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by: Dr. Kay Wyman


Dr. Kay Wyman
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This 67 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Kay Wyman on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM103 at San Diego State University taught by K.Lindemann in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/225300/comm103-san-diego-state-university in Communication Studies at San Diego State University.

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Date Created: 10/20/15
COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 1 COMM 103 Study Guide Answers provided by R Sean Papenhausen I am the same person that made the last 24 page study guide Understand the following concepts and terms well enough to be able to answer truefalse multiple choice and matching questions about them When you see the word know below it connotes a definition model or list that contains several parts When you see the word understand it means the concepts are a bit more complex Exam questions may ask you to identify terms and apply them to hypothetical situations Good luck Chapter 2 1 Know the definition of culture its relationship to societies a Culture is defined as the totality of learned shared symbols language values and norms that distinguish one group of people from another Culture isn t a property of countries ethnicities or economic classes it is a property of people The groups of people who share a common culture are known as societies 2 Know what ingroup and outgroups are a Researchers use the term ingroups to refer to groups of people that we identify with and outgroups to refer to groups of people that we see as different from ourselves i Understand why outgroups can be exciting and stressful a For some people being perceived as different can be an exciting and intriguing experience particularly if they do not typically stand out in their regular environments However many people are more suspicious and less trusting of individuals whose ethnic national or cultural background is different from their own The reality of such feelings can make it COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 2 uncomfortable for an individual to live or work somewhere where they are considered a minority ii See the Dark Side of Communication box a After the attacks on the world trade centers on September 11 2001 many US Muslims felt as though they were being treated as terrorists themselves simply because they shared a cultural and religious background with the hijackers Some received hostile looks or threatening email messages others felt excluded from social events where they would have once felt welcome However the vast majority of Muslims had nothing to do with the terrorists For competent communicators it is vitally important to remember not to condemn an entire group based on the actions of a few individuals 3 Know what a coculture is and its properties symbols languages etc a 039 Within many large cultures is a host of smaller cultural groups that researchers call cocultures Cocultures are groups of people who share values customs and norms related to mutual interests or characteristics besides their national citizenship Your coculture isn t based on the country in which you were born or the national society in which you were raised Instead it is composed of smaller groups of people with whom you identify Every culture has its own symbols that stand for ideas that are vital to that culture When we hear that something is as American as Baseball and Apple Pie the speaker is using Baseball and Apple COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 3 Pie as symbols of the United States Each Society uses symbols that carry particular meaning for its members c Language allows for written and spoken communication and it also ensures that cultures and cultural ideas are passed from one generation to the next Today Chinese English and Spanish in that order are the three most commonly spoken languages in the world 0 A culture s values are the standards it uses to judge how good desirable or beautiful something is In other words values are cultural ideas about what ought to be FD Norms are rules or expectations that guide people s behavior in a culture As an example consider the norms for greeting people when you first meet them In North American countries people typically shake hands and make a courteous statement such as Nice to meet you In another culture it may be normal to hug kiss on both cheeks or even to kiss on the lips 4 How culture affects communication a lndividualistic and collectivist i Cultures differ as to how much they emphasize individuals rather than groups In an individualistic culture people believe that their primary responsibility is to themselves They emphasize the importance of knowing oneself being self sufficient and being true to what one wants in life In contrast people in a collectivist culture are taught that their primary responsibility is to their families their communities and their employers In other words collectivist cultures focus on the needs of the group instead of the needs of the individual b Low and highcontext COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 4 People in various parts of the world vary in how direct and explicit their language is In a lowcontext culture people are expected to be direct to say what they mean and not beat around the bushquot Individuals in lowcontext cultures value expressing themselves sharing opinions and trying to persuade others to see things in their way In contrast people in a highcontext culture are taught to speak in a much less direct way In highcontext societies maintaining harmony and avoiding offense are more important than expressing one s true feelings Consequently people speak in a more ambiguous manner and convey much more of their meaning through subtle behaviors and contextual cues such as facial expressions and tone of voice People raised in a high context society are reluctant to say no even when they want to for fear of causing offense c Low and highpower Cultures also differ from one another in the degree to which power is evenly distributed within the society The belief that all men and women are created equal and that no one person or group should have excessive power is characteristic of a lowpowerdistance culture People in these societies are raised to believe that although some individuals are born with more advantages no one is inherently better than anyone else In a highpowerdistance culture power is distributed less evenly certain groups such as the royal family or the members of the ruling political party have great power and the average citizen has much less People in these societies are taught that certain people or groups deserve more power COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 5 than others and that respecting power is more important than respecting equality d Masculine and feminine We usually use the terms masculine and feminine when we re referring to people Hofstede has suggested that we can also apply those terms to cultures In a highly masculine culture people tend to cherish traditionally masculine values such as ambition achievement and the acquisition of material goods They also value sexspecific roles for women and men preferring that men hold the wage earning and decisionmaking positions while women occupy the nurturing positions By comparison in a highly feminine culture people tend to value nurturance quality of life and service to others all of which are stereotypically feminine qualities They also tend notto believe that men and women s roles should be strongly differentiated e Monochromic and polychromic f Societies that have a monochromic concept of time view time as a commodity Americans save time spend time fill time invest time and waste time as though they were tangible They treat time as valuable and believe that time is money In comparison societies with a polychromic orientation conceive of time as more holistic and fluid and less structured Instead of treating time as a finite commodity that must be manage properly to avoid being wasted people in a polychromic culture perceive it more like a neverending river flowing infinitely into the future Uncertainty accepting and avoiding COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 6 i Humans have a natural tendency to avoid unfamiliar and uncomfortable situations Not all cultures find uncertainty problematic however Rather cultures vary in what Hofstede called uncertainty avoidance or the extent to which people try to avoid situations that are unstructured unclear or unpredictable Individuals from cultures that are highly uncertainty avoidant are drawn to people and situation that are familiar and they are relatively unlikely to take risks for fear