HIST 1010, Week 8 Lecture Notes
HIST 1010, Week 8 Lecture Notes Hist 1010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Robison on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Melissa Blair in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 8 October 6 2015 Emergence of Islam and the Islamic Golden Age 610c900 CE I Origins of the Faith Mohammed and the Revelation of the Qur an II The Development of the Islamic Empire a Community and Growth from the Hijra through the First Four Caliphs b Sunni and Shiite III The Islamic Golden Age Art Philosophy Science Today s Questions 0 v What was the relationship between politics and religion as the Muslim empire is growing How does that relationship evolve once the empire has been established Origins of the Faith Mohammed and the Revelation of the Qur an o No one knows when precisely Muhammed was born but around 570 CE 0 Born in Mecca o Orphaned at a very young age raised by a variety of relatives 0 Married a widow at a young age and became a businessman o Polygamy was common in Mecca but he only had that wife while she was alive 0 In the year 610 he has a spiritual crisis and goes out into the desert on a spiritual retreat 0 Some sources say that he was visited by the angel Gabriel 0 Others say that disembodied voice of God spoke to him 0 He came back to Mecca saying that God had spoken to him and was now speaking through him 0 Called by God to preach a new monotheistic faith I There is only one God and that it was the duty of all who believed to submit to God s will Central Teachings of Mohammed o Monotheistic there is only one God and he is universal and over all things Mohammed taught that the God whose message he was conveying was the same god that Christians and Jews spoke of 0 He was not stating that the God he is speaking of is the only true God and that others are fake and wrong he is saying that there is ONLY God and he is universal and over anything 0 Taught that his preaching was God speaking through him not all the time but his preaching I Sharing God s revelations I After he died the revelations were gathered down and written together into the Qur an o Mohammed was quotthe messenger of God Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week8 o The duty of believers is to submit to God and do his will which included giving up bad behaviors of various kinds and caring for the less fortunate within your community 0 God s will as Mohammed is preaching it consisted of two main parts I Abandon all kinds of bad behavior 0 Drinking gambling visiting prostitutes I INSTEAD commit oneself to helping others and worshipping God 0 See similarities here with other universal faiths in terms of how accessible this is to anyone and everyone who may be interested in it 0 Big emphasis on taking care of everyone in the community and those less fortunate o All three faiths are very open to everyone do not care about wealth status etc I Early followers of Mohammed thought of themselves as a community 0 Becomes central to the faith and its political and territorial aspects 0 Teachings of Mohammed which he received from God were written down and unified after his death to form the Qur an The Development of the Islamic Empire 0 At first Mohammed was just a preacher in Mecca but he was attracting followers daily 0 Threatening the leaders of Mecca I Mecca was a site for a lot of visitors of polytheistic faiths 0 Home to lots of bars brothels etc o Threatened the economy I Leaders plot to assassinate Mohammed 0 He finds out and he and his followers flee Mecca and move to Medina o Referred to as the Hijra Creation ofa Muslim Political Entity o Mohammed and his followers are chased out of Mecca and go to Medina This is the Qijra a central turning point in Muslim history 0 Muslim calendar treats the hijra the same as Catholics treat the birth ofJesus o The moment when Mohammed goes from being one preacher among many to being the leader of a community 0 After the hijra Mohammed is the leader not only of a faith but also a political entity a community known as the m 0 His followers are aware that they are a cohesive unit 0 Mohammed is put in charge of the entire city I Like the Israelites look to Moses 0 Tries to create a righteous community the umma 0 Rules of living within the umma are fairly simple obey God and help others in the community 0 Eventually these practices for living in the community will get more detailed and formalized into the Five Pillars after Mohammed s death The Five Pillars Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week8 o Adhere to and repeat the phrase that there is no God but God and Mohammed was his Messenger 0 Pray five times a day facing Mecca 0 Fast during Ramadan 0 Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your life 0 Pay aims in the form of taxes which will be used to help the poor of the community The Five Pillars 0 Outline a very active kind of faith 0 Because of this close connection after Mohammed dies the first four Caliphs take over 0 The whole world is divided into two camps Key Concepts of the First Four Caliphs reigned 632661 CE 0 The world is divided into two realms dar aIIslam the world of Islam or peace and dar al harb the world of warfare or chaos o Dar al harb the world that is not dar al Islam o Jihad is the struggle to maintain and protect the dar al Islam the world of Islam But to early Muslims that word did not mean warfare To them it meant struggle to maintain and grow a just righteous and holy project 0 Jihad does not mean warfare but struggle to eventually grow the dar al Islam I In practice maintenance of the dar al Islam did involve warfare 0 Important to note that not everyone living in the dar alIslam was required to convert it was an empire that allowed diversity of religious practice The Development of the Islam Empire 0 Growing the territory is important in carrying out the Five Pillars especially paying taxes to provide for poor Muslims 0 You have to have power and be a political entity in order to effectively collect taxes 0 Argued that expansion is ethical and just because of the Five Pillars 0 During the reign of the second Caliph legal scholars start coming up with rules about women s role in society drawing from the Qur an 0 Since there was nothing in the Qur an one had to think about what Mohammed would ve done 0 Women are temptresses and a source of problems in society 0 Islamic scholars said that female sexuality is particularly dangerous and that men could be easily led astray restrictions I Men and women could not pray together I Stricter punishments for women than men in sexual crimes 0 Education was however required for boys and girls women could still do things etc 0 Not everyone is happy with the