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Homework Read O Grady sections 631 632 and 633 pp 2177 225 For Tuesday 313 0 Farmer pp 1077109 0 Farmer pp 1197121 I Midterm review on Tuesday I Twoipart midterm I Iniclass part Thursday 3 15 I Takeihome part due Tuesday 320 Syntax I Syntax governs how sentences are assembled out of words 0 Traditional grammar is based on pants of speech defined by a mix of distributional and semantic properties I Constituents are units of syntactic structure that are bigger than words and smaller than sentences Phrases I Phrase structure rules describe patterns for constituent formation Sgt NPVP NPgtDetN NPANPPP VPgtV VPgtVNP VPAVPPP PPAPNP I A complete description of the phrase types for any language may require hundreds or thousands of rules Phrases Usually one element in a constituent the head determines its category Elements to the left of the head in English are generally specifiers Elements to the right of the head in English are generally complements The X X bar schema and the Merge operation together are the beginning of a possibly universal model for sentence structure Phrases XP Specifier X39 X Complement Head i All phrases haVe a threeleVel structure X X39 and KP ND I All phrases contain a head X If there is a complement it is attached at the intermediate X39 leVel as a sister of the head 539 4r If there is a speci er it is attached at the XP leVelr Phrases I Basic X phrase structure rules XP gt YP X Specifiers X gt X ZP Complements where X Y Z can be a category like N l A P O Other phrase structure rules XP gt XP MP Postimodifiers X39 gt X39 MP X gt MP X Preimodifiers XP gt XP Conj XP Coordination 0 Each rule has a head which determines its category Complements 0 Information about the complements which a head can occur with subcategorization or valence is listed in its lexical entry along with the pronunciation the meaning and the category devour davawa devour39 Category V Complements NP 0 Both the category and the valence constrain Merge The child devoured the sandwich The child devoured The devoured devoured Constructions I Syntactic constructions are recurrent syntactic patterns that mark a particular meaning similar to morphemes in morphology Syntactic theories differ primarily in how they treat constructions but there is no universally accepted right answer 0 One way to encode constructions is through transformations Move Constructions I In main clause question constructions the auxiliary verb appears at the beginning of the sentence Will you go to Paris Did Pat arrive on Tuesday I In Wh question constructions the questioned element is also moved to the front of the sentence Aristotle could speak which languages Which languages could Aristotle 7 speak 7 0 Both yes no and wh questions can be complements without inversion I know whetheryou should go I know which languages Aristotle could speak 7 Constructions 0 Relative clause constructions use a clause as a modifier The car which Leslie bought 7 was a lemon Harry visited the village which Sue walked to 7 0 Passive constructions promote a direct object to subject A thief stole the painting The painting was stolen by the thief I Some constructions have very specific meanings Sandy hammered the metal at The judges laughed the contestant out of the room What s this y doing in my soup Roles One function of syntactic constructions is to express who did what to whom These relations are expressed through thematic roles Robin ate the Cheerios with a spoon AGENT PATIENT INSTRUMENT The roles assigned to parts of the sentence are determined by the verb s thematic grid Each verb has it s own roles EATER EATEN UTENSIL but across verbs we nd general classes of roles AGENT PATIENT INSTRUMENT Roles AGENT person who does the action PATIENT thing that the action happens to INSTRUMENT thing involved in action but not agent THEME th1ng that 1s 1n a state or locat10n or undergoes change EXPERIENCER an1mate be1ng that has some k1nd of perceptual or mental experience SOURCE where a change starts from RECIPIENT 1nd1V1dual that comes 1nto possess10n of something Roles I Thematic roles are not generally expressed directly in the syntax I Syntactic constructions mark grammatical relations eg subject direct object oblique complement In English subjects are I the specifier of the main verb 0 nominative case he she I agreed with by the verb He walks vs They walk not fronted in questions Who saw you vs Who did you see Roles 0 Particular verbs link grammatical function to thematic roles Robin AGENT kissed Pat PATIENT Robin THEME fell Pat THEME i5 polite Teny EXPERIENCER heard the explosion THEME Lee RECIPIENT caughta cold THEME Teny AGENTSOURCE gave a book THEME to Pat RECIPIENT I Linking seems to be governed by a universal thematic hierarchy subject AGENT object EXPERIENCER GOALSOURCETHEME PATIENT Roles I The most agentish participant gets expressed as the subject the most patientish as the direct object and the rest as obliques Linking is not completely predictable especially for roles near the middle of the hierarchy Robin SOURCE frightens me EXPERIENCER I EXPERIENCER fear Robin SOURCE Sometimes more than one pattern is possible diathesis alternations Chris AGENT sprayed the fire GOAL with water THEME Chris AGENT sprayed water THEME on the fire GOAL Roles I Linking between thematic roles and grammatical functions gives us another way to look at constructions like the passive I The passive construction demotes the AGENT from its status as the subject and promotes the direct object to subject Robin AGENT kissed Pat PATIENT Pat PATIENT was kissed by Robin AGENT Robin AGENT ate the Cheerios PATIENT with a spoon INSTRUMENT The Cheerios PATIENT were eaten with a spoon INSTRUMENT by Robin AGENT Syntax Syntactic theories differ wildly in how they represent things like valence constructions thematic roles grammatical functions even word classes and constituents But they pretty much agree on what needs to be represented Understanding syntactic argumentation how to identify constituents constructions etc is a lot more important than understanding syntactic representations trees rules Farmer pg 103 Syntax I More particles vs prepositions They looked at the contract They looked the contract at They looked at it They looked it at They looked closely at the contract the contract at which they looked At which contract did they look Which contract did they look at They looked up the contract They looked the contract up They looked up it They looked it up They looked closely up the contract the contract up which they looked At which contract did they look Which contract did they look at Course basics Ling 520 Fundamentals of Linguistics 39ITh 20P315 AH72131 Instructor Rob Malouf Email rmaloufmailsdsuedu Office hrs BA 310A Mon 40L500 Tue and Wed 1007200 Web site Course basics 0 Core areas of linguistics I morphology I phonetics I phonology I syntax I semantics Course basics 0 Applications and extensions language typology historical linguistics psycholinguistics sociolingustics computational linguistics Readings I Textbooks William O Grady John Archibald Mark Aronoff and Janie ReesiMiller 2005 Contemporary Linguistics An Introduction BedfordSt Martin and Ann Farmer and Richard Demers 2001 A Linguistics Workbook MIT Press I In Aztec bookstore or online 0 Additional readings will be put on the class website Requirements 0 Readings and problem sets 30 I Miditerm exam 30 0 Final exam 40 Linguistics 0 Linguistics is the scientific study of language I How do languages work I What do we know when we know a language 0 What s the range of possible human languages I How do people use language I Linguistics is a n39gorous discipline with established scientific methods I It is the study of Language not languages and not communication Linguistics Linguistics as a field dates back at least 2500 years Panini Origins in linguistic insecurity I Sanskrit Greek Latin Arabic In the 1700 s and 1800 s philologists explored the relationships between languages and how they develope In the 1900 s anthropologists studied language as a dimension of culture Many modern linguists see language as a way of getting at cognition Linguistics Linguistics is descriptive not prescriptive Prescriptive grammar offers many rules against forms in common use but has little to say about what is right 0 I haven t seen nobody all day 0 Every student turned in their homework on time 0 There s a lot of reasons to celebrate 0 I could care less what you think of me 0 Who did you think you saw Descriptive grammar tries to describe a speaker s linguistic competence the knowledge which allows speakers to produce all and only the forms of a language Linguistics Language is universal All human communities use language All human languages are more or less the same All languages have a grammar All human languages serve their purpose equally well Linguistics 0 T Dalrymple The gift of language City Journal Fall 2006 Maybe it s justiyeah because maybe justimight be um it just feels great wheniwhen like you ve got a child who justi you knowifollowing you around telling you they love you and I think that siit s quite selfish but that s one of the reasons whyI became a mum because I wanted someone who ll you knowilove em to bits cos it s not just your child who s the centre of your world and that feels great as well so I thinkiit s brilliant It is fantastic becauseiyou knowithey reithe child s dependent on you and you know that umi that youiifyouiyou knowiyou ve gotta do everything for the child and it just feels great to be depended on Linguistics 0 Talk of the Nation Hi ah my name s C uh I m calling because of um hh I guess three concerns thatI think should be addressed and often aren t um hh maybe they shouldn t but we ll shee um hh the first is that um I think in health care like US other other industries in the United States they may have more in uence than someone who s just making money privately Linguistics 0 Talk of the Nation hh I m not sure the Canadians themself have have accepted that I think that the health care providers are the m7 are the two largest factors in contributing to this difference between Canada and the United States in the cost per person Linguistics 0 Basic linguistic competence is shared by all members of a language