of failure iquot In contrast people from uncertaintyaccepting cultures are more open to new situations and more accepting of people and ideas that are different from their own 5 Guidelines for communicating with cultural awareness a Be OpenMinded About Cultural Differences i Be Mindful ii Avoid Ethnocentrism The tendency to judge other cultures practices as inferior to one s own b Be Knowledgeable About Different Communication Codes i Cultures Use Different Idioms a An idiom is a phrase whose meaning is purely figurative we can t understand its meaning literally ii Cultures Use Different Jargon a Jargon is language whose technical meaning is understood by people within a given coculture but not necessarily by those outside it iii Cultures Use Different Gestures c Be Flexible and Respectful When Interacting With Others i Expect Ambiguity lack of certainty COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 7 ii Appreciate Differences in Access to Communication Technology iii Adapt to Others Sample Exam Question 1 Which of the following terms refers to the tendency to judge other cultures practices as inferior to one s own a Uncertainty avoidance b Ignorance c Similarity assumption d Ethnocentrism Chapter 7 6 Know why relationships are important in our lives a We Form Relationships Because We Need to Belong i It is part of human nature to form relationships many evolutionary psychologists argue that our motivation toward social relationships is innate rather than learned According to psychologist Roy Baumeister s Need to Belong theory each of us is born with a drive to seek form maintain and protect strong social relationships Being cut off from social interaction can be physically and psychologically devastating That s why solitary confinement is considered such a harsh punishment for prisoners b Social Relationships Bring Rewards i Social relationships can bring us three types of rewards emotional material and health ii Emotional Rewards Friends provide at least two types of emotional rewards One is emotional support or encouragement through times of emotional turmoil The second happiness COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 8 iii Material Rewards Another way that social relationships benefit us is by helping to meet our material needs such as the our needs for money food shelter and transportation People tend to share those types of resources with others to whom they feel close iv Health Rewards Positive social relationships also promote good health A study by psychologist Sheldon Cohen and his colleagues found that the more social relationships people had the better they were able to fight off the common cold Another study reported that people with a strong social network were twice as likely as those without to survive after a heart attack Research also suggests that close relationships help people manage the negative effects of stress and maintain a healthy lifestyle c Social Relationships Carry Costs as Well as Benefits i Friendships and other social relationships carry costs as well as rewards Think about what it costs you to be friends with someone A friendship takes time that you might have spent rewarding yourself It requires an emotional investment particularly when your friend is in need of your support There can be material costs associated with doing thing together such as the expenses involved when going out to dinner or on a road trip Friendships often require physical investments as well you may not want to help your friend move into her new apartment but you do it anyways because she is your friend Much of the time we decide that the benefits of friendship are well worth the costs Some social relationships however eventually reach the point where the costs of staying in the relationship outweigh the benefits COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 9 7 Understand why we choose to form relationships with others attraction theory uncertainty reduction a Attraction Theory explains why individuals are drawn to others The process of forming most relationships begins with interpersonal attraction the force that draws people together There are three types of interpersonal attraction Physical attraction being drawn to someone because of their looks Social attraction being attracted to someone s personality Task attraction being attracted to someone s abilities and dependability b A variety of qualities in a new acquaintance can spark interpersonal attraction but research suggests that there are a few factors that are especially powerful We are attracted by appearance We are attracted by proximity We are attracted by similarity We are attracted by complementarity a beneficial supplement by another person of something that we lack in ourselves c Uncertainty Reduction Theory A second major theory of why we form relationships focuses not on attraction but on the uncertainty we feel when we don t know someone very well What does it mean to get to know that individual According to communication scholars Charles Berger and Richard Calabrese it means you re reducing your level of uncertainty about that person Berger and Calabrese s uncertainty reduction theory suggests that you will find uncertainty to be unpleasant so you ll be COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 10 motivated to reduce your uncertainty by using communication behaviors to get to know that person 8 Understand why and how we maintain relationships social exchange theory equity theory relational maintenance behaviors a One way to understand why we maintain certain friendships while letting others fizzle out is by examining the give and take of relational costs and benefits There are two specific theories that help us understand how those costs and benefits influence which relationships we are most likely to maintain the social exchange theory and the equity theory b Social Exchange Theory The guiding principle of the social exchange theory is that people seek to maintain relationships in which their benefits outweigh their costs An important concept in social exchange theory is comparison level our realistic expectation of what we want and think we deserve from a relationship That expectation comes both from experience with social relationships and from cultural norms for such relationships Equally important is our comparison level for alternatives which measure how much better or worse our relationship is than other options Social exchange theory suggests that we maintain our relationships when we think that maintaining them is better than our alternatives such as ending those relationships and developing new ones The theory also indicates that we are most likely to end relationships if we believe that staying in them is worse than our alternatives COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 11 c Equity Theory If we think of social relationships as having costs and rewards then it is easy to see that both people in a given relationship might not benefit equally In that situation one person would be overbenefited and the other would be underbenefited According to the equity theory such inequality will lead to trouble Equality Theory borrows the concepts of cost and benefit from social exchange theory and extends them stating that a good relationship is one in which our ratio of costs and benefits is equal to our partner s As long as friends experience equal costs and benefits in the long run equity theory predicts that their relationship will be stable cl Relational Maintenance Behaviors Theory Social exchange theory and equity theory both explain why we choose to maintain relationships In contrast relational maintenance behaviors theory explains how we maintain themspecifically it focuses on the primary behaviors we use to do so Communication researchers Laura Stafford and Dan Canary have found that people use five primary relational maintenance behaviors a Positivity includes behaviors such as acting friendly and cheerful being courteous to others and avoiding criticism b Openness describes a person s willingness to discuss their relationship with a friend or other relational partner Assurances verbal and nonverbal behaviors 0 that people use to stress their faithfulness and commitment to others COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 12 Social Networks include all the friendships and family relationships you have Sharing Tasks performing one s fair share of work in the relationship 9 Understand selfdisclosure characteristics benefits and harms a Characteristics of SelfDisclosure Now that we ve explored why and how we form social relationships lets examine how we communicate about ourselves in those relationships Self disclosure is the act of intentionally giving others information about ourselves that we believe is true but that we think they don t already have