EAPS 116: Week 10 Notes and Volcano Quiz Study Guide
EAPS 116: Week 10 Notes and Volcano Quiz Study Guide EAPS 116
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zach Weinkauf on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAPS 116 at Purdue University taught by Julie Elliot in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Earthquake and Volcanos in Earth Sciences at Purdue University.
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Lecture 16: March 8, 2016 Volcanoes Explanations – Supernatural forces, assigning nature a personality. o Greco-Roman – Volcan (God of Fire) o Iceland – Surtr o New Zealand – love triangle o Hawaii – Pele o Kamchatka – Kurkh (Great Raven) o Pacific Northwest – Bridge of Gods Rational Explanations o Greece and Roman Empedocles – world divided into four elements Earth, Air, Fire, and Water. Plato – an underground river of fire feeds all volcanoes. Aristotle – earth full of underground passages where wind blows through. Volcanoes fed by fire caused by narrow friction of the wind when it flows through narrow passages. Ovid – fire fed by fatty foods, when food used up eruptions stop. o Later European Views Volcanoes are entrance to hell. Agricola – vapor under pressure cause eruptions Volcanoes caused by combustion of various materials/rocks. Kepler – volcanoes are conduits for the tears and excrement ? Volcanoes have had positives and negatives for people, both in ancient times and today. ? Explanations for volcanic activity include: Love triangles between giants and supernatural beings. Winds traveled through underground caverns. Tempered Gods. ? Volcanic eruptions can impact areas far from the volcano. ? Volcanic Activity has been linked to: Mass migration of people. Myths of Atlantis. Crop failures. The writing of Frankenstein. Lecture 17: March 10, 2016 Magma – molten rock below the surface of the earth. Lava – molten rock that has reached the surface of the earth and is either still molten or solidified. Tephra – fragments of material produced during a volcanic eruption – ash, lapilli, and bombs. Angle of Repose – the angle at which material will stay composed. Types of Volcanoes and Shapes: Cinder Cone – material (tephra) erupts and piles around central vent – 25-35 degrees. Stratovolcano (Composite) – made up alternating layers of tephra/lava – 30- 35 degrees. Shield Volcano – all lava flows that build up volcano – 10-20 degrees. Fissure – no central vent – dike. ? The steepest angle at which granular material comes to a stable rest is its angle of repose. ? The type of volcano that is most dependent on the angle of repose for its shape is a cinder cone. ? A shield volcano has the gentlest slope. Caldera – most typically stratovolcano – volcano erupts so much material that it collapses in on itself. Aniakchak Caldera, Alaska Crater Lake, Oregon Katmai Caldera, Alaska Aso Volcano, Japan ? Calderas can form at either a shield or stratovolcano. Lava Dome – lots of lava erupts and cools in place at top of volcano. Tuya (Subglacial Volcano) – lava hits meltwater and lava shatters. Where do Volcanoes occur? Oceanic-Oceanic – typically Stratovolcanoes, can be shield. Oceanic-Continental – mostly large stratovolcano, but can get all types. Mid-Ocean Ridge – fissure eruptions. Continental Rift – fissure eruptions, can possibly have cinder cones, shield, or stratovolcano. Hot Spot – fissure or shield volcanoes. Flood Basalts/Large Igneous Provinces – fissure eruptions. ? Transform Margins are not associated with volcanoes. Lecture 18: March 22, 2016 ? Transform margins are not associated with volcanism. ? Shield Volcanoes have the gentlest slopes of any volcano. ? Most of the worlds above sea volcanoes are stratovolcanoes and occur at subduction zones. Magma – mixture of liquid rock, gas bubbles, and crystals of various types of minerals. Ways to get: o Wet partial melting (called flux melting) o Decompression Melting o Heat Transfer Melting – melts part of crust. Types: o Basaltic – low silica – more dense – fluid - hot o Andesitic o Dacitic o Rhyolite (felsic) – high silica – less dense – viscous - cold Density – mass/volume – number and weight of molecules = amount of mass. Buoyancy – how something might rise because of different properties of its surroundings. ? The addition of water can lower the melting point of rock. ? Divergent Margins is more likely to have magma generated by decompression melting. ? Felsic magmas have more silica than mafic magmas.