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by: Concepcion Simonis


Concepcion Simonis
GPA 3.6


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Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Concepcion Simonis on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AUD701 at San Diego State University taught by J.Georgeson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/225290/aud701-san-diego-state-university in Health Sciences at San Diego State University.

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Date Created: 10/20/15
I Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds A Elements and Compounds 1 Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass 2 An element is a substance that can t be broken down to other substance by chemical reactions 3 A compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio It has characteristics different from those of its elements B Essential Elements of Life 1 Trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute quantities Some trace elements are needed by all forms of life others are required only by certain species 2 An iodine de ciency in the diet causes the thyroid gland to grow to abnormal size a condition called goiter II An element s properties depend on the structure of its atoms A Subatomic Particles l The atom is the smallest unit having the properties of its element these tiny bits of matter are composed of even smaller called subatomic particles 2 Neutron and Proton are packed together tightly to form a dense core or atomic nucleus at the center of the atom Electron and protons are electrically charged Each electron has one unit of negative charge each proton has one unit of positive charge B Atomic Number and Atomic Mass 1 Atomic number is the number of protons which unique to the element It s written as a subscript to the left of the symbol for the element 2 Mass number is the sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom It s written as a superscript to the left of an element s symbol Neutrons and protons each have a mass very close to l dalton the mass number is an approximation of the total mass of an atom called its atomic mass LA L V C Isotopes V All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons but some atoms have more neutrons than other atoms of the same element and therefore have greater mass These different atomic forms are called isotopes of the element 2 A radioactive isotope is one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy Radioactive isotopes have many useful applications in biology Radioactive isotopes are also useful as tracers to follow atoms through metabolism the chemical processes of an organism L V 4 Radioactive tracers are important diagnostic tools in medicine Radioactive isotopes are very useful in biological research and medicine D The Energy Levels of Electrons 1 Energy is de ned as the capacity to cause change for instance by doing work Potential energy is the energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure 2 The electrons of an atom also have potential energy because of how they are arranged in relation to the nucleus Energy levels are the different states of potential energy that electrons have in an atom 4 An electron s energy level is correlated with its average distance from the nucleus these average distance are represented symbolically by electron shells E Electron Configuration and Chemical Properties 1 The elements are arranged in three rows or periods corresponding to the number of electron shells in their atoms a Hydrogen s l electron and helium s 2 electrons are located in the first shell Electrons tend to eXist in the lowest available state of potential energy b The second shell hold a maximum of 8 electrons 2 The chemical behavior of an atom depends mostly on the number of electrons in its outermost shell Those outer electrons are valence electrons and the outermost electron shell the valence shell F Electron Orbitals l The electron shells of an atom were visualized as concentric paths of electrons orbiting the nucleus Orbital is the three dimensional space where an electrons is found 90 of the time 2 No more than 2 electrons can occupy a single orbital Each electrons in each of the four orbitals have nearly the same energy but they move in different volumes of space 3 When atoms interact to complete their valence shells it is the unpaired electrons that are involved 111 The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms A Covalent Bonds 1 The sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms 2 Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds constitute a molecule 3 A part of shared electrons this notation which represents both atoms and bonding is called a structural formula A molecular formula indicating simply that the molecule consists of two atoms of hydrogen 4 The atoms are thus joined by what is called a double covalent bond U v 5 The attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond is called electronegativity Such a bond in which the electrons are shared equally is a nonpolar covalent bond The sort ofbond called polar covalent bond B Ionic Bond 1 In some cases two atoms are so unequal in their attraction for valence electrons that the more electronegative atom strips an electron completely away from its partner 2 A charged atom is called an ion Compounds formed by ionic bonds are called ionic compounds or salt 3 The term ion also applies to entire molecules that are electrically charged C Weak Chemical Bonds 1 Hydrogen Bonds forms when a hydrogen atom covalently boned to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom 2 Van der Waals Interaction are weak and occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together They were recently shown to be responsible for the ability of a gecko lizard to walk up a wall D Molecular Shape and Function 1 The precise shape of a molecule is usually very important to its function in the living cell These shapes are determined by the positions of the atoms orbitals 2 Molecular shape is crucial in biology because it determines how biological molecules recognize and respond to one another with specificity 3 The role of molecular shape in brain chemistry illustrates the relationship between structure and function one of biology s unifying themes IV Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds 1 The making and breaking of chemical bonds leading to changes in the composition of matter are called chemical reactions 2 When we write a chemical reaction we use an arrow to indicate the conversion of the starting materials called the reactants to the product 3 Some chemical reactions go to completion but most reactions are reversible 4 The point at which the reactions off set one another exactly is called chemical equilibrium


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