umma o Sunni vs Shiite 0 When Mohammed dies there s a debate about who should be his successor Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week8 I Many believed it should ve been Ali his grandson he becomes the fourth Caliph before he is assassinated Shiites A Dissenting Group 0 90 of Muslims 0 Believe that Ali Mohammed s grandson should have been his successor the word Shiite simply means quotpartisanquot and comes from the fact that they were Ali s partisans in the succession fights 0 During Umayyad dynasty evolves into a belief that Ali and others inherited Baraka from Mohammed which gave them access to higher spirituality although it did NOT make them gods 0 Evolves from purely political to theological o Believed that only one person on earth at any given time has Baraka and that person is the imam or spiritual leader The Islamic Golden Age 0 During the reigns of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties Muslim scholars 0 Saved and translated many ancient Greek texts including Aristotle Plato and Euclid I Danger of losing Ancient Greek stuff before they saved them 0 Finalized a decimalplace numeral system and began to develop the field of algebra I ALL modern mathematics builds on what these men were doing 0 Refined and corrected older understanding of the cardiovascular and nervous systems of the body 0 And much much more I Art and architecture Terms and WrapUp o Dar aIIslam jihad Five Pillars Islamic Golden Age 0 What was the relationship between politics and religion as the Muslim empire is growing How does that relationship evolve once the empire has been established October 8 2015 Please note that Dr Blair was out this day Her GTA taught the class so definitely supplement today s notes with the book Medieval European Society I Feudalism a Invasions Need for local and rapid defense Early Foundations nfeudation Social Implications DPPPquot Feudalism Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week8 0 Not just a form of government 0 Very little central authority in Europe 0 Intensely local and intensely provincial o What led Europe into Feudalism o Invasions I Magyars o Pushed west from Asia on horseback 0 Made people pay tribute if they didn t want to die 0 Compared to Huns o Settled down in Hungary and became Christians I Moors o Took over Spain Sicily mainland of Italy although they never conquer it o Inspired terror I Vikings 0 Came from the north 0 Eventually moved into west France 0 Pagans from Norway Sweden Scandinavia etc o Attacks go on for years and years spread out over a large area 0 Unpredictable 0 Gave an apocalyptic vibe to Europeans 0 Key to success was speed in attacks 0 Need for local and rapid defense I Germany France Italy were in a time of uncertainty chaos I In response a way to organize governments and militaries was necessary for peace 0 German people loved to fight 0 Wars were physically intimidating and large 0 Killing was a pasttime 0 Early Foundations I Comitatus o Comitatus is the basic origin of feudalism in Europe 0 Barbarians had measures in place to reduce personal violence 0 Infeudation I Europe is under constant threat so aristocratic families took responsibility for defense to increase their power 0 People turn to nobles 0 Ned the allegiance of warriors I Lord and Vassal Fief o Vassal means servant o In return for support Lord promises Vassal protection and support Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week8 0 Living in the lord s house but more often than not becomes owner to a small piece of land I Vassal only has use of the land but he gets the right to the labor of the peasants that work there 0 Social Implications I Feudalism creates a taxexempt class of warrior elites I Also creates an elaborate social hierarchy o Everyone s position determined by military I Things are often handled privately Medieval Society II Manoralism a The Manor b Serfs III Towns a Improvements in Agriculture b Revival of Trade c Development of Towns d Guild System e Status of Townspeople Manoralism o The Manor 0 Threefield system I Summerspring crops 0 Barley beans etc I Autumnwinter crops 0 Wheat rye etc o If there is a surplus you could sell these 0 Cats etc to feed livestock I Fallow resting soil 0 To help preserve fertility of the land 0 Selfcontained communities I Church pastor s house etc o Serfs 0 Legal status I Over time free farmers will surrender themselves and their land to the nobles for protection 0 They get the land back to farm but become legally tied to the land at least in theory and they become serfs the nobles personal labor force 0 Need permission to get married leave the property etc o Serfs could be beat with no repercussions 0 Unlike slaves serfs did have rights Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week8 I Did not have to serve in the army I Given a plot of land to plot on their own 0 Their lives I Revolve around field family and church I Men tend the herds I Women however are indispensable childbearing so they make the bread and the clothes and work in the church I They eat dark bread vegetables carrots cabbage sometimes egg or cheese and beer and wine water is nasty I Lived in wood huts with one room and a dirt floor I No education 0 Overwhelmineg vast majority of Europe could not read I Their whole lives were local and they had no sense of the world outside of their manor Towns o Towns were big inviting targets for barbarian invasion 0 Disrupts agricultural I During the late Roman period there is no surplus I Cities also dies with agriculture 0 By the end of the medieval period the threefield system begins to produce a surplus and towns begin to grow again 0 Improvements in Agriculture 0 As things stabilize agriculture improves o Revival of Trade 0 With the retreat to the manor and the constant threat of violence roads fall into disrepair and it was not safe to travel and trade 0 But as things stabilize trade will improve I Hecklers banditry 0 Still very risky 0 Development of Towns o Burg I quota place with a wal 0 Most medieval towns are actually walled o Founded for trading purposes primarily I Defensive position in a very chaotic landscape I Not developed to deal with sanitation 0 Waste in the streets right in front of the house I o Smell was awful I Cities will earn political independence 0 Guild System 0 Run the cities Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week8 0 You had to be a member of the guild to legally trade in the city I Legal monopolies o Benefitsto guilds I Pool resources 0 Minimize risk 0 Control economies 0 Status ofTownspeople o Towns require political liberty from the nobles 0 Over time townspeople will become free of all their labor to nobles
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