Selfdisclosure has several important attributes Self Disclosure is Intentional and Truthful Self Disclosure Varies in Breadth and Depth a Social Penetration Theory illustrates how self disclosure over time is like peeling away layers of an onion which each layer gone we are learning more and more about the person we are getting to know Breadth describes the range of topics one discusses with various people Depth measures how personal or intimate one s disclosures are Self Disclosure Varies Among Relationships a Some relationships can vary in the breadth and depth of self disclosure Self Disclosure is Usually Reciprocal a Norm of Reciprocity when someone gives you a gift you are expected to return the favor Self Disclosure is Influenced by Cultural and Gender COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 13 a Many factors influence how much information we are willing to disclose to other people such as the type of relationship we have with them and how long we have known them b Regarding sex many people probably believe that women self disclose more than men because disclosure and emotional expressiveness are a bigger part of the feminine gender role c In some cultures people are often encouraged to express themselves and to self disclose to their friends and family b Benefits of Self Disclosure There are four key benefits of self disclosure i Enhancement of Relationships and Trust ii Reciprocity iii Emotional Release v Assistance to Others we can disclose information about ourselves to help other people such as when we are trying to express empathy c Risks of Self Disclosure i Rejection when the people we are disclosing to don t like what we tell them ii Chance of Obligating Others this can make the other person feel put on the spot and uncomfortable with disclosing something back iii Hurt to Others its possible to hurt others with disclosures that are too critical or too personal COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 14 iv Violation of Other People s Privacy people in many relationships share private information that is not meant to be shared with other people 10 Know the characteristics of friendships including closeness in samesex friendships a Friendships are Voluntary b Friendships are Usually Among Peers c Friendships are Governed by Rules Stand up for afriend in their absence 39 Trust each other Offer help when your friend needs it iv Don t criticize your friend in public v Keep your friend s secrets v Provide emotional support when needed vquot Respect your friend s privacy viii Don t be jealous of their other friends d Friendships Differ by Sex i Same Sex Friends a Friendships between women often emphasize conversational and emotional expressiveness more than do friendships between men 039 Men s friendships tend to place a heavier emphasis on shared activities and common interests c Easy Hint Women like to talk and men like to do things Who would have guessed ii Opposite Sex Friends a Opposite sex friendships can provide opportunities for men to be emotionally expressive and for women to enjoy shared COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 15 activities that their same sex friends do not In addition many opposite sex friends feel some degree of physical or romantic attraction towards each other and they often communicate in ways that resemble romantic relationships such as flirting with each other and sharing sexual humornot really sure what that means but its in the book 11Know the characteristics of social relationships in the workplace a Social Relationships Between Coworkers b Social Relationships Between Superiors and Subordinates c Social Relationships with Clients You should understand that there is a difference in power that effects these relationships on a question it will mostly be common sense Sample Exam Question 1 You disclose something about yourself to someone else and you expect that they will then disclose something relatively equal in depth about themselves This is called the a b 0 0 Norm of depth Norm of breadth Norm of assurance Norm of reciprocity COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 16 Chapter 8 12 Understand the nature of intimate relationships this includes the dark side box on obsession and stalking a Many people think specifically of romantic relationships when they hear the word intimate but intimacy is about more than just romance Intimacy means significant emotional closeness that we experience in a relationship whether romantic or not Several characteristics are common to intimate relationships Intimate Relationships Require Deep Commitment Most of us are more committed to our intimate relationships than we are with our other relationships Because of this we may be more willing to put aside minor differences and make compromises to preserve our intimate relationships a 0quot 0 0 Commitment is our desire to stay in a relationship no matter what happens When people are committed to each other they assume they have a future together That assumption is important because most intimate relationships experience conflict and distress from time to time What allows us to deal with those difficult times is the belief that our relationship will survive them Intimate relationships usually include some level of emotional commitment or a sense of responsibility for each other s feelings and emotional well being Intimate relationships also involve a level of social commitment which motivates us to spend time together to compromise to be generous with praise and to avoid petty conflict Some intimate relationships are bound by legal and financial commitments which are more formal expressions of people s obligations toward each other Intimate Relationships Foster Interdependence Intimate relationships require high degrees interdependence meaning that what happens to one person affects everyone else in the relationship Intimate Relationships Require Continuous Investment Intimate relationships usually involve a higher investment of our time energy and resources COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 17 iv Intimate Relationships Spark Dialectical Tensions Dialectical Tensions are conflicts between two important but opposing needs or desires a Autonomy Versus Connection A common tension is between autonomythe feeling of wanting to be ones own person and connection the desire to be close to others b Openness Versus Closedness This is a tension between opennessthe desire for disclosure and honesty and closedness the desire to keep certain facts thoughts or ideas to oneself Predictability Versus Novelty This is a conflict between predictability the desire for consistency and stability and novelty the desire for fresh new experiences 0 13 Characteristics of romantic relationships a Romantic Relationships and Exclusivity Usually exclusivity take the form of monogamy which means being in only one romantic relationship at a time and avoiding romantic or sexual involvement with others outside that relationship Exclusivity is an expression of commitment and faithfulness that romantic partners share and trust each other to uphold As a result relational infidelity CHEATING having romantic or sexual interaction with someone outside of one s romantic relationship is often an emotionally traumatic experience for the partner who is wronged b Romantic Relationships and Voluntariness Even if people enter into romantic relationships voluntarily they do not always stay in them voluntarily Indeed research shows that many people are unhappy in their relationships but stay in them anyway The most common reasons people stay in relationships involuntarily are a They want to provide stability for their children b Their religious beliefs disallow separation or divorce 0 They are concerned about the financial implications of separating d They see no positive alternative to their current relationship c Romantic Relationships and Love COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 18 In individualist societies such as the US people believe not only that they should get to choose their romantic partner but that their choice should be based on love and attraction Indeed the typical American wedding ceremony emphasizes the importance of love in the marital relationship whereas a lack of love is frequently cited as a reason why relationships fail However some people enter into romantic relationships even if they don t love each other Some form relationships for financial security or to gain consolidate or protect power cl Romantic Relationships and Sexuality In many ways people communicate similarly in same and opposite sex romantic relationships Both kinds of relationships value intimacy and equality between relational partners They both experience conflict and do so over similar topics They both seek emotional support from family members and