community 0 Most grammatical knowledge is unconscious and must be studied indirectly I Fieldwork 0 Formal analysis of patterns I Psycholinguistic experiments 0 Computational modeling 0 Corpus analysis Phonetics Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Linguistics how sounds are produced and perceived how sounds combine with each other how words are formed how words combine into sentences what words and combinations of words mean what language is used for Linguistics Typology Historical linguistics Sociolinguistics Psycholinguistics Applied linguistics Computational linguistics how languages vary how languages change over time how languages vary socially how language is processed by individuals how language can be taught and learne how computers can be designed to work with human language we esks un tree dislike Homework rem spiteful triumphed suite delight Jrest justly deform erment disobey prepl gmionality ILttHer mis pre mature Homework 0 Agta inchoauve dakal big dumakal grow big grow up darag red dumarag redden furaw white fumuraw become white 0 Word structure 0 inexpensive in expense ive inactive indecent inoperable redisposal re dispose al redo reword 0 disinvestment dis invest ment disallow dismount Homework 0 Read chapter 2 up to section 8 pp 15737 0 For Tuesday 26 0 Do exercises 2 and 3 O Grady p 142 0 And exercises 1 and 2 O Grady p 52 Morphemes 0 Morpheme 0 the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function p 113 0 a word or a meaningful part of a word which cannot be divided into meaningful parts 0 Allomorphs 0 variant forms of a morpheme are called its allomorphs p 114 0 two or more instances of a given morpheme with different shapes Morphemes Finding morphemes Principle 1 0 Copainala Zoque Forms with the same meaning and the same shape in all their occurrences are instances of the same kenu the 10 Oke d ker a the looks morpheme t t 51th he laughed Sikpa he laughs Primin 2 wihtu he walked witpa he walks Forms with the same meaning but different sound t ka7u he died ka7pa he dies shapes may be instances of the same morpheme if their U U distributions do not overlap lial 1t tore 515W 1t tears Principle 3 sohsu it cooked sospa it cooks Not all morphemes are segmental Principle 4 A morpheme may have a zero allomorph provided it has a nonzero allomorph 5 Morphemes Morphemes Like words morphemes can be hard to pin down 0 Morphological gaps sometimes 0 In ection can goed Some problems 0 Derivation 0 Cumulative exponence mont em mountaiheACCSG attract attraction attractive cranberry morphs Ve39CeiV39eV suggest suggesuon suggestive 7 prohibit prohibition prohibitive 0 Overlapping morphs vom RIB 7 von dem RIB elude elusion elusive 0 Portmanteau morphs went goed insert insertion insemve discuss discussion discussive Empty morphs baker s dozequot allude allusion allusive illude illusion illusive aggress aggression aggressive Morphemes 0 Sound symbolism Clitics Clitics bound words don t fit into the types of InorpheInes we ve seen so far Clitics are words subject to syntactic rules but are phonologically dependent on their hosts 0 Accentrless words She will have to find a newjob soon She ll have to find a newjob soon Pat saw him Pat saw m Hg lag ag 1 mg bag dng ramble amble ramble scramble shamble rash gnale crash trash smash bash reazy sleazy greasy que rump hump rump bump crump lump stump mump Chump thump slump h lush slush gus flush rutter mutter stutter sputter splutter ru scurry worry blurry hurry rrl twirl whirl birl furl gnarl glr glitter glow glare gleam fluSh ee itter OW icker f llmy cry crank crawl crimp cringe creep crumple sly slip slide sled slime sledge sleigh sluice slush swr swoop swell swish swoon swagger tore torture torment tortuous turr turbulent turment turmoil twr twist twirl tweak ine twinge wry wrench wrest wrestle wring wrinkle wriggle C11t1cs 0 Kwakwala la i ax7edida tSYadaqaxa llu7alqw7i AUxiPRO takesithe womaneijithe dishes The woman takes the dishes 0 The determiner and the case marker on each NP is pronounced as part of the preceding word Syntactically the determiners are separate words Clitics 0 Kwakwala determiners are enclitics 0 Mohawk proclitics wakyvrtahkwe ne ehlal Iiowned PART dog I used to have a dog wahvlu nohkwali kwahikv tsi wvhunise shikoya tisakuhalgle s heisaid PARTibearverymuch that longtime Iiyouilookfor Said the bear It s been a very long time that I ve been looking all over for you Clitics 0 Two kinds of clitics 0 Simple Clitics alternate with a full word special Clitics 7 The salesman Iwarned you about s at the door The salesman I warned you about s sample case 0 Standard English doesn t have verbless sentences so for reduced auxiliaries we can guess that Pat s going to leave has the same structure as Pat is going to leave Special Clitics 0 Special clitics often attach to the verb 0 They also sometimes appear in a fixed position in the sentence 0 Second position clitics SerborCroatian Marijamuje dala knjigu MariaNOMetohimeAUX gave bookACC Maria gave him a book Njemuje Marija dala knjigu to himeAUX MariaNOM gave bookACC Maria gave HIM a book Clitics 0 Simple clitics are subject to syntactic rules but are prosodically dependent on their hosts Tak bardzogo chciatbym spotkac w Krakowie so mu im wanteHYPe1sg meet in Cracow I would so much like to meet him in Cracow Tak bardzo chciatbymgo spotkac w Krakowie so much wanteHYPe1sghim meet in Cracow Tak bardzo chciatbym spotkacgo w Krakowie so much wanteHYPe1sg meethim in Cracow Special Clitics 0 Second position or Wackernagel s position clitics are often auxiliary verbs 0 Sometimes analyzed as sentencerinitial enclitics 0 What counts as second position varies Serbor Croatian Taj Eovek ioj ga je poklom39o man her it AUX presented That man presented her with it Taj ioj gaje Eovek poklom o Clitics Clitics 0 Special Clitics 100k a lot like phrasal affixes 0 Tibetan lm can take scope over a coordinate clause 0 English 5 ltaba yaUss iy spyodlam iibpa r mdzod view vasteahd conduct preciseeNOM ADV cause 7 Classmal leetan nommahzer Pa Make your view broad and your practice precise saysrgyas kyis t hos b ad buddhaeERG dharmaABS tell The Buddha taught the dharma mire scila za isiy khra la nthuUba demon esheLOC eateahd colorediLOC drinkiNOM demons who feed on esh and gorge on blood saysrgyas kyis t hos b adipakyis dgesloy myayanlas ndas buddhaeERG dharmaABS telliNOMiERG monk ABS sufferihgiABL pass The monk entered nirvana because of the teaching of the dharma 0 Tibetan lm is also used to form relative clauses and complement clauses by the Buddha 0 More like English that than English ing 17 8 Clitics Clitics 0 Clitic 7 5 versus affix is 0 Syntactic rules don t treat wordscliucs as atomic units 0 Clitics are much more promiscuous than affixes The book you reviewed s out ofprint 39 The book s you reviewed out ofprint 0 Affix is only attaches to nouns and verbs The bookreviewed byyou s out ofpn39nt Clitic 75 attaches to anything The bookrewewed s by you out ofprmt Clitics also rarely have lexical gaps or idiosyncrasies 0 Phonological rules sometimes treat clitics as separate words Dutch Anomorphy suppleuon pomameaus verband verbunt Verbandig verbundrx knives knife s ikbmnd Igbrant brandik brantrk Clitics 0 What about n t 0 It could be a simple clitic I do not want to go I don t want to go 0 Compared to other simple clitics like ve 11 d contracted 11 is quite different Clitics 0 What about n t 0 It is very selective I don t try nottryn t to pay attention itjust happens Should the police have nothaven t been informed 0 Arbitrary gaps isn t can t arnn t rnayn t 0 Phonological idiosyncracies ain t don t shan t won t rnustn t 0 Semantic idiosyncracies You rnustn t go home You can t go home Clitics 0 Lexical idiosyncrasies You are going aren t you He is going isn t he Iarn going aren tI 0 Atomic with respect to syntax You could ve been there Could ve you been there Could you ve been there You haven t been there Haven t you been there Clitics 0 Cannot appear outside of clitics Iwould not have done this unlessI had to I wouldn t ve done this unless I had to I d not have done this unlessI had to I d not ve done this unless I had to I dn t have done this unlessI had to I dn t ve done this unless I had to 0 The conclusion English 11 is a negative in ection 0 The other contracted forms 5 ve 11 are simple clitics Verbal clitics Unstressed pronouns often become simple clitics Chris saw him sohrm 50m 50m In some languages unstressed pronouns become verbal clitics Romance languages Basque Jean le vois jean sees it Jean vois 1e Verbal clitics For some languages the status ofverbal clitics is controversial Are they really simple clitics special clitics or affixes They alternate with free words simple clitics But they don t appear in the sentence Where an independent pronoun would special clitics Clitics Clitics are much more promiscuous than affixes Clitics also rarely have lexical gaps or idiosyncrasies Syntactic rules don t treat wordscliucs as atomic units Phonological rules sometimes treat clitics as separate words English reduced auxiliaries are simple clitics but the contracted 11 is an affix Homework 0 O Grady p 103 5 0 Do p and b belong to separate phonemes asabazp goose paskwazw prairie ospwazgan pipe Homework 0 O Grady p 103 5 0 Do t and d belong to separate phonemes mizbit tooth pimi lard wazbos rabbit nazbezw man isonorant icontinuant A voice NV ivome OLABIAL Homework 0 O Grady p 103 5 0 Same for k g and tj d3 0 General rule voiceless nonrcontinuants become voiced between vowels intervocalically icontinuant ivoice a v01ce VV 0 Derivations mitjiht l hand tjikahikan axe mipit tooth mid3ihtjij tjizgahigan mizbit kodak again tahki often nisto thre e adim dog mizb it tooth mide heart 7 sonorant 7 continuant ivoice gt voice VV OC ORONAL anterior H omework O Grady p 104 9 thnd 39 hAndej 0 hj isn t a possible onset before A so th gt l A 0 Words can t end in a lax vowel so ae gte gtej Homework 0 O Grady p 106 13 0 Voiceless stops become corresponding fricatives b etween vowels syllabic a continuant icon idelayed release 50 ivoice ylla sonantal m iconsonantal orant sono ant bic r l Homework 0 O Grady p 106 13 0 A schwa is inserted between a voiced stop and a wordrfinal voiced fricauve 0 gt reduced idelayed release voice idelayed release voice Homework 