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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Delmer Bayer on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING520 at San Diego State University taught by R.Malouf in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/225284/ling520-san-diego-state-university in Linguistics at San Diego State University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Review 0 Final exam on Thursday 510 100 pm 7 300 pm Comprehensive exam In class open book open notes O Grady chapters 178 15 18 Slides and class notes Midterm review Meaning Semantics is the study of meaning 0 Lexical semantics 0 Compositional semantics 0 Discourse semantics Pragmatics is the study of how language is used in context Semantics and pragmatics overlap with but aren t the same as logic philosophy anthropology etc Lexical semantics 0 Lexicography 0 Lexical decomposition Componential analysis Verbal decomposition Natural Semantic Metalanguage 0 Lexical relations Synonyms antonyms Polysemy homonymy Hypernyms hyponyms meronyms holonyms Lexicalization Concepts and words aren t the same thing Some technical concepts have clearly defined boundaries US senator but most are fuzzy rich 0 Prototypes radial categories Lexicalization is the process by which concepts are encoded in words The relationship between lexicalization culture and thought is tricky 0 SapirrWhorf hypothesis Compositional meaning 0 Meaning as reference 0 Meaning as sense Peirce Frege 0 Semiotjc triangle Sense Symbol 77777777 7 Beference Compositional meaning 0 We can distinguish two kinds of meaning 0 The extension of an expression is the set of entities that it picks out in the worl 0 The intension not intention of an expression is its inherent meaning 0 For proper names and other rigid designators the intension and the extension is the same 0 What is intension Truth conditions maybe 0 Meaning relations 0 Entailment paraphrase 0 Presupposition Speech acts 0 Use of language is a kind of action 0 Speech acts assertion conveys information question elicits information request elicits action or information order demands action promise commits the speaker to an action threat commits the speaker to an unwanted action 0 Performative speech acts directly perform an action 0 Truth conditions vs felicity conditions 0 Direct vs indirect speech acts implicature Implicature 0 Maxim of Quality 0 Say only What you believe true and adequately supported 0 Maxim of Relevance 0 Be relevant 0 Maxim of Quantity 0 Be only as informative as required for current conversational purposes 0 Maxim of Manner 0 Be perspicuous be brief and orderly and avoid obscurity and ambiguity Linguistic diversity Linguistic typology is the study of language classification What is a language What is a dialect 0 A dialect is a variety of a language specific to a particular group of speakers 0 A language is a dialect with an army and a navy Max Weinreich 0 A language is a group of mutually intelligible dialects 0 What counts as a language is ultimately a political decision Linguistic diversity 0 Language classification 0 Genetic classification groups languages with a common ancestor Romance Algonquian 0 Areal classification groups languages spoken in one region Balkan 0 Typological classification groups languages that share structural characteristics SVO All of these are important and pick up different dimensions of linguistic variation Linguistic diversity Typological classification of languages has a few goals 0 Identify What is a possible language universals 0 Identify What is a typical language markedness 0 Identify implicational hierarchies Linguistic typologists collect databases listing facts about language to aid classification and to allow discovery of implicational universals Languages can be classified by tendencies for simple or complex words 0 Polysynthetic agglutinating fusional isolating Genetic classification 0 Languages can also be grouped together based on common origins 0 Relationships among European languages have long been recognized 0 Joseph Scalinger 154071609 0 James Parson s 1767 The Remains ofJaphet being historical enquiries into the a inity and origins of the European languages 0 William Jones 1 786 address to the Royal Asiatic Society sprung from some common source Genetic classification Comparative method 0 Rasmus Rask 178 771832 argued that classifications 0 Languages are grouped together into families based on should be based on regular correspondences shared innovations and regular correspondences 0 Greek phegos oak English beech 0 Comparative method Greek phero I carry English bear 0 Collect cognate sets Greek phrater clan member English brother Greek gym woman Old Norse kona