friends Further they both negotiate how to accomplish mundane needs such as household chores In fact research indicates that people in same sex relationships report levels of relationship satisfaction equal to those of opposite sex couples Despite the similarities same and opposite sex romantic relationships in most parts of the world differ with respect to the legal recognition of their relationships e Romantic Relationships Around the World Culture Affects Expectations for Exclusivity Some countries allow the practice of polygamy in which one person has two or more romantic partners at once Culture Affects Expectations for Voluntariness In much of the world it is common for other people usually one s parents to choose and individual s romantic partner Culture Affects Expectations for Love In places like China and India the choice of a spouse often has more to do with the wishes or preferences of family and social groups than it does with love even if the marriage isn t arranged Culture Affects Expectations for Sexuality Social and legal acceptance of same sex romantic relationships varies dramatically among different cultures Currently same sex partners are allowed to marry in eight countries In sharp contrast many other countries prohibit people of the same sex from being romantically or sexually involved at all In some countries those convicted of engaging in activity with someone of the same sex are faced with a sentence of life in prison In other countries people would be killed where they COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 19 stood if it were told that they were involved with someone of the same sex 14 Forming and communicating in romantic relationships a Getting In Stages of Relationship Development V vquot Initiating The initiating stage occurs when people meet and interact for the first time Experimenting When you meet someone you re initially interested in you might move to the experimenting stage during which you have conversations to learn more about that person This stage helps people decide if they have enough in common to move the relationship forward lntensifying During the intensifying stage people move from being acquaintances to close friends They spend more time together and might begin to meet each other s friends They start to share more intimate information with each other They also increase their commitment to the relationship Integrating The integrating stage occurs when a deep commitment as formed and the partners have a strong sense that the relationship has its own identity At that stage the partners lives become integrating and they being to think of themselves as a pair Bonding The final stage in Knapp s model of relationship development is the bonding stage in which the partners make a public announcement of their commitment to each other Bonding also allows people to gain the support of approval of people in their social networks Not every couple goes through the stages of relationship development in the same way Some may spend more time on certain stages than others Relationship formation is not necessarily the same in all cultures In countries that practice arranged marriage for instance the process of forming a marital relationship would look much different b Communicating in Romantic Relationships Romantic relationships vary in how they handle conflict Communication scholars William Wilmot and Joyce Hocker define conflict as an expressed struggle between at least two independent parties who perceive incompatible goals scarce resources and interference from the other party in achieving their goals Although conflict isn t fun it isn t necessarily bad for a relationship The way couple handle conflict rather than the amount of conflict they have is what influences the success of their relationship Couples can be COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 20 classified in four ways depending on how they handle their conflicts a Validating Couples talk about their disagreements openly and cooperatively b Volatile Couples also talk about their disagreements openly but in a way that is competitive rather than cooperative c ConflictAvoiding Couples cl Hostile Couples have frequent and intense conflict John Gottman studies have indicated some differences between the ways that same and opposite sex couples handle conflicts His findings showed that homosexuals a Use more humor and positive emotion b Are less likely to become hostile c Use fewer displays of dominance and power d Are less likely to take conflict personally e Stay emotionally and psychologically calmer Romantic Relationships Vary in How they Handle Privacy a Communication Privacy Management Theory explains how people in relationships negotiate the tension between disclosing information and keeping it private iv Romantic Relationships Vary in How they Handle Emotional Communication v Romantic Relationships Vary in How they Handle Instrumental basic mundane Communication c Getting Out Ending Romantic Relationships 39 Differentiating Stage the stage of relationship dissolution at which partners begin to view their differences as undesirable or annoying Circumscribing Stage The stage of relationship dissolution at which partners begin to decrease the quality and quantity of their communication with each other Stagnating Stage The stage of relationship dissolution at which the relationship stops growing and the partners feel they are just going through the motions iv Avoiding Stage The stage of relationship dissolution at which partners create physical and emotional distance from each other Terminating Stage The stage of relationship dissolution at which the relationship is officially deemed to be over This is where divorce occurs lt COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 21 15Communicating in families a What Makes a Family i Genetic Ties a Many family members are related by blood meaning that they share a certain amount of their genetic material ii Legal Obligations a Another aspect of many family relationships is that they involve legal bonds Marriage is the most heavily regulated family relationship from the legal perspective well over a thousand laws govern some aspect of marriage The existence of a legal familial bond is therefore another characteristic of many family relationships iii Role Behaviors a Many people believe that the most important characteristic that defines a family is that the people in it act like a family There are certain roles that family members are supposed to enact that include living together taking care of and loving each other and representing themselves as a family to outsiders b Types of Families i Family of origin the family we grew up in It consists of our parents and siblings Family of procreation the family that we start as adults It consists of our spouse and any children that we raise on our own Nuclear family is the traditional family It consists of a married man and woman and their biological children iv Blended family two adult partners raising children that are not the biological offspring of either party v Single Parent family as the name implies this is the scenario in which one parent raises one ore more children by themselves c Communication Issues in Families i Family Roles Family roles embody the functions people serve in the family system a Blamer holds others responsible for anything b Placater the peacemaker who will go to any lengths to reduce conflict COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 22 c Computer the one who attempts to use logic and reason to defuse the situation cl Distracter tries to make others forget about the conflict altogether ii Family Rituals a Repetitive activities that have special meaning for the family iii Family Stories a Family stories give families a sense of their history express what family members expect of one another and reinforce connections across different generations iv Family Secrets a Family secrets contain information that the family considers private and inappropriate for sharing with outsiders such as details about religious practices health or legal issues family conflicts or financial information 16 Improving communication in intimate relationships a Go for Fun Emphasize Excitement and Positivity i Research shows that partners who engage in engage in exciting or exhilarating forms of play increase their level of relationship satisfaction When partners engage in activities that increase their physical arousal they may attribute their elevated arousal to each other instead of the activity Subconsciously that it people may notice their physical arousal and conclude that their partner rather than the activity is causing it There are other ways to emphasize positivity in family relationships An important technique is the use of confirming messages behaviors that indicate how