0 O Grady p 106 13 0 Low unrounded vowels become rounded before m s 1 iconsonantal DLABIAL 5 nt a Hound ODORSAL low Homework 0 O Grady p 106 14 0 Epenthetic e is inserted before sequence of two obstruents a wordrinitial 0 d becomes n before any nasal consonant 0 A vowel becomes rounded between two labial consonants Homework 0 Farmer pp 53755 32 0 Korean 1 r pal foot mul water 5 sal rice saram person sul liquor mul water 5 sal rice 0 Hypotheses 139 rlVV paruy of the foot muruy of the water ssaruy of the rice saramuy of the person sultok liquor jug multok water jug ssaltok rice jug r39 17quot orC Homework Farmer pp 53755 32 Korean 1 r khal knife mari head hair seul Seoul rupi ru y ilkop seven ratio radio ipalsa barber Hypotheses 1 39 r V URs r39 17quot orC khal knife ilkop seven lupi ruby Homework 0 Read chapter 5 0 For Tuesday 36 0 O Grady pg 1957196 2 6 7 Sign language Sign languages are organized in the same way as spoken languages Symbolic system using paired forms and meanings Basic phones 0 handshape 0 location 0 movement Minimal pairs Sign language a CANDY b APPLE Sign language 0 Phonological processes 0 Phonotactic constraints 0 Assimilation A MIND B DROP C FAINT ASL Sign language 0 Phonological processes 0 Prosody 0 Syllables 0 Differences with spoken language 0 Sequencing and simultaneity 0 Speed and size of articulators 0 Nonedominant hand Syntax 0 Syntax governs how sentences are assembled out of words lPat kisses Robin lRobin kisses Pat Pat Robin kisses Robin Pat kisses kisses Pat Robin kisses Robin Pat 0 Meaning is determined by choice of words and their order Word classes 0 Traditional grammar is based on parts of speech 0 Parts of speech were a central feature in classical grammars 0 Aristotle 384322 BC Dionysius Thrax c1707c90 BC Aelius Donatus H353 AD 0 Grammarians extended classical theories to English and other vernaculars Aelfric of Eynsham c9557 1020 AD Parts of speech 0 Traditional parts of speech are defined by a mix of distributional and semantic properties 0 Schoolhouse Rock Well evely person you can know And evely place thatyou can go And any thing thatyou can show You know they re nouns A noun s a special kind of word It s any name you ever heard find it quite interesting A noun s aperson place or thing Parts of speech 0 Other classes don t have a distinct meaning but are traditionally defined by their function An adverb is a word That modifies a verb It modifies an adjective Or else another adverb And so you see that it s positively vely vely necessaUI Or Conjunction Junction what s yourfunction Hooking up phrases and clauses that balance like Out of the flying pan and into thefire Parts of speech Once we look a little deeper the semantic definitions don t work very well 0 running denotes an action but is noun 0 sick denotes a state of being but is an adjective 0 like and be fond of mean pretty much the same thing The only reliable way to define parts of speech is by reference to the other parts of speech that they combine with Major distinction is between open class and closed class words also called content words and function words Major open class categories noun verb adjective adverb Parts of speech 0 The only reliable way to define parts of speech is by reference to the other parts of speech that they combine wi 0 Major distinction is between open class and closed class words also called content words and function words or lexical categories and nonlexical categories Major open class categories noun verb adjective adverb 0 Every language has nouns and verbs adjectives and adverbs are common but not universal Word classes Lexical categories Emmples Noun N Harry boy wheat policy moisture bravery Verb V arrive dismss me1t hear remain dislike Adjective A good ta11 o1d intelligent beautiful fond Preposition P to in on near at by Adverb Adv slowly quietly now always perhaps Nimlexical categories Emmples Determiner Det the a this these no as in no books uxiiiary verb Aux o ai will can may must shou1d could onmoda1 be have Conjunction Con and or but Degree word Deg too so very more quite Word classes 0 In ection can be used as a test for categories plural is on nouns past ed on verbs etc but this isn t always reliable 0 Distributional tests 0 Nouns occur after determiners the book the arrive and adjectives big book certain arrive 0 Nouns are negated with no no book no arrive 0 Nouns can be subjects or objects of verbs dogs chase cats objects of prepositions in boxes and possessors books covers Word classes 0 Word classes are defined in terms of other word classes nouns occur with determiners which occur with nouns 0 Word class tests differ across languages though there are lots of universal tendencies 0 Word groups orphrases or constituents also belong to categories the big dog chased afast cat up the neighbor s tree Constituents Constituents 0 Constituents are units of syntactic structure that are 0 Deletion test if a phrase can be omitted from a bigger than words and smaller than sentences sentence then it s probably a constituent ellipsis 0 Some tests for constituency 0 Robin was planning to see the entire Lord of the Rings this coming Saturday and 0 Substitution test a Single word or Simple phrase replaces a longer phrase 0 Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the Rings this coming Saturday also 0 Robin wants to Visit Paris I managed to do so last summer 0 Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the Rings this coming Saturday also 0 The children w111 stop at the corner if they see us do so 0 Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the Rings this coming Saturday also 0 Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the Rings on Wednesday Constituents Constituents 0 Movement test if a phrase can be shifted as unit in the 0 Questions also are a kind of movement in English sentence then it s probably a constituent 0 Lee w111 send the children home 0 Susan will do whatever she wants to Whatever she wants to Susan will do Q5 What Will Lee send A The children home 0 My neighbor always mows the lawn right after it Q Wh 11 L d h v 0 W1 ee sen ome Right after it rains my neighbor always mows the A The Children lawn 0 Q What will Lee do 0 I would never give a book like that to my mother as a A send the Children home39 it g1 To my mother I would never give a book like that as a gift Constituents 0 Coordination test if you can combine two phrases with a conjunction and or then they are probably constituents 0 They stopped at the corner and looked both ways 0 This is the test with the most exceptions so be careful 0 Lee gave Sandy a book and Chris aphotograph 0 Q What did Lee give A Sandy a book 0 Q What did Lee give Sandy A A book 0 Q Who did Lee give a book ASandy Constituents 0 The tests aren t always applicable and they don t always agree so try to look for confirmation 0 They said that Robin will pass the exam and Robin wi 0 They said that Robin will pass the exam and Robin will 0 They said that Robin will pass the exam and pass the exam Robin will 0 Q What will Robin do A Pass the exam 0 Robin will pass the exam and graduate on time Phrases 0 Usually one element in a constituent the head determines its category 0 dog the large dog Chris has been feeding 0 believes sincerely believes that this is the right choice Elements to the left of the head in English are generally specifiers the dog never walks my large Phonology 0 Phones vs phonemes 0 Contrasuve distribution vs complementary distribution VS free variation 0 Features and natural classes Homework 0 Read chapter 5 Features Obstrumts Nasals Liquids Glides Vawels consonantal r tsyllabic 7 7 r sonorant r Examples p d V tj39 m n 11 j w i a Features W mm Wm M W W mm i i i i i will Mm W MW mu W CG m FM mm M M a M m1 i i imam 110 an aaaaaaaa a an M H i Note low mm and mama amnotus d for Buglish consonants Aspumd stops LP 1 is Will hm mg mm 55 Syllabic liquids and nasals mu hm m2 mm syllabic Features Mam Class features Consonanta17 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 sonorant syllabic Manner feature Continuaut Syllables Syllable structure Onset O Rhyme R p 71 Nucleus N Coda Co I n t Laryngeal Voice ce 0 IA 0 O amaaZanen round a i alwe REAL o o o o o o o o o 0 high 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 low 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 back 7 7 7 7 tense 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 reduced 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Syllables 0 Syllable patterns vary across languages 0 Some universal tendencies Syllable nuclei usually consist of one vowel Syllables usually begin with onsets Syllables often end with codas Onsets and codas usually consist of one consonant CV and CVC are the most common types of syllables Syllables We start with an underlying representation which gives the non7predictable features of a word Syllabification algorithm 0 Nucleus formation create syllables for sonority pea 0 Onset formation group less sonorant segments into onsets 0 Coda formation anything that s left goes into the coda Word7level formation syllables are grouped into words Rules Rules 0 Once the syllable structure is determined we can fill in 0 Some features are entirely predictable eg voice is predictable features using rules redundant for sonorants in English 0 Defaults 0 If the UR only includes nonrpredictable information then we can use rules to fill additional features 0 Allophones sonorant gt voice 7W 0 Variation 0 Cf English bogs bugz balls bulz 0 Phonological rules take the form vs Russian A B X W Y gorodok town nom sg which can be read A becomes B when it occurs gorotka gen 5g between X and Y izelaga to state set forth iseldjutj a to exclude dismiss 9 Rules Rules 0 Some rules produce allophones ofa phoneme 0 Epenthesis and deletion rules add or remove segments 0 Liquids have voiceless allophones after voiceless stops 0 Schwa deletion police parade and voiced allophones elsewhere a gt E C W 039 C Vstress 0 Dev01c1ng rule isyuabic ivoice U isyuabic W 0 Schwa epenthesls milk film sonorant consonantal g a Hateral 7W isyllabic U inasal isonorant icontinuant cons v01ce idelayed release 0 Assimilation rules adapt sounds to their environments Rules Glide devoicing Nasal place assimilation indignity mdigniti immature immatjur ingratitude