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Notes for Exam #2

by: Mari D.

Notes for Exam #2 Psych 332

Mari D.
GPA 3.0
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Theresa Moyers

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About this Document

This document contains the notes we covered for the 2nd exam. It has everything from mood disorders and sexual disorders. This should help when studying for the test. I will also be posting a fu...
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Theresa Moyers
Class Notes
Abnormal psychology, university of new mexico, unm, Psychology, Exam Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mari D. on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 332 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Theresa Moyers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 10/20/15
Notes for Exam 2 Depression Mood disorders 0 There are 2 key elements on a continuum 0 Depression low sad state where life is dark and challenges are overwhelming o Mania euphoria andor frenzied energy 0 Most people with a mood disorder only experience depression unipolar depression 0 No history of mania o Mood returns to normal as soon as depression lifts O Other people experience alternate periods of mania and depression bipolar disorder 0 Unexpectedly unipolar mania where a person experiences mania only is uncommon Unipolar depression can bring severe and longlasting psychological pain that can intensify over time 0 Lasts all day diminished interest in activities changes in weight and sleep guilt difficulty concentrating o 2 Types 0 Melancholia Early waking sleep and weight loss agitation o Atypical Oversleeping weight gain deceleration 0 Diagnosis 0 Five main areas of functioning can be affected I Emotional symptoms I Motivational symptoms I Behavioral symptoms I Cognitive symptoms I Physical symptoms 0 Five or more symptoms in a two week period 0 Representing a change in functioning o Causing impairment 0 People don39t have to be sad to be diagnosed with depression In fact physical symptoms headaches back pain are a common complaint 0 The tendency to describe general sadness as depression has confused normal mood swings with a clinical syndrome 0 Dysthymia persistent mild depression usually unremitting can become major depression Major depression very severe highest suicide risk Double depression even when major depressive episode improves they return to dysthymia and never become euthymic normal 0 Commonality 0 About 7 of US adults suffer from unipolar depression similar in Canada England France 0 About 17 experience unipolar depression at some point in their lives 0 Women twice as likely to experience unipolar depression about 50 recover within 6 weeks 90 within a year some without treatment 0 Genetics 0 Family pedigree studies 20 of relatives have depressive disorders compared to 10 of the population 0 Twin studies concordance for unipolar depression is 46 for MZ twins and 20 for DZ twins 0 Causes 0 Those with depression experience more stressful life events during the month before the onset of their symptoms stressful life events AND genetic dispossession 0 Early loss of a parent 0 Learned helplessness 0 Internal cognition o Treatments 0 Biological antidepressant drugs 0 Psychological behavioral therapy cognitive therapy Bipolar Disorder and Suicide 0 Bipolar Disorder the lows of depression and the highs of mania o Mania 0 Behavioral symptoms 0 Cognition 0 Physical o Emotional o Motivational 0 Diagnosis 0 Criteria 1 Manic episode 3 or more symptoms of mania lasting a week or more Criteria 2 History of mania o DSMIV distinguishes between 2 types 0 Bipolar I disorder full manic and major depressive episodes 0 Bipolar II disorder hypomanic episodes and major depressive episodes 0 Without treatment episodes recur with both types of the disorder 0 Rapid cycling 4 episodes with a year 0 Seasonal episodes vary with seasons Depressive episodes occur three times as often as manic ones and last longer Equally common in women and men among all socioeconomicethnic groups onset occurs between 1544 years old 0 Causes 0 Neurotransmitters low serotonin could open the door to mood disorders 0 Ion activity ions needed to send messages to nerve endings could be transported incorrectly through cells of those with bipolar disorder 0 Genetic factors likely that multiple genetic factors contribute 0 Treatment 0 Lithium and other mood stabilizers o More than 60 of patients improve with these meds with most experiencing fewer episodes 0 However researchers are unsure how mood stabilizing drugs work 0 Adjunctive psychotherapy o Psychotherapy combined with mood stabilizing drugs are most effective 0 Research suggests it helps reduce hospitalization improves social functioning and increases ability to hold down a job 0 Suicide there aren t many accurate gures and it is not classified in the DSMV 0 Patterns and Statistics 0 Women have a higher attempt rate while men have a higher completion rate because men use more violent methods 0 Related to social environment and marital status no close friends divorced etc o In the US suicide varies according to race 0 Alcohol and drug use 0 As many as 70 of people who attempt suicide drink alcohol before the act 0 Drugs have similar ties O Contagion of suicide people especially teenagers commit suicide after observing or reading about someone else who has done so 0 Biological view 0 Family pedigree and twin studies suggest that biological factors contribute to suicidal behavior Sexual Behavior 0 The societal norms surrounding homosexuality have changed greatly over the past half century 0 Until 1970 homosexuality was regarded as a sickness 0 However evidence