much we value another person the six types are a Descriptive messages that support clearly and specifically without judgmental words b Inquiry Orientation messages that ivite others to work cooperatively to solve problems and understand issues c Spontaneity messages that are unplanned and free of hidden motives d Empathy messages that express understanding of and interest in another s thoughts and feelings e Equality messages that seek other s viewpoints and express value for others ideas COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 23 f Provisional messages that convey points of view but invite alternative views There are also six disconfirming messages behaviors that imply a lack of respect or value for others a Evaluative messages that convey judgements of what is right and wrong b Control messages that attempt to impose one s ideas on others and force them to agree c Strategy messages that suggest the speaker is trying to direct other s behavior Neutrality messages that imply indifference or a lack of interest in others Superiority Messages that imply that the speaker is superior to their listeners f Certainty messages that convey that the speaker s ideas are absolutely true and that no other viewpoints are valid 0 D b Deal with the Dark Side Handle Conflict Constructiver iv Criticism complaints about another person or the person s behaviors Contempt hostile behavior in which people insult each other and attack each other s self worth Defensiveness seeing oneself as a victim and denying responsibility for one s behaviors what every criminal tries to convey in court Stonewalling withdrawing from a conversation c Get Real Have Real Expectations cl Push and Pull Managing Dialectical Tensions lt V vquot Denial responding to only one side of the tension and ignoring the other Disorientation ending the relationship in which the tension exists Alternation going back and forth between the two sides of a tension Segmentation dealing with one side of a tension in some aspects of a relationship and with the other side of the tension in other aspects of that relationship Balance trying to compromise or find a middle ground between the two opposing forces of tension Integration developing behaviors that will satisfy both sides of a tension simultaneously Recalibration reframing a tension so that the contradiction between opposing needs disappears COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 24 viii Reaffirmation embracing dialectical tensions as a normal part of life Sample Exam Question 2 Will and Sally are in a romantic relationship They are open and honest with each other about most things but have agreed that they will not talk about past relationships or partners Which way of managing dialectical tension are Will and Sally using a Recalibration b Segmentation c Disorientation d Reaffirmation Chapter 9 17 Understand the characteristics of a small group this includes a lot size rules norms etc a We can define a small group as a collection of three or more people working cooperatively interdependently to accomplish a task Although small groups have diverse missions they share the important similarities that distinguish them from other social units i Small Groups are Distinguished by Their Size a Communication scholars consider small groups to comprise of at least 3 members and no more than about 15 or 20 The size of a small group matters because most of us communicate differently in larger and smaller collections of people When we interact with only one other person we are engaged in interpersonal communication rather than small group communication Interpersonal communication usually focuses on the development and maintenance of personal relationship whereas COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 25 small group communication is concerned with the performance of tasks b A small groups size depends on its purposes If there are too few members the group may not have sufficient help to achieve its goals Likewise if there are too many members scheduling and coordinating the groups activities can be cumbersome For those reasons each small group must evaluate what its optimal number of members must be ii Small Groups are lnterdependent a According to Systems Theory members of a small group are interdependent in the sense that each member affects and is affected by every other member in some way 0quot In small groups interdependence doesn t necessarily mean that each members influence on all other members is always positive Perhaps you can recall a time when the disagreements of two or three people escalated into an all out argument In that instance group members were influencing one another in a negative way by letting the conflict get out of hand However they were still demonstrating interdependence because the moods and behaviors of some members affected and were affected by the other members of the group iii Small Groups are Cohesive COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 26 a To be effective small groups must have cohesion which means that all the members of the group work togetheras melodies and harmonies do in the service of a common goal Cohesion takes interdependence a step further groups are interdependent if the members all influence one another but they are cohesive only if the members work together towards the same goal Two types of cohesion are particularly important to small groups i Task Cohesion The extent to which everyone in the group is working towards the same goal Task cohesion is high when all the members of the group know their specific tasks and follow through on them Social Cohesion Refers to the level of positive regard that group members hold for one another In groups with high social cohesion the members generally get along well and maintain positive relationships among themselves iv Small Groups Enforce Rules and Norms a A group s rules are its explicitly stated principles for governing what its members can and can t do b However other principles for how group members should behave are never officially stated but seem to be understood implicitly within the group Those are called the group s COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 27 norms and even though they aren t expressiver communicated they nonetheless affect behavior Nearly every small group has both rules and norms that its members are expected to follow Some rules and norms govern how group members should interact with each other Other rules and norms dictate how the group should function Still other rules and norms focus on the nature of a groups mission v Small Groups Include Individual Roles a Most small groups have one or more collective goals or purposes In each case every member is expected to work together towards the group s collective mission but that doesn t mean that everyone contributes in the same ways Rather individual members of the group take on specific roles patterns of behaviors that define a person s function within a group or a larger organization i Formal Roles They are specifically assigned to people to help the group fulfill its mission Informal Roles They are not formally assigned so anyone in the group can choose to take them on Because formal roles are assigned and officially recognized its tempting to conclude that they are more important to COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 28 the group s success than informal roles However that is not the case iv Members who enact helpful informal roles might make equally important contributions to a satisfying and productive group atmosphere Formal and informal roles therefore compliment each other creating a positive small group experience vi Small Groups Have Their Own Identities a Once people come together to form a small group the group takes on its own identity When that happens people begin referring to the group as well as to individual members and they start to think about the groups needs and desires reflecting the idea the that group has become an entity unto itself b One reason group identities are important is that they set boundaries around a group s membership be defining who belongs in the group and who doesn t vii Small Groups Have Distinctive Communication Practices a Central to accomplishing any group s mission is the practice of communication Without communicating members wouldn t be able to share their ideas encourage one another make collective decisions assign individual tasks or stay informed on what other members are doing COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 29 b Although members of many small groups communicate on an ongoing basis they don t always communicate in the same ways i Problem Solving Communication Focuses on the details of how a small group can accomplish its tasks Role Communication Relates to the formal and informal roles each