njgraetrtud indirect mdeickt important impoitent inconclusive ujkeijklusrv Rules Rules 0 Neutralization rules eliminate contrasts e1 c ae are contrasuve in English but for some speakers all are pronounced c in front of 1 May merUI marry ow c o ae are reduced to e inunstressed syllables photograph fowtegraef photography fetogrefi telegraph telegraet tel egrap hy telegrefi 0 Maltese fellas ilfellus chicken natura innatura nature aria aria air mara ilmara woman tiIn itti n fig omm lomm mother kelb ilkelb dog 7attus iZYattus cat shab isshab clouds hitan ilhitan walls abt labt amipit ispaniol lispaniol Spanish 1 i dawl light 14 Rules 0 Several rules may apply to one underlying representation UR slaep taep p39d Asp r thaep phaed Velength r r phae d PR slap thaep phaezd 0 Rules apply in order to the output of the preceding rule Rules Interfaces 0 Which comes first morphology or phonology 0 It s natural to assume morphology comes first but 0 blacken whiten toughen 0 dUen dimmen greenen laxen 0 soften fasten moisten UR pe1ed Stress pei d Schwa del pi d Devoicing pal d Diphth pal jd Velength pal ljd PR pa iid l7 Interfaces 0 German nominalizations 0 ierei is added to verb stems with final stressed syllables 0 iei is added to to other verb stems 0 For example singen luckieren spionieren drb it en se geln trb39deln biigeln Singere i Lackierere i Spionierere i Arb eit ere i Segel e i Trb39del e i Bagel e i sailing loitering ironing Interfaces 0 Stress in German is assigned by a phonological rule so it s not in the underlying representation After adding the suffix stress may shift so the rule can t refer to the surface representation either UR lackier lackz er Stress lackz ereerei Suffix SR lackiereer i Stress This implies h l morp o ogy that phonology is both before and after Cyclicity Cyclicity 0 The solution Cyclic rule application Mascaro 1970 0 But 0 Catalan bin twenty ind tsell hint twentieth gr bim pans twenty breads 11101 hm 35g bi ka 5 twenty heads moles benes 25g U p mOI k 13513 15 0 Here k deletion must come before assimilation 0 Two ordered rules 0 The solution 0 Assimilate nasal to following stop bgmk hintkaps first Cycle T1 39 U W bank bintkaps nasal assimilation 39 l t 39 lif39 t39 0 Delete wordrfinal stop after nasal bay bln kaps C us er sunp ma Ion bm kaps second cycle ont gt Q nasal W bm kaps nasal assunilation inasal Rules 0 This picture of phonological derivations goes back to Panini and dominated through the 20th century 0 More recent models of phonology eg Optimality Theory drop rules in favor of constraints 0 Rules are the e ects constraints are the causes 0 Many rules reproduce historical developments eg nasal assimilation 0 Problems with rule ordering loops cycles paradoxes 0 Psychological implausibility of procedural metaphors Homework 0 Read chapter 5 Phonology 0 Phones vs phonemes I Contrastive distribution vs complementary distribution vs free variation 0 Features and natural classes Features Ohstruents Nasal Liquids Glide Vowels consonantal r rsyllabic 7 4 4 7 rsonorant r Examples pdvtf mm 11 jW ia Features Shops Fmahw A nmtz Nasazs Lquzd cum Glomzk b kgfve szj gtj ckgmnnliWvxhl Mnwznsskonsonantataaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa77777 faunas s0n0rant 77777777777aaaaaaaa syllablc 77777777777 Manner nasal 7777777777aaa fmmres eonttnuant777777777777 lateral 77777777777 delayedtetease777777777777aa Laryngeal voice 77777777777 faatmes cs 77777777 56 7777777777777777777777777 Placeof LABIAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 articulation round 7 7 7 7 a Balms CORONAL 00 00000000 0 00 anten0r 7777 student if rr DORSAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hugh a baCk 7 Nate low tense and reduced are not used for Engusn consonants Aspuated stops ph th 1th will have the feature SG syllable uqutds and nasa1s will have the feature syllab1c Features Maiarclass consonantal 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 atures so 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 syllabic Manner feature continuant Laryngeal Voice feature Phce 0f LABIAL 0 0 0 0 articuhtizm round 7 7 7 7 features DORSAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 high 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 1 w 7 7 7 7 7 7 baCk 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 tense reduced 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Syllables I Syllable structure Onset O Rhyme R I s p 1 Nucleus N Coda Co Syllables I Syllable patterns vary across languages I Some universal tendencies I Syllable nuclei usually consist of one vowel I Syllables usually begin with onsets I Syllables often end with codas I Onsets and codas usually consist of one consonant 0 CV and CVC are the most common types of syllables Syllables I We start with an underlying representation which gives the nonipredictable features of a word I Syllabification algorithm 0 Nucleus formation create syllables for sonority pea I Onset formation group less sonorant segments into onsets I Coda formation anything that s left goes into the coda I Wordilevel formation syllables are grouped into words Rules 0 Once the syllable structure is determined we can fill in predictable features using rules I Defaults I Allophones 0 Variation Phonological rules take the form AABXiY which can be read A becomes B when it occurs betweenX and Y Rules 0 Some features are entirely predictable eg Voice is redundant for sonorants in English I If the UR only includes nonipredictable information then we can use rules to fill additional features sonorant gt Voice 7 0 Cf English bogs bagz balls balz vs Russian gorodok town nom sg gorotka gen sg izelagatj to state set forth isekljutfatj to exclude dismiss Rules 0 Some rules produce allophones of a phoneme I Liquids have voiceless allophones after voiceless stops and voiced allophones elsewhere I Devoicing rule isyllabic gt ivoice U isyllabic sonorant consonantal inasal isonorant icontinuant 7 oice idelayed release Rules 0 Epenthesis and deletion rules add or remove segments 0 Schwa deletion police parade 9 Q C i U C Vstress I Schwa epenthesis milk film E gt a lateral 7 isyllabic 039 cons Rules 0 Assimilation rules adapt sounds to their environments I Glide devoicing I Nasal place assimilation indirect IHdSJEkt indignity Indigniti important 11111001131111 immature Immatjur inconclusive ngagklusw ingratitude Ingraetitud Rules 0 Maltese fellas ilfellas chicken natura innatara nature aria laria air mara ilmara woman tirn ittirn fig 0mm lomm mother kelb ilkelb dog attus ilattus cat shah isshab clouds hitan ilhitan walls abt labt armpit ispaniol lispaniol Spanish dawl iddawl light Rules 0 Neutralization rules eliminate contrasts 0 e1 e ae are contrastive in English but for some speakers all are pronounced e in front of 1 Mary merry marry I ow e o ae are reduced to a in unstressed syllables telegraph telegraef photograph fowtagraef telegraphy telegrafi photography fatografi Rules 0 Several rules may apply to one underlying representation UR sleep taep peed Asp 7 thaep phsed V7length 7 7 phaezd PR sleep thaep phaezd Rules 0 Rules apply in order to the output of the preceding rule UR pe1ed Stress peu d Schwa del pJ d Devoicing pg d Diphth pg jd Vilength pg zjd PR pa ijd Interfaces 0 Which comes first morphology or phonology 0 It s natural to assume morphology comes first but I blacken whiten toughen I dryen dimmen greenen laxen I soften fasten moisten Interfaces 0 German nominalizations I ierei is added to verb stems with final stressed syllables I iei is added to to other verb stems I For example sfngen ladderen spion feren drb it en s geln tr6deln biigeln Sing er i Lackierere i Spionier er i Arbeit er i Segel i Trb39del e i Biigele i singing lacquering spying workmg sailing lo1ter1ng ironing Interfaces Stress in German is assigned by a phonological rule so it s not in the underlying representation 0 After adding the suffix stress may shift so the rule can t refer to the surface representation either UR lackier luckier Stress lackienerei Suf x SR lackierier i Stress This implies that phonology is both before and after morphology Cyclicity I The solution Cyclic rule application Mascar 1970 I Catalan grind sell mol ban 3 sg moles b51175 2 sg molrk beg 15g 0 Two ordered rules I Assimilate nasal to following stop 11 gt r i k 0 Delete wordifinal stop after nasal icont gt E nasal i inasal Cyclicity I But bin twenty hint twentieth bim pans twenty breads big kaps twenty heads I Here k deletion must come before assimilation I The solution hawk bsykl bsyl bintkaps hint kaps bin kaps big kaps first cycle nasal assimilation cluster simplification second cyc e nasal assimilation Rules 0 This picture of phonological derivations goes back to Panini and dominated through the 20th century I More recent models of phonology eg Optimality Theory drop rules in favor of constraints 0 Rules are the effects constraints are the causes 0 Many rules reproduce historical developments eg nasal assimilation 0 Problems with rule ordering loops cycles paradoxes I Psychological implausibility of procedural metaphors Homework 0 Final exam 0 Thursday May 10 0 100 pm 7 300 pm 0 Comprehensive exam but with more emphasis on second half I In class open book Rules Human language is infinite we can t simply list all the words sentences etc in a language But are human minds infinite Rules patterns analogies etc give us a way of describing an infinite set of words using finite resources Most of linguistics as aimed at finding the right kind of rules for capturing language Formal languages I Abstractly we can model linguistic forms as strings sequences of basic elements drawn from an alphabet For the purposes of writing rules we can think of a language as a set of strings e g correctly spelled words grammatical sentences The formal language trick 0 Real languages are a kind of human behavior formal languages are just sets of strings Formal languages are relatively easy to define and write rules for and are easy for computers to deal wit Formal languages I A formal language is a subset of the possible strings that can be formed from the basic alphabet aa ab ba bb E a abba Stochastic linguistics Computational linguistics is a hybrid of humanities and engineering disciplines Theoretical linguistics gives ideas like morphological