PSYCH 306 Ch. 8
PSYCH 306 Ch. 8 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Dunne on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Chapter 8 Gender Identity and Gender Roles O O 90 90 Gender the social construction of femininity and masculinity Gender identity ones subjective sense of being a manboy or a womangirl This sense is usually acquired by the age of 3 O Gender role a set of culturally speci c norms concerning the expected behavior and attitudes of men and women Biological In uences On Gender Identity 0 The Role of Chromosomes O O OO 0 The Rodshaped structures containing the genetic material that determines a persons inherited characteristics Eggs and sperm only have one chromosomes from each of the 23 pairs Girls have XX Boys have XY It is the sperm from the father that determines the genetic sex of the child at the moment of conception Some individuals have XX combination have male anatomy and some with XY have female anatomy This is due to the fact that the Y has a gene called SRY which determines the maleness This piece is missing from XY girls and it is present on XX boys X Role of Hormones Testosterone must be present at the critical stage of embryonic development in order for XY combination to result in a baby with male anatomy A pair of primitive gonads develops during 5th and 6th weeks that have the potential for developing into either ovaries or testes Wolf an duct system a primitive duct system found in embryos that if allowed to develop becomes the male reproductive system Mullerian duct system a primitive duct system found in embryos which if allows to develop becomes the female reproductive system If there is no Y chromosome the primitive gonads will develop into ovaries Unless there is a high level of testosterone at ta critical stage of prenatal development nature programmed everyone for female development Disorders Of Sex Development oz Individuals with a combination of male and female anatomical features or in which chromosomal sex is inconsistent with anatomical sex 0 Chromosome Disorders 0 Over 70 known disorders 0 1426 person is born with a disorder 0 Klinfelters male girths born with an extra X These males have both feminine and masculine characteristics Tall with long arms poor muscles enlarged breasts hips and a small penis with shrunken testicles o Turners syndrome there is only one X chromosome Ovaries never develop properly Don t develop breasts Don t struggle with gender identity oz Hormonal Disorders 0 Some children are born with both female and male reproductive parts because the primitive gonads fail to differentiate properly 0 Normally raided as males but have gender identity problems when breasts begin to develop Very rare 0 Congenital adrenal hyperplasia a condition in girls in which eh adrenal glands excrete too much testosterone during fetal development causing masculinization This includes enlargement of the clitoris and labia so that at birth the genital are sometimes mistaken for those of a boy 0 Androgen insensitivity syndrome a condition in which the testicles secrete normal amounts of testosterone during male embryonic development but the tissues do not respond to it As a result a clitoris labia and a short vagina develop but the internal female structures do not develop because the testicles still secrete mullerian ductinhibitory substances 0 DHT de ciency syndrome a type of androgen insensitivity syndrome in which because testosterone is not converted into dihydrogesterone boys external genital do not develop properly Development occurs at puberty with the rise in testosterone Very small penis that looks like a clitoris and an incomplete scrotum that looks like a labia 393 How Many Sexes Are There 0 No direct relationship between sex and gender 0 0 One scholar recognizes at least 5 different sexes and that human sexuality is not a dichotomy but a continuum o3 Attempts to Reassign Sex in Infancy 0 Examples on page 207208 0 Many individuals who underwent sex reassignment as infants because of ambiguous of injured genitals have rejected the socialization process 0 Nature sets a predisposition for gender identity and that ones sexual identity is not xed by the gender of rearing Gender lncongruence in Children oz Gender dysphoria a strong desire to be of the opposite gender or an insistence that he or she is of the other gender oz A large majority of children with gender dysphoria do not persist this after puberty as adults they may be either homosexual or heterosexual oz Therapist advocate for the quotwait and seequot approach Gender lncongruence in Adults 393 Transgendered an individual whose gender identity and gender roles are opposite of those that society expects based on his or her anatomy Can have homosexual or heterosexual orientation Almost all cross dress A transvestite dresses in the clothing of the opposite sex to achieve arousal They do not want to change biologically or does not experience gender dysphoria v Likely that the hormones