Transverse Tubules Membranous channel that extends inward toward sarcoplasmic reticulum Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells Surrounds myofibrils and stores calcium ions Myofibril Rodlike bundle of contractile filaments found in muscle cells Skeletal Muscle A bundle of fascicles Fascicle A bundle of muscle fibers surrounded by connective tissue Muscle Fiber Myofiber Muscle cells Myofibrils Contractile portion of muscle fiber cells that contains a linear arrangement of sarcomeres Run the entire length of muscle fiber Composed of even smaller myofilaments Myofilament Two types Actin and Myosin Myosin One of the principal contractile proteins of muscle Makes up THICK filaments in myofibrils Actin One of the principal contractile proteins of muscle Makes up THIN filaments in myofibrils Sarcomeres The smallest contractile unit of muscle arranged linearly within myofibril extends from one Z line to the next Sliding Filament Model An explanation for muscle contraction based on the movement of actin filaments in relation to myosin filaments 102615 915 AM 102615 915 AM


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