rules and articulatory phonetics These tend to be absolute distinctions a word is spelled right or it isn t From engineering computational linguistics borrows stochastic approaches N0 absolutes probabilities instead Stochastic linguistics For many linguistic problems we don t know the right answer So we need to guess Two closely related approaches 0 noisy channel model I Bayesian inference Both methods rely on probability Information Theory Alan Turing Claude Shannon A mathematical theory of communication and how messages convey information Originally developed for decoding messages during WW2 later applied to improving telegraph and telephone communication Based on probabilities how would an optimal betting strategy change after you find out a roulette wheel is rigged Fundamental concept information entropy Noisy channel model 0 Information theory can be used for decoding messages using the noisy channel model I We imagine communication along a lowiquality telephone line I sender creates a message 5 0 message is transmitted over a communication channel which produces random changes to the message 0 receiver gets a message R I The challenge is to guess what the original message was using knowledge of source and noise distributions Noisy channel model First used for translation by IBM s TJ Watson research lab in 1970 s Many different problems can be posed as a noisy channel model Noisy channel model is applicable whenever we want to guess an unknown thing e g a correctly spelled word given a known thing eg an incorrectly spelled word We need a model of underlying message probabilities P 5 plus a noise model PRS Noisy channel model Spelling correction I 5 perfect text RteXt with errors I PS prob of perfect text PRS error model 0 Translation 0 5 Target language RSource language I PS prob of target language PR S translation model Speech recognition I 5 word sequence Rspeech signal I PS prob of word sequence PRS acoustic model Noisy channel model 0 Translation Ik zit op de bank en kijk naar het televisie I We imagine that this sentence was actually produced in English and deformed by a noisy communication channel I To reconstruct the hypothetical English original we need a model of the source probabilities PEnglish and the error probabilities PDutch English Noisy channel model I We work backwards from the error probabilities PDutch English to get two possible English sources I m at the bank watching television I m sitting on the sofa watching television 0 One of these is much more likely as an English sentence than the other Noisy channel model O Other alternatives have high PEnglish and low PDutch English Have a nice day 0 Or low PEnglish and low PDutchEnglish My hovercraft is full of eels I But given high enough PDutch English even a very low PEnglish sentence might be chosen Mijn hovercraft zit vol paling Noisy channel model I Generative model for producing Dutch pick an English sentence 5 with probabilityPs Have a nice day I m sitting on the sofa watching television I m at the bank watching television My hovercraft is full of eels 0 Translate 5 into a Dutch sentence rwith probability Prs 1k zit op het bank en kijk naar het televisie Op het bank ben ik naar televisie aan te kijken Prettige dag verder Mijn hovercraft zit vol paling M ijn luchtkussenvoertuig zit vol paling Spelling error correction 0 Given a noniword error acress what is the most likely correct Spelling 0 We assume that all spelling errors consist of a single insertion deletion substitution or transposition mostly true 0 Two stage algorithm 0 Generate candidates by reversing errors 0 Score each candidate to nd that one that maximizes the prior Pc times likelihood Pt c Language models System performance depends on both the error model and the language model Language models are sort of independent of the task Language models can usually be constructed using unsupervised training methods so much larger corpora are available Improved language models for context sensitive spelling correction and for detecting real word spelling errors Some tasks truecasing accent restoration can be performed using only a language mo e Language models To allow context sensitive or real word error correction we want a more sophisticated model Strictly speaking the Markov assumption doesn t require that we have no history at all As long as we have a nite amount of history we can still model language as a weighted FSA A model which uses no history is a first order Markov model or a unigram model A model which uses one word of history is a second order Markov model or a bigram model In general Markov chain language models are negram mo e s Language models Using an nigram model we can generate random samples of text that mimic a training corpus First order To him swallowed confess hear both Which Of save on train for are ay device and rote life have Second order Wl39gl dost stand forth tl39gl canopy forsooth he is this palpable hit the King Henry Live king Follow Third order This shall forbid it should be branded if renown made it empty Fourth order They say all lovers swear more performance than they are wont to keep obliged faith unforfeited Language models I First order Months the my and issue of year foreign new exchange s september were recession exchange new endorsed a acquire to six executives 0 Second order Last December through the way to preserve the Hudson corporation NBEC Taylor would seem to complete the major central planners 15 of the USE has already old W corporation of living on information such as more frequently fishing to keep her 0 Third order They also point to 996 billion from 204063 of the rates of interest stores as Mexico and Brazil on market conditions Word lattices tour its wreck a nice beach hard to i s recognize speech 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 It s hard to recognize speech Homework 0 Read chapter 4 0 Bring workbook to class on Monday Morphology Words can be simple big or complex undeniably Morphological rules govern how parts of words combine deny able 39deniable un deniable 39 undeniable undeniable ly 39 undeniably Derivational rules change the meaning of a word In ecLional rules mark grammatical distinctions Number book books Tense sail sailed sailing Case he 39 39 Morphology 0 In ectional categories differ between languages 0 singular vs plural vs dual 0 present vs past 0 nominative vs accusative vs possessive 0 masculine vs feminine vs neuter 0 The boundary between in ection and derivation can sometimes be fuzzy fly Morphology Some morphological rules have slightly different effects depending on the sound of the word they apply to book 39 books bog gt bogs pronounced bogz box gt boxes pronounced boxez Sometimes there are changes in writing that don39t correspond to changes in pronunciation go 39 going run 39 running Phonetics Phonetics is the study of speech sounds sip zip sap zap Articulatory phonetics views speech sounds phones via the anatomy of the human vocal tract Acoustic phonetics instead looks at the physical characteristics sound waves The sounds of the world s languages can be classified according to their articulatory and acoustic properties The International Phonetic Alphabet IPA gives a consistent way of writing all speech sounds Phonetics ALVEOLAR NASAL CAWV Phonetics qualms ll Phonology The basic sound units ofa language are phonemes Phonemes change their pronunciation slightly depending on the sounds they occur w39 1J pit spit tap Rule the phoneme 1J is pronounced ph at the beginning of the word The phoneme inventory and phonological rules are different for every language Unlike m01phophonology phonology is mostly unconscious is not re ected in writing and is very difficult to reylearn accent Phonology Changing phonemes changes meaning phit pit phit bhit bit and pit are a minimalpair Getting phonology right is a big problem for speech recognition and synthesis Writing systems are more or less phonemic so phonological rules are less important for orthography written language Syntax Syntax or grammar rules govern how words are combined into phrases and sentences Word order Pat sees Chris vs Chris sees Pat But Chris was seen by Pat or CHRIS Pat saw Constituency Pat put the pizza in the oven The pizza Patput in the oven Pat put in the oven the pizza that Chris ordered What did Patput in the oven The pizza Word classes Besides looking at their structure we can also look at different classes ofwor s Parts of speech noun verb determiner adjective adverb preposition etc Many words can be used as more than one part of speech with or without a morphological change 0 deny vs deniable 0 record vs record 0 quick vs quickly As always the boundaries are sometimes unclear Semantics Most words have meanings lexical semantics The meaning of a sentence is determined by the meaning of the words plus their syntactic configuration Syntax defines a set of grammatical roles Subject Pat gave Chris a book Indirect object Pat gave Chris a book Direct object Pat gave Chris a book Can structure exist without meaning Colorless green ideas sleep furiously Sentences combine into paragraphs or conversau39ons discourse semantics Pragmatics 0 Pragmatics is the study of language in use 0 Language can be used to convey information Your hair is on re 0 Language can be used for many other purposes Thank you Could you pass the salt I d like to see that one Stop that You may begin Wheneveryou re ready I now pronounceyou husband and Wife Morphology Suppose we want to build a spelling checker which can identify orthographically correct English words A first attempt make a list of all the words in an unabridged dictionary Word lists compress well so even very long lists can be stored in handheld computers Is this going to work Morphology 0 Dictionaries don t usually list in ected forms of words see you see she sees saw has seen seeing run you run she runs ran has run running walk you walk she walks walked has walked walking book book books quick quick quicker quickest quickly 0 If we want to recognize these as correctly spelled they need to be added to the word list 0 Doing this by hand is laborious and error prone Morphology A bigger problem is derivational morphology which lets us creatively form new words We know what these words mean but they re probably not listed