Ch. 10 Outline and Lecture Notes - Psych 1000
Ch. 10 Outline and Lecture Notes - Psych 1000 Psych 1000
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marisol Getchell on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1000 at Tulane University taught by Rollins, Bethany in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
I ii iii Chapter 10 Intelligence What is intelligence a De nitions vary 39 Possession of knowledge and ability to use it adaptivey in different environments having knowledge and being able to use it IQ tests often part of the de nition of intelligence Ability to master info and skills needed to succeed in particular cultural context 1 Suggests different cultures need different skills to be successful therefore may have different de nitions of intelligence 2 Collectivist and individualist cultures a African and Asian collectivist cultures are more likely to include social skills in their de nitions of intelligence than Western individualist cultures Collectivist needs of the group are seen as more important that the needs of the individual more likely to de ne themselves as the groups they are a part of a lot of avoidance of things that will bring shame to the group lndividualist the needs of the individuals take presidents over the needs of the group big focus on self ful llment more likely to de ne themselves with their personal traits and characteristics 3 The erlle people of Liberia tested the erlle people with Western IQ test a Intelligence tests are products of the culture cannot accurately test other cultures erlle people put the tools with the food they harvest indicates intellectually inferior in Western Culture but made complete sense to them iv De nitions of intelligence across cultures often include 1 Problemsolving skills 2 ability to adapt to new situations 3 learn from everyday experiences b One general ability vs different types i General Intelligence g intelligence is one general ability 1 One general mental ability underlies all speci c mental abilities ii Multiple Intelligences there are many dimensions of intelligence that are relatively unrelatedindependent to each other 1 There are different intelligences that rely on different mental capabilities 2 Gardner s Multiple lnteligences believes there are 89 different types of intelligences linguistic logicalmathematical musical spatial bodilykinesthetic intrapersonal interpersonal naturalist 3 Sternberg s Triarchica View only three different types a Analytical measured by IQ tests school b Creative ability to use knowledge in novel ways c Practical ability to solve realworld problems street smarts II Testing Intelligence a History of Intelligence Tests i BinetSimon Scale 1904 French government asked him to develop a means to objectively identify kids who might need extra help 1 Test measured children s reasoning thinking problemsolving skills 2 Assessment of mental age level of performance associated with a particular chronological age gave it to a lot of kids at different ages to see how they would perform at different ages 3 Binet s concerns interpretation people would see the results as a child s innate intellectual abilities and that would label them and limit their future opportunities it is what happened ii StanfordBinet 1 Developed by Louis Terman at Stanford University 2 Could test adult intelligence too 3 Used the Intelligence quotient IQ in scoring the test a MACA X 100 mental agechronological age times 100 4 Misuse people from different countries didn t do as well on the tests in uenced their opportunities extremely culturally biased some people were sterilized based on their test score b IQ tests today i StanfordBinet 1 2 Still widelycommonly used it s been updated to decrease bias No longer use the formula ii Wechsler scales WAIS WISC WPPSI gtUUI 39 U39l most widely used different tests for different age levels WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WISC Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children ages 616 WPPSI Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence below age 6 Overall score plus subscores verbal comprehension perceptual organization working memory processing speed etc c Principles of Test Construction i Calculating IQ 1 lm Your score is determined by comparing your score to the scores of other people in your age group Given to large Representative samples of people in different age groups Results from representative samples establish Norms descriptions of frequency of scores Establishing norms is counting up how many people in the representative sample got each possible score on the test Normal distribution a Bellshaped curve Average IQ 100 score re ects relative standing compared to others of the same age Extremes of IQ a giftedness above 130 top 2 b Mental retardationintellectual disability bottom 2 i Low IQ and de cits in adaptive functioning leads them to be unable to live by themselves have signi cant problems with most cognitive tasksglobal de cit ii Not the same as learning disability has signi cant dif culty with one or a few types of cognitive tasks but on most other tasks they perform at or above an average level ii Reliability stability of scores over time 1 IQ tests become more reliable with age a Tend to be very reliable after age 7 b Tests before the age of 4 not very reliable iii Validity authenticity 