HIST 1010, Week 9 Lecture Notes
HIST 1010, Week 9 Lecture Notes Hist 1010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Robison on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Melissa Blair in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week9 October 13 2015 I China Tang through Song a The Tang Dynasty 618907 CE b The Song Dynasty 9601279 CE II Political Structures of the Islamic Golden Age c 9001250 III Impact of Mongol Invasions Today s Questions 0 What are the similarities and contrasts between the Tang and Song dynasties How did the Mongol invasion affect both Song China and the cultural sphere of the Islamic world China Tang through Shang 0 From the third to seventh century China is very divided politically a long stretch of time o A continuing threat of invasion by nomads north of China s border creates a lot of instability for a lot of the population 0 What finally leads to an end of division is the flooding and redirection of the Yellow River leads to the Rise of the Tang Dynasty I Flows through both the population and agricultural center of China I Most densely populated and most agriculturally important parts of China I HUGE deal when it floods I The Tang march to the ancient capital Chang an claim the Mandate of Heaven and take over the dynasty o The Tang Dynasty 0 They revive a lot of the same things that the Han did I Structured bureaucratic government that the Han implemented 0 The people who work in that bureaucracy are expected to have that classical Confucian education to have a civil service job I Education from either home or from a Buddhist monastery school I At the schools students are exposed to some Buddhist spiritual beliefs but that s not the main focus of these schools they re there to provide Confucian education 0 Expands access to education to more students because monks didn t charge high tuition 0 Once you completed your classical education you sat through your civil service exams I Tests that you would take to get a job in the government I Provided a formal and objective way to determine who knew the material the best and who should get a job in the bureaucracy o Scales are still tipped toward noble families in the beginning 0 With the passing of time you stop seeing so much of that and meritocracy is more important Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 9 I Historians say that the Tang Dynasty was weakening the power of the ancient noble families because if they did not have access to government jobs they could not destabilize China from within 0 In the past downfalls of China the old ancient families have been the ones to revolt and try to gain power I Opens up the social hierarchy a bit but by the end of the Tang period the civil service exams have replaced landowning criteria for being elite o If you didn t have family in the bureaucracy you were not elite o quotThe main criterion for family importance 0 Tang Bureaucracy o Revive and expand bureaucratic structure used by the Han o Developed civil service exams to determine who gets bureaucratic jobs exams based on knowledge of Confucian classics and Chinese history 0 Allowed upward mobility but also eventually developed into its own hierarchy in which having a civil servant in the family made a family important 0 The Tang pair a very developed bureaucracy with a very large military to help maintain a large control of land 0 Army had a towtier system of elites being cavalry and peasants being foot soldiers I Peasant soldiers defend border or work on public works projects for the government etc I Helps to facilitate the economic growth of the Tang 0 One of the reasons why they re growing so much is to gain control over the Silk Road 0 Economy is growing with trade and agricultural explosion new kinds of rice coming in from India and Vietnam I Shorter growing season I Individual plants are more productive 0 As a result of international trade and agricultural explosion the population soars through the roof it was big I Also facilitated by the public service projects done by soldiers o The Tang Dynasty at its Peak c 775 0 Governing a large territory using a twopronged approach of a strong military and a welldeveloped civil service 0 Booming economy both in terms of export and agricultural production which leads to population growth 0 Tolerant of many religions in first half of dynasty with most emperors giving some state support to Buddhism but in 8005 as the dynasty weakens they undertake Lti Buddhist campaigns to eliminate the power of Buddhist monasteries I Buddhism is never the official religions of China even when they are giving monetary support people were able to believe what they wanted to I The Tang argue that the reason the dynasty is starting to fall is because the Buddhist monasteries were undermining the government and traditional Chinese culture by promoting a faith that was not rooted in Confucian teaching Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week9 I They start seizing the land from the monasteries and forcing monks back into civilian life 0 Scholars argue that what is holding China together is this cultural commonality based on Confucianism and the emperors understand that and want to destroy any threat to that 0 However the Buddhist monks had no interest in governing China 0 What happens by the end of the Tang period is that only the government has any power I As their power starts to slip they try to consolidate it more and more 0 Tang Dynasty falls apart anyway I The lack of central authority doesn t last very long however 0 The Song Dynasty 0 The Song Era 9601279 0 Scholars refer to this time as quotChina s greatest age 0 Build on Tang bureaucratic structure and expand civil service exams even farther I The only way that you can get a job in the bureaucracy is exclusively your score on test 0 Continue a strong economy with trade flowing both on the Silk Road and over the oceans through new port towns like Quanzhou just know where this place is on a map for exam I Trade across the oceans really opens up around 1000 I One of the main imports was spices and other food stuff cinnamon is really prized among Chinese elite I One of the main exports was porcelain 0 Time of scientific and artistic advances I The era in which the Chinese develop gun powder militarily and fireworks and catapults I Art depicted daily life 0 The Song Dynasty helped create a common identity of China 0 Things are so peaceful and the economy is going so well that the military is weakened and nomads are being paid to police northern border from other nomad tribes o Backfires eventually and the nomads invade and conquer China but eventually o The Chinese cultural sphere becomes the most prosperous most populated and by far the most unified politically of the cultural spheres in the 12th century Political Structures of the Islamic Golden Age 0 The Islamic Golden Age does not have any kind of unifying political structure 0 Causes a lack of the umma where everyone is together 0 A great example of a cultural sphere has cultural similarities but no political unity I Culture based on religion Impact of Mongol Invasions o Mongol Invasions Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 9 o Mongols live north of China 0 Begun by Chinggis Khan formerly known as Ghengis Khan in 1206 and completed by his sons and grandsons including Kubilai Khan 0 Nomadic fighters who had developed excellent archery skills and horsemanship o Conquered much of Afroeurasia but as they sought to govern they either failed to do so or succeeded only after adopting at least some parts of the culture of the conquered peoples such as Buddhism in China I At least for a little while their HUGE amount of conquered land had an intellectual exchange 0 A part of one big Mongol world on paper Terms and WrapUp 3 Civil service exam Quanzhou cultural spheres 0 v What are the similarities and contrasts between the Tang and Song dynasties How did Mongol invasions affect both Song China and the Islamic world October 15 2015 No class today Hope you all had a happy fall break
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