Road to War: To Where has Modernity Led?
Road to War: To Where has Modernity Led? HIST 102 011
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Strickland on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 102 011 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Daniel Snyder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
HIST 102 Notes Road to War To where has Modernity Led The Era of Progress Compromise and peace turns into worst war thus far in world history and it only goes downhill from there Between the two world wars there were 60 million deaths total with 10 million in WI and 50 million in WWII Other con icts have indirectly and directly led to hundreds of millions being murdered just 20th century Enlightened Progress La Belle Epoque the beautiful era was the name for this time due to the fact that people looking back on this preWWI time and seeing it as better than what came to be while more cynical people saw this time as the Fin de siecle the end of the century Inventions ie things that light bulb and electricity lead to technology advancements unseen before Perhaps not all is progress during this time artists saw it like this with the best example of this being The Scream by Edward Munch in 1893 Warnings Unheeded Adowa in 1896 in Ethiopia with Italy s defeat The Boer War 18991902 0 leader of the Afrikaners Paul Kruger O BoersAfrikaners are settlers of Dutch descent that faced off against the British The Filipino American War 18991902 1913 Boxer Rebellion 19001901 RussoJapanese War 1905 All showed that European powers were more than capable of aggressive con ict and in some cases how easy the European powers could be beaten Imperial Competition Scramble for Africa Leads to intense competition despite the Berlin Agreement in the 1880s If any other details are needed to review the New Imperialism notes The Rapid Rise of Imperial Germany Germany became an independent state in 1871 under the limit of Otto von Bismarck AustroPrussian War leads to a separate AustriaHungary from the German Confederation Semidemocratic for certain property owning men yet trying to revive authoritative autocracy with Emperor Wilhelm II Industrial and economic boom parallels US and they both begin to compete with Britain Better technology electricity and gas out do Britain s steam and coal Leads to an overall competitive edge with Britain in both economic and imperialism because it upsets the balance of power in Europe Arms Race New military technology developed prior to the war machine guns tanks battle ships ie HMS Dreadnought submarines ie Germany s UBoats poison gas most famous being mustard gas 0 new ammunitions and artillery more accurate and destructive OOOOO Entangling Alliances Balance of Power and the Alliance System on the Eve of WWI Series of relationships that are not always well defined known or even formal Triple Alliance Germany Italy AustriaHungary v Triple Entente Britain France and Russia becomes the Central Powers v Allies with the latter being who the US joins Informal alliance between Russia and Serbia part of AustriaHungary Empire becomes a big deal despite it being informal while France and Russia s alliance is formal but secret Woodrow Wilson later states that the entangled alliances can be avoided by Open covenants of peace openly arrived at after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view httpwwwfirstworldwarcomsourcefourteenDointshtm The Balkans AustriaHungary is not a dynamic empire and despite being only a few decades old is as decrypt as its old Emperor Franz Joseph I AustriaHungary and Ottoman Empire another decrypt empire argue and fight over the Balkan region Balkan regions all want to be free independent states leading to political terrorist and rebellious nationalist movements for example Serbians had the Black Hand Gustav Princip and Archduke Franz Ferdinand The archduke is on good will tour of Serbia while simultaneous reaffirming AustriaHungary s claim on the region although he personally wanted to give the Serb s equal rights but not so liberal as to imply they should be their own nation Gustav Princip of the Black Hand assassinates Franz Ferdinand who is next in line for the throne and his wife Mobilization The assassination of Franz Ferdinand is trigger pointspark that lights up the dynamite that leads to war Due to weak state of Empire the Emperor sends whole damn army to Serbia to put down the rebellion of the Serbs Meaning of mobilization draft army supply army train army and transport army this is a huge process Serbs call on Russia for assistance who in turn mobilizes while AustriaHungary calls on alliance with Germany which leads to them mobilizing Russia then brings up secret alliance with France which also obligates Britain to get involved Italy and Turkey also are somewhat involved on Germany s Triple Alliance Mobilization occurs over summer of 1914 with the assassination in late June and the con ict actually begins in August Gaily off to War Spurned by nationalism all able bodied men sign up for a chance to show how great their country is All throughout Europe and on both sides of the con ict The Schlieffen Plan Plan to invade France through Belgium take them out quickly and then face off Russia Supposed to go through Belgium quietly but instead pillage and rape occur as testosterone hyped 18 and 19 year olds are set upon the world Make it through Belgium and then hit French resistance dynamic military despite jokes which leads to trench warfare great at defense offense not so much that stays in Northern France for 4 years with little to no movement territorially Important Battles and New Technologies Battle of the Somme one of the largest battles of the war and bloodiest in history first offensive attempt by British in 1916 bombardments barrage curtainfire mines gas tanks machineguns hand grenades words words words but they hold the horror of the world All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque Poison Gas Paris Gun could shoot 75 miles and UBoats Germany s main barbarian style to break British blockade and leads to US entering war Trench Warfare and Trench Life 0 Summary of every other trench battle Over the top command run across No Man s Land outrun bullets to fight hand to hand in order to take enemy s trenches and normally fails 0 Trench feet 0 Textbook trench idea v horrific reality Industrialized Warfare Factory of death with 10 million dead Shell Shock first documented cases of PTSD ranged from constant barrage of artillery going over the top or survivor s guilt Total War Complete commitment of nation s productive capacity to war conscription of men and economy and full and complete commitment to annihilation of enemy 0 Second part changes the aim of war to go from territory to destruction of enemy 0 Civilian home front examples factory work by women victory gardens and also starving people 0 Full economic and social mobilization with rationing and food stamps 0 Propaganda 0 Women 0 Jobs in factories lead to new opportunities identities and challenges for women 0 In America leads to women s suffrage Russian Revolution March November 1917 0 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia is evicted from throne over course of year 0 April Theses 1917 0 Peace land bread Vladimir Lenin Bolshevik leader 0 Rallies peasants who have been oppressed by dynasty for so long 0 SpringSummer 1917 Provisional liberal Kerensky Government 0 Bolshevik Revolution OctoberNovember 1917 0 Lenin is leader 0 Treaty of BrestLitovsk March 1918 pulls Russia out of war 0 That treaty leads to US being pissed at Russia for next few decades contributes to cold war aggression Peace Settlement Paris Peace Conference 0 Convened in 1919 in Versailles and produced the Treaty of Versailles 0 Big Four nations were UK US France and Italy 0 Forced Germany to pay reparations and put strict limits on their Navy and Army 0 Created the League of Nations 0 Wilson s Fourteen Point Plan which was predominantly ignored when it came to mercy for Germany but included League of Nations 0 German s understandably resented having to take full responsibility especially economically 0 US despite Wilson creating the League of Nations does not ratify the Treaty but instead signed the Berlin Treaty which just left out the League of Nations
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