woman Determine sound correspondences Greek gems family Old Norse 19 family 0 Reconstruct a protorsound for each position Greek agros field Old Norse akr field 0 Majority rule 0 Family trees vs waves of innovation 0 Natural sound changes 0 Check for regularity in other cognate sets Language change English development 0 Language changes inevitably at all levels 0 Early Modern English 1450AD71700AD 0 Between 140071600 the English vowel system was 0 Old English ca 1100 Feeder ure Du De em on heofonum radically restructured Great Vowel Shift 0 Middle English ca 1400 Care fadir that artin 1 f1 heuenes T 0 Early Modern English 161 1 Ourfatherwhich artin e aj an O heavem X l E 5 0 Modern English 2002 our Fathenwho is in heaven 5 0 Northern Cities vowel shift Southern US vowel shift Language variation 0 Language use varies along many social dimensions 0 Regional dialect variation 0 Socioeconomic class 0 Age gender education ethnicity 0 Social networks 0 Language tu and vous can be used to express relations of power and solidarity between people Brown and Gilman 1960 Language Contact 0 A linguafranca is a common language used for communication between groups 0 Apidgin is a constructed language used for interrgroup communication 0 No native speakers by definition 0 Radically simplified phonology morphology syntax 0 Typically draws vocabulary from one laxifier language often of higher status 0 Pidgins are formed when many different groups come in sporadic contact trade labor Language Contact 0 When a pidgin becomes established as the first language of a community it is a creole 0 Creoles are much more complex grammatically than pidgins 0 Creoles share many common properties SVO word order tenseaspect markers 0 Creole continuum 0 Basilect gt mesolect gt acrolect 0 Polyglossia 0 African American Vernacular English Ebonics Computational linguistics 0 Computational linguistics is the study of computer processing of human languages 0 Dual origin in linguistics and engineering 0 Two divergent approaches knowledgerbased vs statistical 0 CL has recently come into its own as a independent field with conferences journals degree programs jobs 0 Machine translation is not up to the standard of human translation and isn t likely to be anytime soon but limited translation aids are within reach Information technology If MT doesn t work well what does Document retrieval finding documents which are relevant to a query Information extraction given a relevant document pull out a relevant segment Summarization give a succinct summary of a longer text or conversation Text minin discover something new about the world which is not explicitly stated in any one text or even known to the uthors Formal languages Rules give us a way of describing an infinite set of words using finite resources Abstractly we can model linguistic forms as strings sequences of basic elements drawn from an alphabet The formal language trick Regular expressions finite state machines are a simple class of rules for characterizing possibly infinite sets of strings Orthographic morphological and phonological rules can be expressed as FSMs Syntactic rules are not FSMs but can often be approximated by them Stochastic linguistics Computational linguistics is a hybrid of humanities and engineering discip ines Theoretical linguistics gives ideas like morphological rules and articulatory phonetics These tend to be absolute distinctions a word is spelled right or it isn t From engineering computational linguisu39cs borrows stochastic approaches No absolutes probabilities instead Information Theory Alan Turing Claude Shannon A mathematical theory of communication and how messages convey information Based on probabilities how would an optimal betting strategy change after you find out a roulette wheel is rigged Fundamental concept information entropy Information theory can be used for decoding messages using the noisy channel model 0 sender creates a message S 0 receiver gets a message R Noisy channel models Prospects 0 Spelling correction 0 Fall 2007 0 S perfect text Rtext with errors 0 Ling 522 Syntax 0 PS prob of perfect text PR Serror model 0 Ling 550 English as a Second Language 0 Translation 0 Ling 551 Sociolinguistics 0 S Target language R Source language Ling 554 Child Language Acquisition 0 PS prob of target language PR S translauon Ling 570 Mathematical Linguistics del 0 Ling 571 Computational Corpus Linguistics 0 Speech recognition 0 Sword sequence Rspeech signal 0 PS prob of word sequence PR S acoustic model Prospects 0 Fall 2007 0 Ling 621 Advanced English Phonology 0 Ling 623 Immigrant Languages 0 Ling 640 Field Methods 0 Ling 652 Second Language Acquisition
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