member plays within the group ConsciousnessRaising Communication Involves the group s identity and the morale of its members iv Encounter Communication Comprises the interpersonal interactions that occur among group members viii Small Groups Often Interact Online a An increasing number of small groups interact 0quot either primarily or exclusively online Some small groups communicate online because their members live in different cities or countries so facetoface communication is impractical Other groups interact online because computer mediated communication can be more efficient than facetoface communication Nonetheless online groups pose challenges Research shows that compared to people in facetoface groups individuals who interact with other members online report being less committed to the group and less happy while COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 30 working with it Other research has found that regardless of their culture people feel less confident in their ability to be productive in virtual groups as compared to facetoface groups c What makes an online group successful i Take advantage of diversity By actively seeking and considering divergent opinions online groups can make decisions that better reflect their members needs Simulate reality Successful groups use computer mediated technologies that simulate real life interactions such as video conferencing and virtual workspaces Keep the team together Communicating on a daily basis with group members can reduce the chances of members growing bored and leaving by keeping them involved in the group s business 18 Know the functions of small groups a 309017 2 Some Small Groups Focus on Discrete Tasks Some Small Groups Evaluate and Advise Some Small Groups Create Art and Ideas Some Small Groups Provide Service and Support Some Small Groups Promote Social Networking Some Small Groups Compete Some Small Groups Help Us Learn COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 31 19 Know why we join small groups a We Join Groups for Many Reasons We Join Small Groups Because we Need to Belong We Join Small Groups for Protection We Join Small Groups to Improve Our Effectiveness We Join Small Groups Because we Feel Pressure to Join 20 Understand the phases of socialization into small groups a We are Socialized Into Small Groups This happens in 5 phases lt The Antecedent Phase 151 phase We develop certain beliefs attitudes and expectations about small groups before we join the group At the antecedent phase we apply those beliefs to the group we re joining 39 The Anticipatory Phase 2nd phase The process of making judgments about what we expect from the group and its members The Encounter Phase 3rd Phase The first time we meet with others as a group At least three important tasks are typically addressed in the encounter phase First groups establish their mission or goals Second they assign specific roles to members Finally groups use this period to remind members of expectations for their behavior The Assimilation Phase 4th Phase Once the expectations for a groups culture are known members must decide whether to accept those expectations It s at this stage that the group acquires its own identity The Exit Phase last phase Membership in most small groups has a lifespan Individual members may leave the group voluntarily or involuntarily Members also exit groups COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 32 when the groups themselves cease to exist Many small groups meet only long enough to accomplish a specific task 21 Know the advantages and disadvantages of small groups a Advantages i Small Groups Provide Resources a Resources entities that enable us to be productive ii Small Groups Experience Synergy a Synergy a collaboration that produces more than the sum of its parts They accomplish more together than they would have apart iii Small Groups Expose Us to Diversity a Getting input from others can help us make better more informed decisions than we would make on our own The reason is that each person brings a different set of ideas experiences insights and values to bear on a decision Listening to the perspectives of other people often makes us consider aspects of a decision that hadn t occurred to us before b Challenges i Small Groups Require Sacrifices a Group members sometimes find that they have to do more work than their fellow members to make sure that the task is completed The reason is that some group members may engage in social loafing meaning that they contribute less to the group than the average member COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 33 b When group members engage in social loafing the group s productivity suffers and other members can become resentful Ways to deal with social loafing are i Name names make every members specific contributions to the group known to the rest of the group so that others will know when someone is being underproductive Be specific about goals social loafing is easier when the group s goals are ambiguous Make sure each person know what they are supposed to be doing Make the consequences clear people are less likely to engage in social loafing if they understand how their individual behaviors contribute to the group s goal ii Small Groups can Experience Conflict iii Small Groups can be Difficult to Coordinate 22 Understand how to be a better small group communicator a Socialize New Members Constructiver i Socialize new members to the group a Recruit good members b Create a group orientation c Include new members in activities d Be a mentor ii Join a group a Embrace the group s culture b Acquire appropriate skills COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 34 c Learn what matters d Contribute to the group b Maintain Positive Group Relationships i Contribute to a Constructive Group Environment a Celebrate success b Defuse stress c Respect others ii Help to Build Group Cohesion a Emphasize collective goals b Keep track of progress c Remind others of their value to the group Sample Exam Question 1 Which of the following is the most effective way to deal with a social loafer a Don t name names as far who is contributing to group work b Set more ambiguous goals to allow everyone to reach them 0 Institute less stringent socialization processes 9 Make the consequences of social loafing clear to members Chapter 10 23 Know the ways groups can generate ideas a Groups Generate Ideas Through Various Methods i Groups can Brainstorm Allow group members to offer any ideas they wish and create a list of all of them before any are debated a Focus on quantity generate as many different ideas as possible in the allotted time 539 Don t criticize O Encourage creativity 0 Piggyback build off of one another s ideas COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 35 Groups can Use the Nominal Group Technique a Sometimes people feel uncomfortable expressing their ideas in a group NTG calls for group members to generate their initial ideas silently and independently and then to combine them and consider them as a group Once the list is completed NTG follows the same process as brainstorming Groups Can Ideawrite Ideawriting encourages members to generate and evaluate ideas in writing while working independently a 0quot O In the first step each member creates a list comprising of 3 to 4 ideas and includes the reasons why each one has its own merit Afterward members put their individual lists in a pile In the second step each member randomly chooses a list from the pile that is not his or hers Working alone members read all of the ideas and offer comments about the strengths and weaknesses of each This continues until each member has read and commented on every idea In the third step members retrieve their own list from the pile This process allows members to react to feedback and potential criticism of their ideas in a nonthreatening way In the fourth step group members come together to create a master list of ideas they think are worthy of additional discussion Then COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 36 they would work towards selecting the best idea as in brainstorming and NTG FD Ideawriting is the least collaborative because members accomplish the majority of the steps while working independently f The major advantage of ideawriting is that it allows each member to offer ideas respond to others ideas and react to criticisms of their own ideas in a private manner 24 Understand the ways groups can make decisions a Groups Make Decisions in Many Ways i Some Groups Decide by Unanimous Consensus a One option for making a decision is to try and get everyone to agree about an idea If everyone in the group prefers the same idea then the group has unanimous consensus which is uncontested support for a decision 039 Achieving unanimous consensus isn t always easy