in a dictionary goat gouty goatify degoatify degoatification Morphology 0 What s the longest English word antidisestablishmentarianism 0 How do we know it s a word msinairamemhsilbatsesidima ismariarimentestablishdisanfi 0 What does it mean antiedisiestablishimentiariianiism Morphology How do we know it s the longest antidisestablishmentarianism But what about antidisestablishmentarianistic antidisestablishmentarianisticalb antieantidisestablishmentariamlsticalbl antieantidisestablishmentariamlsficality 1 p Lid Wt uumwmy Wat Lid Wt uumwuty English has an infinite number of words in theory at least Creativity Human language is infinite we can t simply list all the words sentences etc in a language But are human minds infinite Rules patterns analogies etc give us a way of describing an infinite set of words using finite resources Most of linguistics as aimed at finding the right kind of rules for capturing language Morphology Ferdinand de Saussure 1916 0 The sign is a relation between form and meaning 0 This relationship is arbitrary But what about relationships like dog gt cat dogs gt cats The key insight behind morphology is that signs aren t completely arbitrary words with similar forms tend to have similar meanings Homework 0 Read chapter 5 0 For Monday 413 0 O Grady pg 1957196 2 6 7 Syntax Syntax governs how sentences are assembled out of words Traditional grammar is based on parts of speech defined by a mix of distributional and semantic properties The only reliable way to define parts of speech is by reference to the other parts of speech that they combine with form classes Tests for category membership inflection distribution Word classes 0 Word classes are defined in terms of other word classes nouns occur with determiners which occur with nouns 0 Word class tests differ across languages though there are lots of universal tendencies 0 Word groups or phrases or constituents also belong to categories the big dog chased afast cat up the neighbor s tree Constituents Constituents are units of syntactic structure that are bigger than words and smaller than sentences Some tests for constituency Substitution test a single word or simple phrase replaces a longer phrase 0 Robin wants to visit Paris I managed to do so last summer 0 The children will stop at the corner if thq see us do so Constituents Constituents 0 Deletion test if a phrase can be omitted from a 0 Movement test if a phrase can be shifted as unit in the sentence then it s probably a constituent ellipsis sentence then it s probably a constituent 0 Robin was planning to see the entire Lord of the 0 Susan will do whatever she wants to Rings this coming Saturday and Whatever she wants to Susan will do 0 Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the 0 My neighbor always mows the lawn right after it Rings this coming Saturday also Right after it rains my neighbor always mows the Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the lawn Rings this coming Saturday also 39 0 I would never give a book like that to my mother as a 0 Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the t g ngs thls Commg Saturday 815039 To my mother I would never give a book like that as a 39ft 0 Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the Rings on Wednesday Constituents Constituents 0 Questions are also a kind of movement in English 0 Coordination test if you can combine two phrases with a conjunction and or then they are probably 0 Lee w111 send the children home constituents Q What Will Lee send 0 They stopped at the corner and looked both ways A The children Not the children home 0 This is the test with the most exceptions so be careful 0 Q Who Will Lee send home A The children 0 Lee gave Sandy a book and Chris aphotograph 0 Q What will Lee do 0 Q What did Lee give A Send the children home A Sandy a book 0 Q What did Lee give Sandy A A book 0 Q Who did Lee give a book ASandy Constituents 0 The tests aren t always applicable and they don t always agree so try to look for confirmation 0 They said that Robin will pass the exam and Robin wi They said that Robin will pass the exam and Robin will They said that Robin will pass the exam and pass the exam Robin will 0 Q What will Robin do A Pass the exam Robin will pass the exam and graduate on time Phrases 0 Phrase structure rules describe patterns for constituent formation 8 NPVP NP gtDetN NP gtNPPP VP gtV VP gtVNP VP gtVPPP PP gtPNP 0 A complete description of the phrase types for any language may require hundreds or thousands of rules Phrases 0 Usually one element in a constituent the head determines its category 0 dog the large dog Chris has been feeding 0 believes sincerely believes that this is the right choice Elements to the left of the head in English are generally specifiers the dog never walks veU large Phrases 0 Elements to the right of the head in English are generally complements eat a hamburger books about cars in the barn This threerpart structure specifier 7 head 7 complement is very common and is found in many types of phrases in many languages The X sdiema X bar and the Merge operation together are the beginning of a possibly universal model for sentence structure Phrases XP Specifier X X Complement Head 1 All phrases have a threerlevel structure x x39 and xv 2 All phrases contain a head x 3 If there is a complement it is attached at the intermediate X39 level as a sister of the head 4 If there is a speci er it is attached at the XP level Phrases Basic X phrase structure rules XP gt YP X Specifiers X gt X ZP Complements Where X Y Z can be a category like N V A E Other phrase structure rules XP gt XP MP Postrmodifiers X gt X MP X gt MP X Prermodifiers XP gt XP Conj XP Coordination Each rule has a head which determines its category Phrases 0 Examples Pat loves Robin passionately Pat pushed the stubborn horse into the barn Robin talked to the manager over the phone Robin yelled angrily at the manager from Ohio Lee bought a nice picture of the unicorn from Robin Complements Information about the complements which a head can occur with subcategorization or valence is listed in its lexical entry along with the pronunciation the meaning and the category devour davaw2r devour Category Complements NP Both the category and the valence constrain Merge The child devoured the sandwich The child devoured The devoured devoured Complements 0 Verbs vary a lot in types of complements they allow Complements 0 Some verbs also allow Whole sentences complement clauses as complements The coach knows that the team will win The coach knows whether the team will win The coach knows when the team will win The coach knows the team will win 0 Nonrfinite clauses are also possible The coach expects that the team will win The coach expectsfor the team to win 0 Words like that and for are complementizers Comth option Sample heads Example 0 vanish arrive die The rabbit vanished 7 NP devour cut prove The professor proved NP the theorem AP be become he man became AP Very an PPto dash talk refer The dog dashed W to the door NP NP spare hand give We handed NP the man NP a map NP PPto hand give se d She gave NP a diploma W to the student NP PPfox buy cook reserve We bought NP a hat W for Andy NP PP1 C put place stand She put NP the muTler W on the car PPto PPabout talk speak I talked W to a doctor PP about Sue NP PPfox PPth open fix We opened NP the door W for ohh W with a crow ar 17 Complements 0 Subcategorization frames can combine clauses and h p ras es ThQI believe that MaU left ThQI told Eric that Mary had left The admitted to Eric that MaU had left ThQI bet Ericfifty dollars that Mary had left 0 Different subcategorization frames sometimes are associated with slightly different meanings Lee remembered the door Lee remembered to open the door Lee remembered opening the door Lee remembered that he opened the door 0 Valence patterns aren t random 7 they are at least partially predictable from meanin 0 Valence probably isn t completely predictable though grew political got a success turned out sent more and more leaflets Kim ended up dorng all the work waxed to like anchovies became more and more like her brother Complements Homework 0 For Monday 323 0 Read O Grady chapter 3 0 O Grady pp 1017107 5 9 13 14 0 Farmer pp 53755 32 Schedule 0 Review Monday 323 0 lnrclass midterm Wednesday 325 0 Takehome midtern due Friday 327 Homework 0 O Grady pg 52 5 Homework O Grady pg 53 6 5 le fricative klgl Stop Wj glide fricative 5 IM fricative mlnl nasal fl d5 affricate 1 t liquidstop fl 5 affricatefricative 1w liquidglide h 7 fricative stop 2 d5 fricativeaffricate s l alveolar k 13 velar l r alveolar d5 I palatal tj d5 palatal p g bilabial velar m n bilabial alveolar t h labiodentalglottal w j labiovelar p alatal b t bilabial lab iodental s v alveolar lab iodental 6 t interdental alveolar Homework 0 O Grady pg 53 9 p t k g 7 stops 1 e 5 3e front vowels tjgjdg alveopalatal stridents p b m f v labials A a U a back vowels h 7 glottals u 0 back rounded vowels s z tj dgj z stridents 11 m n gj w sonorants t d If n s z alveolars Homework 0 O Grady pg 53 10 0 Farmer pg 33 21 Homework The twilight turns from amethyst To deep and deeper blue The lamp fills with a pale green glow The trees of the avenue The old piano plays an air Sedate and slow and gay She bends upon the yellow keys Her head inclines this way Shy thoughts and grave wide eyes and hands That wander as they listi The twilight turns to darker blue With lights of amethyst tog thug hulk l LAlk kid khld explode aksplowd attain ethej n tube thub tj ub despise despaiz spell spsl elbow elbow cord khoid kh01d haul hol hul accord ekhmd ekho1d juice dgus astound estawnd thimble eimbl pure Pyui peel phIl wheeze WlZMlZ stun stAn remove iimuv Oscar aski clincal klinlkl cooler khuli sigh saj Homework 0 Farmer pg 39 24 after th syllable iniual beauuful th syllable iniual embitter r btw vowel and syllabic r that word final after vowel cotton 7 before syllabic 11 cent word final after 11 Burt t elsewhere built 7t word final after I butler 7 syllable final before 1 Burton 7 before syllabic n substance t elsewhere atoms r btw vowels result word final after I Homework 0 Farmer pg 39 24 cont phoneucs revolt antler settler my attitude article syllable iniual word final after 1 before 1 before I syllable iniual btw vowels