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Wildlife Resources

by: Emily Weiler

Wildlife Resources NRES 250

Marketplace > NRES 250 > Wildlife Resources
Emily Weiler
Intro to Fish and Wildlife
Shelli Dubay

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About this Document

Logging, vegetation management, wildlife management, water for wildlife.
Intro to Fish and Wildlife
Shelli Dubay
Class Notes
Logging, vegetation management, wildlife management, water for wildlife.
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Weiler on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NRES 250 at a university taught by Shelli Dubay in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.

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Date Created: 10/20/15
137 Herbage Browse Mast and other plant food for Wildlife Introduction to Wildlife and Fisheries An Integrated Approach Herbage grasses and forbs Browse leaves shrubs and stems of shrubs and trees Mast includes various fruits of trees and shrubs especially nuts such as acorns and eshy fruits such as blackberries and wild plums To measure biomass plant material can be slipped from small sample plots or quadrants and weighed Radiometer estimates biomass of grass and forbs Measures re ected light from vegetation Dryweight data clipped from sample plots in different areas can be compared to assess food availability and relative productivity of potential food plants Grazing Feeding on herbage Browsing Feeding on browse A variety of nutritional value is needed in order to sustain different animal groups Secondary compounds plant contains oil that can inhibit digestion Are antiherbivory types of chemicals and do not ll a primary role in plant growth and development 0 Biologists are interested in knowing which plants provide the highest digestible protein and digestible levels for wild animals As well as how these nutritional levels change with time of year and plant growth stage Habitats with plentiful high quality forage or other plant foods are able to support a more abundant and diverse wildlife assemblage 145 Logging 0 Logging is often viewed as negative because of cutting down trees 0 Mature natural forests generally have several layers of understory and overstory including shrubs smaller treespecies larger tree species and other layers Monoculture growing of a single species Prone to diseases parasites pathogens and undesirable species Clear cutting Removal of all trees Can also lead to accelerated soil erosion and stream warming 0 Habitat that was once only accessibly on foot is now open to vehicles Can affect species that need isolation for nesting bald eagles northern goshawk Selective cutting or block cutting clear cutting small areas are less of a disturbance to wildlife 0 Forest res are natural and are needed to promote new forest growth Salvage logging removal of dead or diseased trees to improve forest heath o Deforestation especially of tropical rainforests is a continuing global issue of great importance Rainforests are hoe to the most diverse population of species in the world Approximately half of the worlds rainforests are cut 0 When decisions are made concerning location extent or kind of logging to be carried out they should be based on full economic decisions 151 Management of Terrestrial Habitats Food production techniques in terrestrial habitat primarily focus on mast browse or grass and forbs 0 Wildlife management involves vegetation management Propagation involves planting seeds or transplanting young trees or shrubs Shelterbelt planting 0 Browse is typically used as food by mule deer black tailed jack rabbits and ruffed grouse There are efforts to restore communities of native grasses and forbs by reseeding Release reduction of completion from other less desired plant species 0 Reducing invasive plants increase the production of native plants 0 Chemical control of competing plants can be used but biologists are concerned about the sublethal effects 0 Fire is a natural phenomenon happening and maintaining ecosystems for thousands of years Controlled burn humaninduced re that mimics the course of nature Reclamation burns used on mistreated and unmanaged lands Maintenance burns set regularly are management practice Back res set upwind from a barrier such as a road burned against the wind Head re set to move with the wind burn more rapidly and less thoroughly Woodlands can be burned to improve food production Protection attempts to protect plants until they mature and produce deskedfood Cover development is important because wildlife species depend on a variety of cover types Hedgerows dense timber stands shelterbelts brush piles and examples of cover We create arti cial nesting structures Nest baskets geese and mallards Nest boxes wood ducks American kestrals Nest platforms ospreys By using management techniques we can discourage undesirable species from taking over nests By constructing predator exclosures of wire fencing have increased nest success of piping plovers and least terns Edge species variety of habitats in a close proximity Interior species require large patches of a relatively homogenous landscapes such as a tallgrass prairie or temperate forest Northern spotted owl Guzzlers useful to upland game birds are constructed in arid regions to provide water for wildlife Typically watertight tanks set into the ground and lled by means of rain collecting collar Rainwater is stored underground a small ramp is used by animals to get to it 0 Construction of arti cial water bodies such as small farm and ranch ponds are useful


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