in the second half of pregnancy may have had effects on lade behavior and gender identity oz Transsexual adults with gender dysphoria who desire to surgically change their anatomical sex 0 They choose to change their sex not their gender 0 Male to female penis and testicles are removed the nerves are relocated to the inside of the newly created vagina made of pelvic tissue 0 Female to male the uterus ovaries and breasts are removed Some decide to have an arti cial penis created using aps of skin and muscle or by clitoral enlargement O O O 90 90 90 Psychological Theories Of Gender Identity Development 393 Freudian Theory 0 Believed that psychological development was in uenced primarily by sexual development o Called sexual energy libido and thought that the area of the body responsible for sexual pleasures changed over time 0 Oral stage pleasure is derived from sucking and from expiring things with the mouth 0 Anal stage lasts from age 15 to 3 comes from holding in and expelling feces o Phallic stage lasts from 3 to 5 believed that gender identity is learned then Boys begin to derive pleasure though masturbation and being to sexual desire their mothers Fear their fathers quotcastration anxietyquot 0 Identi cation the adoption of the sex roles of the same sex parents by a child and in advertising to identity to relate to a product 0 Girl realizes she has no penis and develops quotpenis envyquot blames mother and wants to possess her father in order to replace the mother Once she realizes this cannot happen she identi es with her mother 0 Social Learning Theory 0 Operant conditioning based on the principle that an individuals behavior is modi ed by the consequences of the behavior Ex boy is praised by father for acting like father 0 lmitating following the behaviors of someone taken as ones model 0 Gender identity is acquired in the process of learning gender roles o3 CognitiveDevelopment Theory 0 Views infants as information seekers 0 Concept of male is rst learned by observing others the boy observes his father and learns the appropriate behaviors for males and vice versa for girls 0 Gender constancy the knowledge that one s gender is constant and will not change This knowledge is usually acquired by age 6 or 7 Gender Roles oz Theories of Gender Roles o Evolutionary theory behavioral differences between men and women are due to the different reproductive pressures each faced over thousands of generations 0 Sociocultural theory states that the psychological differences between men and women are a social construction O 0 Gender role stereotypes are oversimpli ed rigid beliefs that all members of a particular sex have distinct behavioral psychical and emotional characteristics Androgyny the ability of an individual to display a variety of personality characteristics both masculine and famine depending on whether a trait or behavior is appropriate in a given situation It is often viewed as positive characteristic that gives an individual great adaptability Socially desirable and healthy due to their exibility Instrumental a personality characteristic a cognitive focus on getting the job done Expressive a personality characteristic a cognitive focus on an affective concern for the welfare of others 393 GenderRole Development During Childhood O O Socialization the process of internalizing society s beliefs the manner in which a society shapes individual behaviors and expectations Gender schema ideas about gender roles that children create from their interactions with their environment The socialization process beings at an early age when children play with tors that are gender stereotyped First learned at home but when they reach school age peers and teacher become powerful reinforces of the process There may be little noticeable difference between boys and girls before the age of 2 but there is 0 question that most children have embraced gender stereotypes by the age of 4 By the age of 34 children know sex stereotypes about clothing toys games and work by the age of 45 most have stereotypical occupational goals Children raised by a single parent tend to be less stereotyped oz Role of the Media 0 0 TV advertisements frequently use stereotyped characters People are still exposed to extreme serotypes in music videos oz What Causes Developmental Gender Differences O Psychologists believe that behavioral differences have evolutionary value Ex girls play as a parent to prepare for adulthood Ex guys play rough to prepare to being competitive for women 0 Adults Gender Roles in the United States Historic Overview 0 With the increased industrialization men began to earn their livings away from home and the economic activities of men and women began to split 0 Men were viewed as breadwinners women stayed home 0 Women are now seeking more control overjob opportunities the same amount of pay as men receive for comparable work more freedom in conduct of their personal affairs and in general more equality between the sexes