chapter 11 lecture notes
chapter 11 lecture notes PSY 121
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leah Notetaker on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 121 at Missouri State University taught by Manley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Ch 11 Personality Unique and stable ways people think feel and behave Theories of Personality Personality is different than these aspects but contains them 0 Character value judgements of morality and ethics Temperament enduring characteristics each person is born with o Temperament is based in one s biology either through genetic in uences prenatal in uences or a combination of those in uences and forms the basis upon which one s larger personality is built 0 Every adult personality is a combination of temperaments and personal history of family culture and the time during which they grew up Four main perspectives Psychodynamic perspective 0 had its beginnings in the work of Sigmund Freud and still exists today o It focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in the development of personality 0 this perspective is also heavily focused on biological causes of personality differences Behavioral perspective 0 based on the theories of learning 0 focuses on the effect of environment on behavior humanistic perspective 0 focuses on the role of each person s conscious life experiences and choices in personality development 0 trait perspective 0 focus on the characteristics themselves Freud and Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud o Founder psychoanalytic movement 0 Cultural background Sexual repression sex for procreation mistresses satis ed men s uncontrollable sexual desires Freud s conception of the personality Ego o Conscious contact with the outside world 0 works on the reality principle Supenego o Preconscious material just beneath the surface of awareness 0 Everything that is not yet part of the conscious mind 0 moral center of personality containing the conscience and is the source of moral anxiety 0 Unconscious difficult to retrieve material well below the surface of awareness 0 Contains feelings memories thoughts and urges that cannot be easily brought into consciousness 0 works on the pleasure principle Psychological Defense Mechanisms Unconscious distortions of a person s perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety Help you get through the moment but can cause longterm problems Denial refusal to recognize or acknowledge a threatening situation Repression pushing threatening situations out of conscious memory Rationalization making up acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior Proiection placing one s own unacceptable thoughts onto others as if the thoughts belonged to them and not to oneself Reaction formation forming an emotional reaction or attitude that is opposite of one s threatening or unacceptable actual thoughts Displacement expressing feeling that would be threatening if directed at the real target onto a less threatening substitute target Regression falling back on childish patterns as a way of coping with stressful situations ldentification trying to become like someone else to deal with one s anxiety Compensation substitution trying to make up for areas in which a lack is perceived by becoming superior in other areas Sublimation turning social unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behavior Stages of personality development Fixationunresolved psychosexual stage con ict 0 quotstuckquot in stage development 0 Occurs when con ict is not fully resolved during a stage resulting is adults acting like children Psychosexual stages o 5 stages of personality 0 Tied to sexual development Freud s psychosexual stages 0 Oral stage 0 Id dominates 0 First stage rst year 0 Mouth erogenous zone 0 Weaning is primary con ict 0 Anal stage 0 Ego develops o 13 years 0 Toilet training con ict 0 Expulsive vs retentive personalities Phallic stage 0 36 years 0 Super ego develops 0 Sexual feelings o Oedipus complex Latency stage 0 6puberty 0 Period of sexual repression 0 Sexual feeling repressed samesex play social skills Genital o Puberty 0 Sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate target 0 Sexual feelings consciously expressed Modern Psychoanalytic theory 0 Current research has found support for 0 Defense mechanisms 0 Concept of an unconscious mind that can in uence conscious behavior 0 Some other concepts cannot be scienti cally researched at this time The Behaviorist and Social Cognitive view of Personality Behaviorists de ne personality as a set of learned responses or habits 0 Social cognitive theorists emphasize the importance of others behaviors and one s own expectations 0 The social cognitive view of personality unlike traditional behaviorism includes social and mental processes and their in uence on behavior Bandura s Reciprocal Determinism and Selfef cacy three factors in uence behavior 0 the environment which consists of the physical surroundings and the potential for reinforcement o the person personalcognitive characteristics that have been rewarded in the past 0 the behavior itself which may or may not be reinforced at this particular time and place Reciprocal Determinism Environment characteristics of the person and behavior itself all interact Selfefficacy Perception of one s competence in a certain circumstance The Third Force Humanism and Personality Humanistic view 0 Focuses on traits that make people uniquely human Reaction against negativity of psychoanalysis and behavioral determinism Carl Rodgers and SelfConcept