Arriving at a decision may require the group to engage in long drawn out discussions Such discussions may end in a stalemate an outcome where members opinions are so sharply divided that unanimity is impossible to achieve In the event of a stalemate a group may have to resort to one of the other forms of decisionmaking c When trying to decide by unanimous consensus groups must also be careful not to achieve false consensus which occurs when some members of the group say they support COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 37 the decision even when they don t This reduces the chances that all members will be enthusiastic about the group s decision ii Some Groups Decide by Maiority Rule a Maiority rule a decisionmaking process that follows the will of the majority This involves taking a vote on which idea to use Each idea with the fewest votes would be discarded and the idea with the most votes will be accepted 0quot Majority rule operates on the democratic principle that decision should reflect what most people want not what a smaller number of more powerful people want c A group might determine that their leader should only vote in the event of a tie so that they can avoid stalemate iii Some Groups Decide by Minority Rule a Minority Rule a process in which a smaller number of members makes a decision on behalf of the group Decision makers often use minority rule for the sake of efficiency 0quot Because minority rule can exclude the input of the rest of the group it is rarely a good option for making decisions that are controversial iv Some Groups Decide by Expert Opinion a Some groups include people who s training or experience makes them experts on the type of decision that is being made Such groups may reach their decision by relying on expert COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 38 opinion or the recommendations of individuals with expertise in a particular area Expert opinion works on the principle that certain people have better judgment or more informed opinions on specific topics and that consequentially they will make better decisions than others Members should make sure that they are listening to someone with appropriate expertise v Some Groups Decide by Authority Rule vi a 039 Authority rule a process by which the leader of the group makes the decisions Authority rule is best in situations when someone has legitimate authority over other members Authority rule can be problematic when used in groups that have no legitimate authority figure The Choice of Method Depends on Various Factors a 039 Which method of making decisions is best depends on several factors that vary based on the decision One factor is the importance of the decision being made Relatively unimportant decisions may be best made by authority rule or minority rule for sake of efficiency More important decisions might be better made by unanimous consensus majority rule or expert opinion because those methods entail a closer more critical look at the available options COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 39 c A second factor is whether the decision requires expert knowledge d A third factor is how quickly the decision must be made 25 Understand the cultural influence on decision making in groups a Individualism Affects Decision Making i People in individualistic cultures are taught that their primary responsibility is to themselves Competition self reliance and individual achievement are valued in a highly individualistic culture i In contrast people in collectivist cultures are taught that their primary responsibility is to their families their communities and their employers Collectivist cultures value collaboration harmony and solidarity iii Groups in collectivist cultures may place great emphasis on reaching group consensus In contrast groups in individualistic cultures are more likely to encourage members to voice their opinions even if they differ b Power Distance Affects Decision Making i In highpowerdistance cultures certain groups of people have great power and the average citizen has much less In lowpowerdistance cultures people value equality and believe that no one person or group should have excessive power over others ii Groups in highpower distance cultures may be particularly deferential to authority In contrast groups in lowpower distance cultures are more likely to prefer majority rule and give every person s vote equal to everyone else c Time Orientation Affects Decision Making COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 40 i Monochromic cultures view time as a tangible commodity In contrast polychromic cultures perceive time as more fluid Groups from monochromic cultures may opt for majority rule minority rule or authority rule because those methods manage time more efficiently However groups from polychromic cultures may be more likely to try achieving unanimous consensus if they believe that method will produce a better decision d Individualism power distance and time orientation can influence the decision making methods a group prefers but they do not necessarily determine which method they will use 26 Know the common traits of leaders a Physical Traits i The body s attributes are referred to as its physical traits There are three main physical traits that can influence who will likely become a leader a One such trait is the sex of the leader Some studies have reported that people perceive women less favorably than men as potential leaders and they evaluate the work of female leaders less positively 039 A second physical trait is height In western cultures people often associate height with dominance competence and power Perhaps because the average adult man is taller than the average adult female height is a stronger predictor of success for men than women 0 Physical appearance influences leadership Studies have shown that leaders with COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 41 masculine looking faces are judged to be more competent Regardless of whether they appear masculine or feminine leaders are more likely to be physically attractive People associate physical attractiveness with intelligence honesty and competence Hmm that s interesting by that logic this school should be teeming with honest intelligent folk b Psychological Traits i Psychological traits are characteristics of someone s personality and ways of relating to others Much research has focused on three particular psychological traits a 039 Selfesteem is someone s subjective evaluation of their own worth Because having self esteem gives us confidence in ourselves it seems likely that people are better leaders if they have high self esteem A second trait is selfmonitoring Self monitoring is our awareness of our own behavior and its affects on others People who are high selfmonitors are able to perceive the needs of others in a group and adapts their own behavior to meet those needs Leaders are more likely to be outgoing and expressive extroverted rather than shy and withdrawn introverted Because of their more reserved nature introverts often experience communication apprehension anxiety or fear COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 42 about communicating with othersYeah We definitely been there 27 Know the styles of leadership democratic autocratic etc a Leaders Enact Distinct Styles i Some Leaders are Democratic a One of the underlying principles of democracy is that every citizen has the right to participate in decisionmaking ii Some Leaders are Autocratic a A leadership style in which leaders see themselves as having both the authority and responsibility to take action on the groups behalf iii Some Leaders are LaissezFaire a A leadership style in which leaders offer minimal supervision In this case leaders sometimes see themselves as the most unimportant members of the group iv Each Leadership has its Own Strengths a When it s important that everyone in the group feels he or she has and equal voice in the decision making the democratic style of leadership is most likely to accomplish that goal 0quot If the groups priority is to accomplish its tasks quickly the autocratic style is best because only one person needs to make the decisions The autocratic style is also the most effective when the leader has knowledge or expertise that the other group members lack COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 43 c In groups composed of people who are proficient at working on their own the laissez faire style can be best because if provides group members with the greatest freedom to do their work 28 Understand the six forms of power exercised by leaders a Leaders Exercise Reward Power Reward Power A form of power based on the leader s ability to reward another for doing what the leader says Having reward power requires the ability not just to provide a