btw r and a vowel Constraints 0 The rulerbased procedural model of phonological derivations goes back to Panini and dominated through the 20th century 0 More recent models of phonology eg Optimality Theory drop rules in favor of constraints 0 Rules are the effects constraints are the causes 0 Rule systems don t explain phonological patterns 0 Many rules reproduce historical developments eg nasal assimilation 0 Problems with rule ordering loops cycles paradoxes Psychological implausibility of procedural metaphors Constraints Optimality Theory accounts for phonological patterns via constraint satisfaction Devoicing of word final obstruents b d g z gt p t k 5 Universal phonological constraints 0 NOFINALVOICING Avoid word final voiced obstruents 0 FAITHFULN39ESS Surface realizations must respect underlying representations Alternate rankings Constraints Alternate rankings account for observed phonological variation between languages Final devoicing occurs in many unrelated languages Emergence of the Unmarked There is no ranking of the constraints that yields final voicing Factorial typology a system of n constraints predicts the existence of up to 11 language types 0 Evolutionary phonology Juliette Blevins accounts for 0 Dutch NOFlNALVOICING gtgt FAITHFULN39ESS 0 English FAITHFULN39ESS gtgt NOFINALVOIC1NG 10 Evolutionary phonology phonological patterns via sound changes Multiple sources for sound pattern similarity Blevins 2007 0 Cognitive Factors 0 Direct inheritance 0 Indirect inheritance Phonetic factors 0 Languagerspecific factors 0 Chance Evolutionary phonology Devoicing of word final obstruents b d g z a p t k s Final devoicing is phonetically a very natural sound change Many evolutionary pathways will lead to final devoicing The need to maintain lexical contrast will sometimes work against the tendency towards final devoicing No natural sound changes lead directly to final voicing but under the right circumstances it could arise anyway Breton Lezgian Explanation O Theories of biological variation across space and time 0 Modern Synthesis Central Dogma Ernst Mayr EM EM mm m 0 Probabilisticepigenetic framework Gilbert Gottlieb ENVIRONMENT Physical Social Cultural BEHAVIOR NEURAL ACTIVITY W GENETIC ACTIVITY gt Individual development gt Sign language Sign languages are organized in the same way as spoken languages Symbolic system using paired forms and meanings Basic phones 0 handshape 0 location 0 movement Minimal pairs Sign language a CANDY 9 APPLE Sign language Sign language 0 Phonological processes 0 Phonological processes 0 Phonotactic constraints 0 Prosody 0 Assimilation 0 Syllables A39 MIND 1339 DROP C39 FAINT ASL 0 Differences with spoken language 0 Sequencing and simultaneity 0 Speed and size of articulators 0 Non dominant hand Linguistics Student Association Information session on the Computational Linguistics Certificate May4 530 630pm EBA 412 Homework 0 Read O Grady chapter 15 18 0 For Monday 511 0 O Grady pg 527 4 0 O Grady pg 625 5 7 English variation 0 Major US dialect regions Map 2 Eumpansun at tha maiur ialact Duun arlas in Map am uf Carver i987 and the boundaries at the Phoimiagicai Atias at North America Law 1827 manningicai Alias s of the United States based on the TIIanrth Nurthcznnal Cmisnvanvelmi h andmmvvnds ei systems of 240 Teisur informants a mmmmm x eh Thelmand mh TheNmthmiszsShm Tm afinllt375Hz EasmnamENE KWcalmonnamlnwhackmzrger Vim W mainmmpasomm m NewYarkCity Kwcalm nnammsmgafah W Map iThe urban diaiect area acoustic ahainis of the vow South sMaria l A u A a 11 Midland and die Wesl m Nanh Midland Appmmmams m mmalpasmnn Absence at any marked team an Map i inch mamphthnngin nn at aw Aimduh mw gta Si Imus analmd margerafhhramuhrl Distance armmmm aw in msanm mm arch i7 i W mmmmsm A F2 at lawgt135El Hz i o Mamphthnngin nn at ayi l Nanhzmmnstexmmmnafsanthzmsh WW Charlzsmnamsavamah mam ariamm mhlgtw F2 archzckzd W 1275 Hz mmmm hlghandmldlnng Wm m West m mm margeram nnhngafmw x2 unlinked yigt2u5u Hz We tubhem m F2 mime mu Hz 9 JAM151997 I7 iii and e before nasals Distinct in production 2 perception N303 O Merger in pmduction n3 pemeption N120 Feb 11 199 Variable N150 i Lm has labome r Ilia Pfionofogzcaf fas af ict rmeracct LT ermsylvan SPRACHGEOGRAPHIE RHEINISCHER FACHER v Midterm WEST FALISCH 8 MANIOS scNER sPnAcNRAuM English variation 0 We also find lexical variation across dialects Fieldworker Ruth Porter vnth a skillet or 15 xt a fry pan or a spiderquot Photo courtesy of University of Wiscousm Extension 1965 0 Dictionary of American Regional English DARE 0 Arthur the Rat httpggdarewiscedug nodeg44 Language variation 0 Language use varies along many social dimensions 0 Regional dialect variation 0 Socioeconomic class Labov 1972 Casual r Careful r Saks 63 64 Macy s 44 61 S Klein 8 18 0 Age gender education ethnicity 0 Social networks Politeness 0 Language tu and vous can be used to express relations of power and solidarity between people Brown and Gilman 1960 0 Power differentials are expressed by different forms 0 Customer V and waiter T 0 Officer V and soldier T 0 Parent V and son T 0 Solidary relations are expressed by same forms 0 Customer V and waiter V 0 Officer V and soldier V 0 Parent T and child T Politeness 0 Terms of address 0 rm and vous 0 inclusive and exclusive 1st person plurals 0 first name last name title 0 sirma am Japanese politeness forms Politeness 0 Javanese politeness levels 0 Are you going toeat rice and cassava now 0 High Menapa semp jan bad neda sekul kalijan kasp semanika 0 Higher Menapa pandjenengan bad dahar sekul kalijan kasp semanika 0 Low Apa semp jan arep neda sega an kasp saiki 0 A lingua franca is a common language used for 0 A pidgin is a constructed language used for interrgroup 0 Pidgins are formed when many different groups come Language Contact communication between groups communication 0 No native speakers by definition 0 Radically simplified phonology morphology syntax 0 Typically draws vocabulary from one lexifier language often of higher status in sporadic contact trade labor Language Contact 0 NeoyMelanesian mi stay logy biglajn mi kstim kopm I was in the workgroup cutting copra 0 Chinese Pidgin English Befbre my sellum for ten dollar 1 sold it for ten dollars Nauru Pidgin English Mi hasrbsn an no wai i My husband s friend has no wife Language Contact 0 When a pidgin becomes established as the first language of a community it is a creo e 0 Creoles are much more complex grammatically than d pi gins 0 Creoles share many common properties SVO word order tenseaspect markers 0 Monogenesis vs bioprogram hypotheses 0 Creole continuum 0 Basilect gt mesolect gt acrolect 0 Polyglossia Homework Syntax 0 Read chapter 5 0 Syntax governs how sentences are assembled out of words 0 For Monday 413 0 O Grady pg 1957196 2 6 7 lPat kisses Robin lRobm kisses Pat Pat Robin kisses Robin Pat kisses kisses Pat Robin kisses Robin Pat 0 Meaning is determined by choice of words and their order Word classes Word classes 0 Traditional grammar is based on parts of speedi 0 Greek Latin English onoma nomen noun 0 Parts of speech were a central feature in class1cal rhema verbum verb grammars i adjectivum adjective o Aristotle 384322 BC Dionysius Thrax c1707c90 metoche Pamclplum Pamclple BC Aelius Donatus H353 AD anhron 39 amculum amde antonuIma pronomen pronoun 0 Grammarians extended classical theories to English prothesis praepositio preposition and other vernaculars Aelfric of Eynsham c9557 epirrhema adverbium 1020 AD syndesmos coniunctio conjunction i interiecuo interjection Parts of speech 0 Traditional parts of speech are defined by a mix of distributional and semantic properties 0 Schoolhouse Rock Well evely person you can know And evely place thatyou can go And any thing thatyou can show You know thqre nouns A noun s a special kind of word It s any name you ever heard find it quite interesting A noun s aperson place or thing Parts of speech 0 Other classes don t have a distinct meaning but are traditionally defined by their function An adverb is a word That modifies a verb It modifies an adjective Or else another adverb And so you see that it s positively vely vely necessaU Or Conjunction Junction What s yourfunction Hooking up phrases and clauses that balance like Out of the flying pan and into thefire Parts of speech 0 Once we look a little deeper the semantic definitions don t work very well 0 running denotes an action but is noun 0 sick denotes a state of being but is an adjective 0 like and be fond of mean pretty much the same thing 0 The only reliable way to define parts of speech is by reference to the other parts of speech that they combine with Parts of speech 0 Major distinction is between open class and closed class words also called content words and function words Major open class categories noun verb adjective Every language has nouns and verbs adjectives and adverbs are common but not universal Word classes Lexical categories Adjective A Preposition P Adverb Adv Emmples Harry boy wheat policy moisture bravery arrive disouss melt hear remain dislike good tall old intelligent beautiful tond to in on near at by slowly quietly now always perhaps Nimlexical categories Emmples Determiner Det uxiliary verb Aux o al Nonmodal Conjunction Con Degree word Deg the a this these no as in no books will can may must should could be have and or but too so very more quite Word classes In ection can be used as a test for categories plural 5 on nouns past ed on verbs etc but this isn t always reliable Distributional tests 0 Nouns occur after determiners the book the arrive and adjectives big book certairl arrive 0 Nouns are negated with no no book no arrive 0 Nouns can be subjects or objects of verbs dogs chase cats objects of prepositions in boxes and possessors books covers 0 Word classes are defined in terms of other word classes Word classes nouns occur with determiners which occur with nouns 0 Word class tests differ across languages though there are lots of universal tendencies 0 Word groups or phrases or constituents also belong IO categories the big dog chased afast cat up the neighbor s tree Constituents Constituents are units of syntaqu structure that are bigger than words and smaller than sentences Some tests for constituency Substitution test a single word or simple phrase replaces a longer