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Notes 3 - Baroque Period

by: Allison Lock

Notes 3 - Baroque Period ARCH 143

Marketplace > Drexel University > Architecture > ARCH 143 > Notes 3 Baroque Period
Allison Lock
GPA 3.4
Architecture and Society III
Paula Spilner

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Notes on class discussion of Baroque Period.
Architecture and Society III
Paula Spilner
Class Notes
ARCH 143
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Lock on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 143 at Drexel University taught by Paula Spilner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Architecture and Society III in Architecture at Drexel University.

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Date Created: 10/20/15
The Age of the Baroque occurred in Italy during the 17th century Originally the word Baroque was an insult that meant over the top or deformed This stigma was caused by the Protestants who at the time used the word as an insult Baroque architecture values theatricality drama and emotion heightened experience complexity curves and ovals movement and a richness of color and ornament used to create and appeal for the viewer The predominate artist of the Baroque period was Gianlorenzo Bernini who lived from 15981680 He worked for ve popes and was desired by kings The did not see barriers between architecture art and sculpture which caused him to use a mixture of them I Pope Urban lll commissioned Bernini to work on Saint Peter39s in Rome Bernini was a very spiritual man who practiced his faith and prayed daily a First he had Bernini create a Baldacchino alter canopy over the presumed tomb of Peter in 1624 It is made entirely of bronze and features twisted columns because the original was thought to have twisted columns that Constantine himself was said to have brought back from his conquering of a major empire The columns Barberini bees which were the symbol of the family that sponsored the monument so that everyone would know who paid for it b Bernini also built the cathedra petri throng of peter between 1657 and 1566 The chair was to encase what was believed to the original chair of Peter this was later disproved when the chair was tested and found to be from the 9th century The chair relic of the rst pope is lifted up Above the chair there is a bright golden sculpture with a stained glass window featuring golden light and a dove which makes the scene appear as if a dramatic holy experience is occurring c Bernini planned Sant39 Andrea al Quirinale in Rome which was built 1658 to 1661 It is features an oval oor plan with its long dimension facing the street Along the edge of the church there are small chapels against the walls The interior is decorated in classical order However unlike the reformation period is decorated in veined red marble with white and gray marble decoration the columns and oors The alter has a blue background behind golden angles and rays coming down from above There is an painting of Saint Andrew being martyred informs of these rays Above this scene is an image of this scene is martyr saint Andrew in sculpture He is rising on a cloud into heaven towers the opening in the ceiling of the church where golden light ows into the church ll Bernini was the most sought after architect of his period by the popes However he had a rival Francesco Borromini a Borromini designed the San Carlo Alle the Quattro Fontane four fountains in Rome in 1624 this church is located on a corner and the two faces against the streets feature fountains The facade is a swooping curve shape which is multidimensional and is decorated with sculptures and Corinthian columns The plan of the building is an oval with four nave or chapels in each major direction which forms a complex curvilinear shape The chauffeuring is very complex as it features octagon hexagons and crosses which decrease in size towards the upper window centered in the dome There were some people who liked how different Borromini39s style was because it forced the eye to wander However he was not ever commissioned by a pope because they thought his style was bizarre and that it did not mix with church Borromini was also commissioned to work on the Sant39ivo Alla Sapienza in Rome It was constricted from 1643 to 1648 It featured a preexisting courtyard Borromini created a curving facade In his design process he used a pencil and compass After he died models of his buildings were found made out of wax which allowed him to create giant curing shapes The cupola of the building sits on a roof that has a similar shape to the pantheon The cupola is a twisting spire that is crowned with a crown of ames There is a lot or discussion as to the inspiration of the spire including conch shells which were at the time called popes crown and the actual pope39s crown There are also allusions to faith hope and charity on the crown The spiral is also practical and would be used so that one has access to the top Borromini worked on the palazzo spade which is a 16th century palace in Rome He did not work on the building however he created what appears to be a barrel vault passageway which is lined with Doric columns At the end of this passage it there is what appears to be a life size statue If a person walls down the hall they begin were columns are twice as tall as them Upon reaching the sculpture the person appears to be a giant This occurs because Borromini created a three dimensional perspective by shortening the columns slanting the oor up and slanting the ceiling downwards During this time the Triumph of the Holy Name ofJesus was painted on the ceiling of II Gesu Sculptures of saints were added in front of the windows The sculptures are placed next to images of sculptures to disguise the transition from three dimensional to two dimensional Additionally there are saints oating on clouds as seen from down below standing in the church people see the feet of the subjects The painting appears to continue rising towards a bright golden light The remaking of the city of Rome in the baroque style Rome experienced a drastic decline in population due to the constative moving his kingdom to and war The inhabited area of the city became on the area by the Euphrates River The hills were primarily abandoned especially one the aqueducts and plumbing systems stopped working Pope Sixtus V worked to redevelop the abandoned land around the church of Santa Maria Maggiore Sixtus went about this by creating straight roads from though top of each hill to each other hill On the top of each hill there was a church One of these churches was the Santa Maggiore This plan did not consider topography The churches were marked by obelisks that were transported to Rome by popes after the conquering of Egypt In this way the churches and obelisks worked as place markers The obelisk as Saint Peter39s was originally located at a surface however Sixtus wished to move it to a more prominent location Obelisks were typically crowned with a Catholic piece that payed homage to the pope that arranged their movement Pope Alexander Vll reigned from 165567 He was a very active pope who was a great patron of the famous baroque architect Bernini He was very fond of the Santa Maria della Pace which was a church his family frequently donated to He had Piedro de Cortona design additions to the building to open up the piazza around the church to allow movement for carriage parking During this time he remodeled the facade of the church but also the surrounding buildings to create a homogeneous composition Alexander Vii also took interest in the open space in from of Saint Peters Under his patronage the building was nally completed Bernini designed the piazza but was not allowed to touch the papal palace and had to ensure that the steps where the pope would speak could be seen by everywhere in the courtyard The piazza is circular and centered about and obelisk Surrounding colonnades were used to provide shade in the hot roman summers but were wide enough that a carriage could approach through them Originally Bernini wanted to complete the oval courtyard shape with only two small gates allowing access This plan would have forced the viewer to approach through narrow con ning streets that opened into a huge civic space however it was not completed Eventually fascist Mussolini tore down the buildings in front of the space to make room for the highway of reconciliation which destroyed several famous houses by Raphael and other architects that work signi cant residential works of the 16th century This move also destroyed Bernini39s original idea of a gradual revealing of the space Pope Sixtus V also created the rst aqueduct in centuries in an effort to provide fresh water to the city This water supply culminates in a large highly decorated fountain which people got water from for their households These fountains were supposed to symbolize the pope39s generosity to the city This particular fountain depicts Moses striking a rock to produce water The most famous fountain is located in the in the piazza Navona which maintains its original stadium shape Navona is a manipulation of the word agone which originally meant contest In this square Pope lnnocent X built a palace the Church of Saint Agnes and the famous four rivers fountain which is topped by and obelisk The fountain represents the four rivers each on different continents where the Roman church presided This is a bombastic monument to lnnocent39s papal authority and there is a three rivers fountain Schuylkill Wissahickon and Delaware in Philadelphia which is modeled after it The most famous fountain in Rome stands at the base of an ancient aqueduct which was rehabbed in the early 18th century It was originally only a reservoir but during its rehabilitation a giant statue called the taming of the waters This statue shows Rome39s power over even natural elements such as water The fountain does not take up an incredibly large area but this only makes it seem larger


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