proposed that selfactualization depends on proper development of the selfconcept The selfconcept is based on what people are told by others and how the sense of self is re ected in the words and actions of important people in one s life such as parents siblings coworkers friends and teachers Selfactualizing tendency Striving to ful ll innate capabilities Selfconcept Image of oneself that develops from interactions with signi cant people in one s life According to Rogers the selfconcept includes the real self and the idealseW The real self is a person s actual perception of traits and abilities whereas the ideal self is the perception of what a person would like to be or thinks he or she should be When the ideal self and the real self are very similar matching the person experiences harmony and contentment When there is a mismatch between the two selves the person experiences anxiety and may engage in neurotic behavior Conditional positive regard Positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish Unconditional positive regard Positive regard that is given without conditions or strings attached 0 Formation of selfconcept and congruity of real amp ideal self Current thoughts on Humanistic View 0 Strengths 0 Positive psychology Focuses on the science of subjective individual and group factors that foster positive experiences Roots in humanistic psychology Weaknesses o Ignores the more negative aspects of human nature 0 Concepts are dif cult to test scienti cally Trait Consistent enduring way of thinking feeling or behaving Trait Theories of Personality o Allport 0 Listed 200 traits and believed traits were part of nervous system Cattell 0 Reduced number of traits to between 16 and 23 with computer method called factor analysis Cattell de ned two types of traits as surface traits and source traits 0 Surface traits can be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person 0 Source traits more basic traits forming core of personality 0 Surface traits are like those found by Allport representing the personality characteristics easily seen by other people 0 Source traits are those more basic traits that underlie the surface traits The Big 5 Openness can best be described as a person s willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences Conscientiousness refers to a person s organization and motivation Extraversion is a term rst used by Carl Jung 1933 who believed that all people could be divided into two personality types extraverts and introverts o Extraverts are outgoing and sociable whereas introverts are more solitary and dislike being the center of attention Agreeableness refers to the basic emotional style of a person Neuroticism refers to emotional instability or stability The biological basis of the big 5 0 Personality neuroscience is a growing area of research 0 Brain structure differences associated with some aspects of the Big Five dimensions of personality have been identi ed using structural MRI Personality Genetics and Culture Twin and adoption studies 0 Studies of twins and adopted children have found support for a genetic in uence on many personality traits including intelligence leadership abilities traditionalism nurturance empathy assertiveness neuroticism and extraversion o By comparing adopted children to their adoptive parents and siblings researchers can uncover some of the shared and nonshared environmental and genetic in uences on personality Cognitive Factors in Stress Lazarus s CognitiveMediational Theory 0 Twostep process is assessing a threat and how to react Primary appraisal o lnvolves estimating the severity of the stressor and classifying it as a threat Secondary appraisal Estimate the resources available for coping with the stressor Stress and Personality 0 Type A o ambitious time conscious hostile and angry workaholics who are at increased risk of coronary heart disease primarily due to their anger and hostility 0 Type B o relaxed and easygoing and have onethird the risk of coronary heart disease of individuals with Type A personalities if male and onefourth the risk if female and working outside the home 0 Type C o pleasant but repressed internalizing their negative emotions Hardy Personality o Thrives on stress but lacks the angerhostility of Type A Assessment of Personality Who uses which method 0 Interview used by psychoanalysts and humanistic therapists 0 professional asks questions to clients structured or unstructured 0 Halo effect allowing clients positive traits to in uence assessment of client Projective tests used by psychoanalysts O O 0 Projection projecting ones unacceptable thoughts or impulses onto others Proiection tests ambiguous visual stimuli presented to client who responds with whatever comes to mind Rorschach inkblot test 10 inkblots as ambiguous stimuli Thematic apperception test TAT 20 pictures of people in ambiguous situations Subjectivity problems with projective tests Behavioral assessments used by behavioral and social cognitive therapists O 0 Direct observation professional observes client clinical or natural setting Rating scae numeric value assigned to speci c behavior Frequency count frequency of behaviors is counted Problems Observer effectsbias Lack of control 0 Personality lnventories sued by trait theorists O O Questionnaire with standard list of questions Response format yes no can t decide etc Include validity scales to prevent cheating but such measures are not perfect NEOPl based on the 5factor model MyersBriggs Type Indicator based on jung s theory of personality types MMPl2 designed to detect abnormal behavior