1 Does test measure what it claims to measure 2 Predictive validity does the test predict what it claims to predict 3 Hard to assess the validity of an IQ test think there s more to intelligence than what an IQ test measures III Genetic and environmental in uences a Genetic In uences i The more closely genetically related two people are the more similar their IQ scores are ii Correlation higher in closer relatives 1 Identical vs fraternal twins identical genetically identical 100 of DNA twins have more similar IQ scores than fraternal no more genetically similar than a regular sibling 50 of DNA twins iii Interaction of heredity and environment b Environmental In uences i Identical twins raised together vs apart together has more similar scores than apart ii Fraternal twins vs nontwin siblings same age at the same time experience more similar environments than nontwin related siblings iii Two unrelated kids raised together have more similarities in scores than siblings raised apart iv adoption children from impoverishedneglectful circumstances tend to have a positive increase in IQ IV Group Differences a Though genetics play a role in IQ differences among individuals this does not necessarily mean that genetics explains the differences among groups in average IQ scores if two groups different on a quality can t assume it s all due to genetics even if it s a strongly genetically in uenced quality i Similar environments differences can be more explained by genetics ii Dissimilar environments differences due more to environment when the environment is different more of the differences can be explained by environment b Groups much more similar than different i Differences often assumed to be due solely to genech ii Ethnic groups are much more similar than they are different when you compare their performance on IQ tests 9 differences get a lot of attention c Ethnicity and IQ i Small differences in group averages ii Can t predict IQintelligence based on ethnicity iii Can t assume differences innate race is a social construct no genetic basis 1 People with similar skin color are not necessarily more genetically similar than people with different skin color 2 Just because they have similar features doesn t 3 mean they are more geneticay similar than they are to someone outside of their race two random Koreans are often no more genetically similar than they are to a random Italian No relationship between degree of European genes and IQ iv Socioeconomic factors 1 2 3 Crosscultural comparisons High income communities vs low income communities of the same ethnic makeup People in high income communities have higher average IQ scores than low income communities even if they have the same ethnic make up a Privileged vs disadvantaged groups around the world IQ differences regardless of ethnicity suggests its socioeconomically related not an innate genetic factor poverty plays a roll Poverty a Kid s IQ and family s income 9 positively correlated b Factors associated with poverty no cars bad prenatal care c Children growing up in poverty show big de cits in their prefrontal cortex almost as if they ve had a stroke v IQ gap decreasing d Gender comparisons i Average scores ii Small differences in speci c areas 1 Females a Slightly higher for Many verbal tasks some nonverbal tasks ie math calculations spatial positions of objects 2 Males a Slightly higher for Many nonverbal tasks some verbal tasks ie verbal analogies iii Environmental factors can explain these differences to some extent 1 Parents and society encourage different genders to engage in different activities play with different toys etc a Boys sports videogames toys that involve moving parts or construction foster the development of nonverbal visualspecial activities perform better on tests for those activities b Girls stuffed animals dolls foster nurturing people tend to talk more to girl babies c Boys are more encouraged in science and math Girls are more encouraged in EngHsh 2 Differences decreasing a Greater gap in performance in cultures where males and females are seen as unequal e The role of stereotypes i Can in uence performance as well as self con dence ii Stereotype threat 1 Anxiety about con rming stereotype leads to poorer performance anxiety that one s performance on a task will con rm a negative stereotype about the group to which one belongs a this anxiety can lead to poorer performance b added pressure that one s performance will affect how the others in the group one belongs to are seen c ex the behavior of marking race or gender can negatively affect performance d ex those told it was an intelligence test performed worse than those who were told it was a handeye coordination test e ex when women are asked to take a test in a swimsuit they perform worse 2 Selfful lling prophecy f Overall i Cannot predict individual s performance based on group membership 1 Groups are much more similar than they are different ii What it takes to be successful 1 Success requires more than a high IQ needs hard work education self discipline iii IQ not a measure of personal worth 1 high IQ may predict to some extent success and intelligence but does not predict special distinction not necessarily at top of their eld 2 03 correlation between IQ and income not huge only slight
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