shows that homosexuality is psychologically normative o It is no longer listed in the DSM o Milestones in the changing view of homosexuality O 2003 US Supreme Court struck down a ban against private sexual behavior between two consenting adults in Texas 0 Diagnosis was removed from DSM by vote of the American Psychiatric Association APA o This decision was really just based upon current societal norms however there is nothing psychologically abnormal about homosexuality so the vote was extremely valid 0 Ban on controversial treatments 0 Conversional therapy a quottreatmentquot where gay men are shown homoerotic pornography and shocked every time they become aroused Treatments like this do not work at all and are shocking and unpleasant o What quotmakesquot you homosexual 0 Children raised by gaylesbian parents show normal adjustment and even more successful outcomes 0 Homosexuality is based on genetic disposition and environmental in uences o MZ twins have higher concordance rates than DZ twins 0 Gestational events occurrences in the womb such as hormonal in uences are quotenvironmentalquot o Androgentestosterone or the lack of it in the 2nd trimester is a critical in uence on sexual orientation 0 Women appear more quot uidquot in sexual orientation than men o This assessment is highly questionable there is no data to support the claim and it is simply more socially acceptable for women to display homosexual tendencies 0 Social Adjustment 0 Herrell et al study 1999 o Examined 103 middleaged male twin pairs 0 One homosexual one heterosexual o Examined symptoms 1 thoughts about death 2 wanting to die 3 thoughts about committing suicide 4 suicide attempts o Homosexuality was associated with higher levels of these symptoms even after depression and substance abuse was accounted for 0 Gender Identity Disorders Gender Nonconformity characterized by cross gender identification and gender dysphoria persistent discomfort about one39s biological sex or a sense that one39s gender role is inappropriate 0 Psychotherapy is generally not effective in helping adolescents or adults resolve gender dysphoria 0 Gender nonconforming boys 40 homosexual 32 some degree of bisexualism Girls the rate of nonheterosexual orientation is much lower 0 Outcomes of Gender Dysphoric Children study 2008 o 77 children referred for Gender Nonconformity mean age of 8 c When children reached 18 27 were still dysphoric 47 no longer dysphoric 0 At followup all in the persistent group were homosexual half of those no longer were still homosexual o This is an overwhelmingly likely outcome 0 Transsexualism Transgender quotdesire for self as a womanquot or quotnot truly being a manquot 0 Sexual reassignment surgery is a controversial option 0 Female to male is usually more successful but there is not much data 0 High rates of regret once surgery is completed about 7 o This is because the surgery is extremely timeconsuming painful difficult and expensive 0 About 2 attempt suicide after surgery 0 Cannot rule out impact of stigma and stress from society However many people describe it as lifesaving and liberating Psychological Adjustment of Individuals with Gender Reassignment Surgery MTF study 2008 0 Gender Reassignment Surgery provides a surgical solution for the psychological stress experienced by transgender people 0 40 MTF transsexuals o Assessed with SCR 90 both prior to and six months after surgery 0 There was no impact of GRS on psychological functioning Sexual Disorders 0 Paraphilias sexual behavior that are required to fulfill sexual satisfaction 0 Fetishism voyeurism sadism masochism for example crossdressing or transvestism is highly common 0 Almost all people with paraphilias are men most have more than one most do not seek treatment Transsexualism transgender see sexual behavior notes 0 O 0 Criteria for sexual reassignment surgery 0 Must live for 2 years in opposite gender role 0 Must be mentally financially and socially stable 0 No overt psychological pathology Male to female 0 Estrogen given to promote breast growth 0 Facial hair permanently removed 0 Penis removed and vagina constructed 0 Ability to achieve quotnormalquot sexual gratification variable Female to male 0 Testosterone given to lower voice and grow facial hair 0 Artificial penis constructed and breasts removed 0 Functioning of sexual organs not very satisfactory Childhood sexual abuse 0 Studies have found associations between childhood reports of sexual abuse and adult psychopathology Fergusson et al 2008 found this correlation to be weak after family context was accounted for Feiring et al 2008 found that stigmatization shame and selfblame serve as a predictor for relationship difficulties This speaks to the need for therapy that targets stigmatization Controversies 0 Children39s testimony o Recovered memories of abuse Pedophilia when an adult has recurrent sexual urges or fantasies about sexual activity with a prepubescent child 0 O Incest relations between family members victims tend to be adolescent girls whereas victims of pedophilia are both boys and girls Treatment attempts one of four goals 0 To modify patterns of sexual arousal Modify thinking and social skills to encourage appropriate sexual interactions Change habits and behavior Reduce sex drive 0 Treatment of pedophiles is more harsh than that of any other psychological therapy 0 Psychological aversion therapy Biological Chemical castration 0 These treatments really do not ever work It is important to distinguish between those who are aggressive and those who are not and potentially remorseful Sandler et al 2008 found that sex offender registries do not decrease rates of sex offenders


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