phrase 0 Robin wants to visit Paris I managed to do so last summer The children Will stop at the corner if thq see us do so Constituents 0 Deletion test if a phrase can be omitted from a sentence then it s probably a constituent ellipsis Robin was planning to see the entire Lord of the Rings this coming Saturday and Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the Rings this coming Saturday also Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the Rings this coming Saturday also Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the Rings this coming Saturday also Lee was planning to see the entire Lord of the Rings on Wednesday Constituents 0 Movement test if a phrase can be shifted as unit in the sentence then it s probably a constituent 0 Susan will do whatever she wants to Whatever she wants to Susan will do 0 My neighbor always Inows the lawn right after it Right after it rains my neighbor always Inows the lawn 0 I would never give a book like that to my mother as a gift To my mother I would never give a book like that as a 39ft Homework 0 Read chapter 4 especially the appendix 0 For Tuesday 130 I Do exercise 1 5 and 6 O Grady pg 1427143 0 Optional Read advanced material on In ection Contemporary Linguistics AN INTEODUCTION Nth Eamon Chapler 4 In ecljon ase MnrQhuEhonemics Sources Word structure The basic unit of word structure is the morpheme the smallest meaningful element 0 Simple vs complex words Bound vs free morphemes Roots vs bases vs affixes prefix vs infix V Base for ed V Root and base for en gt A Af Af black en ed Meaning relations Three main types in ection derivation and compounding In ectional morphology relates word forms that belong to a single word family or lexeme Derivational morphology creates new words with a change in meaning andor category Compounding combines free forms English derivation Tuhle 46 Some Engllsh deerathual af xes Amx Change Examplu Sg txe able V a A flxeable doable undelstandrable mg V a A the sle prmg glam a blazrmg me we V a A assertive lm ressrwe restrictive a V a N refusal disposral re Mr l an V a N clalmrant delendanl QUIUYL V a N reallzrauon assertion protection ear V a N leacheer wor ref mgz V a N the shooting the dancrm ement V a N adlournemenl treatment amazement dam N a N klngrdom flefedom fld N a A falthrful hopeful dreadful gal N a A presidential nauoneal wan N a A Arabelan antemrlan anesovan 4 N a A Cubrlc Optimistic moronelc eless N a A p nm less bmlnrles e 14 N a A pols nous lecher ous 71281 N a V nos Italrlze vapomze elm A a A greenrlsh allrlsh ate A a V Ct veale capuveale ed A a V d e blackeen harden elzez a V demrlze nauonale ely A a Adv quietly slowly carefully elty a N Stupldrlty pnorrlty ems A a N happlrness sadrness English derivation N gtN N gtN V gtV V gtV V gtV V gtV V gtV A gtA A gtA antihero antidepressant expresident exwife exfriend deactivate demystify discontinue disobey mis identify mis place irethink redo restate un tie unlock un do iiicompetent iiicomplete un happy un fair nilintelligent Derivation How do we know the difference between in ection and derivation No definite answer but lots of tendencies Derivational endings relate dictionary entries In ection doesn t change core meaning or grammatical category walk walks season seasonal In ection is relevant to the syntax derivation is not The actors is are rehearsing The actors actresses are rehearsing Order Derivational morphology applies before in ectional morphology calci cations blackening Lots of apparent exceptions though many can be explained away bounded ness lov ing ness speckledy folksy scholierendom studentrPLrNOUN muzikant endom music ianPLrNOUN Order Derivational rules can apply in more than one order idealistic semanticist In ectional rules have a fixed order German lieb te t love PAST 2PL Basque zinez ta n be 2PL PAST Order varies between languages but there are strong crossilinguistic tendencies Order I But in some languages the relative order of affixes can make a difference I Quechua maqa nakuya chi n beatr REG DURr CAUsr 3 He is causing them to beat each other maqa chi naku rkan beat CAUsr REG PL7 3 They let each other be beaten Optionality I In ection is obligatory while deIivation is optional hipp os lu39pp I Derived forms unlike in ected forms can be replaced by a simple form Thriftiness money leads to wealth Pat always leaves leave at six Productivity 0 In ection is very productive derivation much less so 0 English geographic adjectives Bhutanese Chinese Guyanese Japanese Lebanese Maltese rese Portuguese Taiwanese can Alaskan American Angolan Cuban Jamaican Mexican Nicaraguan rim Argentinean Armenian Australian Brazilian Canadian Egyptian Ethiopian Iranian Jordanian Palestinian Serbian rish Irish British Flemish Polish Scottish Swedish Vi Afghani Iraqi Israeli Kuwaiti Pakistani 7 French German Greek Dutch Productivity In ection is semantically regular derivation is often irregular For example usherette kitchenette leatherette Tense and number suffixes have a more more consistent meaning English fed fing Productivity 0 Derivation tends to induce more changes in the base than in ection English destroy destroyed destruction English broad broader breadth German Erde Erden irdish earth earths earthly Latin honor honoris honestus honor of honor hone st Italian dialogo dialogi dialod5ico dialog dialogue s dialogical Language disorders 0 Paraphasias affects the ability of speakers to in ect words I Always use citation form even when rare 0 Or substitute wrong ending bowled gt bowling bald gt balling I But also some regular derivation poorest gt poorless Language disorders 0 Jargonaphasia produces nonsense words which get in ected regularly I one of the nicest fendlowsquot 0 these little trefties I a lot of those kistises I Yes because I mjust persessing to one and I persets abowth abrowquot I But in Italian some patients will apply regular derivation t0 nonsense words Language disorders 0 Dysgraphia causes people to lose the ability to spell some words so they fall back on phonetic Spelling 0 Regular endings may still be spelled correctly though surfed gt sourphcd sourpht cabooscs gt cabuscs cabusiz wolfcd gt woulphcd concoct gt concauct 0 Maybe productivity is more relevant here that the distinction between in ection and derivation Recursion I Derivation can apply recursively I act ive active ate activate ion activation 0 Repeated morphs English industrializational German Einheitlichkeit unitarity Dutch kleurloosheidloos without colorlessness Italian storicistico historicistic Recursion I This can lead to structural ambiguities a N b N Ax N Af A Af Af A Af u n haIpr miss u n haIpr ness 0 Cf unhealthy I Bracketing paradoxes uneasier ungrammaticality macroeconomist Recursion I In ectional morphology generally doesn t repeat bookses walkeded runninged schematas cherubims I But in Martuthunira ngunhu wartirra punilha ngurnungara mublarra the woman gorPAST thatrPLrALL kanyarangara mublarra kapunmarnu marta ngaramublarra n1aanLrALL shirtrPROPrPLrALL jirliwirra martangaramublarra armPRIvrPROPrPLrALL The woman went towards those men with shirts without sleeves Compounds 0 Compounding combines two free morphemes 0 Root compounds are formed by joining more than one wor houseboat happy hour rattlesnake water soluble 0 Synthetic compounds combine a verb with an argument truck driver waterrepellent machine readable Compounds 0 Endocentric compounds have a semantic head student lm society student lm society I The head of a compound determines what kind of thing the compound denotes I Exocentric compounds don t have a semantic head metonymy pickpocket lazybones cutthroat I Appositional compounds conjoin elements AustriaHungary motherchild philosopherking English root compounds 0 English allows productive compounding of most categones with nouns NN housewife penlltnife dressing gown salad dressing party dress shopping list AN blackbird well wisher happy hour postal order nervous system medical officer PN overcoa outhouse inroads downtrend underpass VN swearword rattlesnake English root compounds I Compounding is a bit harder with adjectives NA trigger happy worldweary earth shattering water soluablc girl crazy class conscious AA roughcu wellformed good looking worldlywise icy cold brightpink dark blue PA offwhite ongoing inborn overexplicit underripe I And even harder with verbs PV of oad overlook Lipstage overfeed undercxploi overcook English root compounds 0 Productivity of compound varies crossilinguistically 0 Many languages use PPS to express English compounds I Germanic compounding woonruimte verdelingsadvies commissie living space division advice committee milieueffect rapportage byeen komst environmental effect reporting meeting Headedness 0 Dutch endocenrric compounds show more evidence for headedness 0 Gender de soep the soup de Vleessoep the meat soup her Vlees the meat her soepvlees the soup meat her geld the money her zakgeld the pocket money de zak the pocketbag de geldzak the money bag Headedness I And irregular plurals portier nachtportier portier autoportier kind kleinkind doorman night doorman car door car door child grandchild portiers nachtportiers portieren autoportieren kinderen kleinkinderen I Endocentric compound words take on the properties of the rightmost daughter Stress How do we know we re looking at a compound Compound stress falls on the fiISt element usually bldckbird black bird whi tehouse white ho use In threeipaIt compounds stress falls on the first element or the second element student lm committee lm committee chairman Stress can disambiguate complex compounds goverment pziy review policy gbvernment pay review policy Stress But stress seems to vary compound stress phrasal stress FbrtySe cond Street Fifth Avenue ga ng war S cond World Wdr cdrrot cake ripple pfe Phrases I Can compounds be formed from phrases I No blackas coal bird slightly used car salesman I Yes American history teacher no parking zone I Some syntactic constraints decompression sickness treatment center the bends treatment center Phrases Learned stems anglophile philanthropist insecticide herbivore Semi icompounds pre and posthead modi ers pro and anti Soviet I don39t know if he should be dis or encouraged Phrases black and blaeness stand offish open airy black and parpleness stand outish open seay