reward to those who follow one s instructions but also to provide a sufficient reward People who feel like they are not rewarded adequately for following someone are likely to stop following that person eventually b Leaders Exercise Coercive Power Coercive Power A form of power that comes from the ability to punish Just as reward power requires the ability to provide a sufficient reward coercive power requires the ability to issue a sufficient punishment Although exercising coercive power can be an effective way of achieving one s goals research shows that it entails certain disadvantages Excessive use can constitute emotional abuse and lead others to believe that it is the only power that the leader possesses c Leaders Exercise Referent Power Referent Power A form of power that derives from attraction to the leader It s human nature to desire the approval of people we like and admire By following their directions we hope to gain that approval In contrast gaining COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 44 the approval of people we don t like or admire is usually not a high priority cl Leaders Exercise Legitimate Power Legitimate Power A form of power in which the leaders status or position gives them the right to make requests with which others must comply Because legitimate power is granted by peoples status or position it is no longer effective when people lose their status or leave their position e Leaders Exercise Expert Power Expert Power A form of power that stems from having expertise in a particular area In many cases we perceive that it is in our best interests to comply with the directions of experts because their experience or training gives them specialized knowledge that we lack A person is an expert if the right people consider them to be f Leaders Exercise Informational Power Informational Power A form of power that stems from the ability to control access to information If one person has news or information that others want then that person has power over others until they release that information A person s informational power is usually greatest when the information they have is valuable and cannot be obtained elsewhere 29 Power Resides in Relationships Not in People a Power is Relative One characteristic of power is that it is relative meaning that people have power only in relation to other people Regardless of what forms of power we possess each of us exercises power only over particular people in particular situations COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 45 ii In some situations individuals recognize that any persons power is limited to specific people in particular contexts and they may resent or reject attempts to control their behavior by people without power over them b Power Requires Recognition i In groups and organizations powerful people have only the power that their followers recognize in them Importantly recognizing that someone has power does not necessarily mean we give our consent to be governed We don t always enjoy having others tell us what to do even though we may still recognize their right to do so c Power itself is neither positive or negative Rather it s how we use that power that makes it good or bad When we abuse the power we have over others or exercise it unwisely we can cause harm and in such instances may not hold on to that power for long 30 Understand how to manage conflict constructively a Competing The competing style represents a high concern for one s own needs and desires and a low concern for those of the other party i The goal is to win the conflict while the other party loses Competing might be appropriate in situations when there is a concrete outcome that cannot be shared The competing style becomes problematic when it leads to resentment or a desire to get even with people to whom one has lost b Avoiding Involves a low concern for both the self and the other party i Adopting this style means ignoring conflict and hoping it will go away on its own Some people choose avoidance because they are uncomfortable engaging in conflict Others COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 46 choose it because they don t care enough about the outcome or the conflict to bother When avoidance becomes a group s primary way of managing conflict it often leaves important matters unresolved c Accommodating Reflects a high concern for the other party and a low concern for the self i In this style one s goal is to sacrifice so that the other party wins People in a group sometimes accommodate to keep the peace That strategy may work in the short run but in the long run it can lead to resentment d Compromising Reflects a moderate concern for everyone s needs and desires i In this strategy both parties in the conflict give up something in order to gain something No one gets exactly what they want but everyone leaves the conflict having gained something valuable Compromising takes time and patience but it often leads to more satisfying outcomes e Collaborating Represents a high concern for the needs of both sides in a conflict i The goal is to arrive at a winwin situation that maximizes both parties gains Sample Exam Question 2 Tammy is feeling pressured to go along with her COMM 103 group s decision to split up the tasks and just email them to a group member the night before the outline is due She thinks this could result in a poorly formatted outline but notices that everyone else agrees and consequently doesn t voice her dissent Tammy s group is experiencing e Anticipatory socialization COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 47 f Groupthink g Competing h Collaborating I believe that there is something wrong with this question because the answer should be a False Consensus Chapter 11 31 Know the reasons why we speak a We Speak to Inform Teaching listeners about something they don t already know b We Speak to Persuade Affecting listeners attitudes or behaviors O We Speak to Entertain Causing listeners enjoyment O We Speak to Introduce Informing listeners of someone s background e We Speak to Give Honor Giving recognition or commemoration to a person place or event 32Choosing an Appropriate Topic a Brainstorm to Identify Potential Topics i What topics do you care about ii What topics are in the news b Identify Topics that are Right for You What do I already know about this topic What do I need to learn about this topic How much do I care about this topic iv How valuable is the topic c Identify Topics that are Right for Your Audience i How appropriate is this topic for my audience ii How much will my audience care about this topic d Identify Topics that are Right for the Occasion COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 48 Why am speaking What is the emotional tone of the event 33 Understand audience analysis this includes demographic characteristics a Consider Who Your Listeners Are Audience Analysis thinking carefully about the characteristics of listeners so that the speaker can address their audience in the most effective way An important part of audience analysis is taking account of listeners demographic characteristics which includes their age and facility with computer mediate communication sex and sexual orientation culture socioeconomic status physical and mental characteristics and political orientation a 539 Age and Facility with ComputerMediated Communication The age of your audience may matter because it may influence the things with which your listeners are familiar Your listeners age can also affect which forms of presentation will best grab and hold their attention Sex and Sexual Orientation Effective speakers also consider the audience s sex composition particularly if their topic will be of greater interest to one sex than another When speaking to large diverse audiences an effective speaker will know that they may vary in their sexual orientation That matters because some forms of language reflect only the experiences of heterosexual people Culture Culturally sensitive speakers recognize that many cultural minorities have COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 49 histories of social economic or political oppression d Economic Status According to the US Census Bureau approximately the same percentage of American households that earn below 10000 per year is the same percentage of Americans that earn over 150000 per year Physical and Mental Capabilities 39 D Political Orientation Being aware of listener s political orientation is particularly important if you are speaking on a politically contentious topic such as gay marriage gun rights abortion or universal health care b Consider the Situation of Your Listeners It s helpful to consider the context of your speaking engagement To do so you need to think about several issues Purpose To maximize your effectiveness as a speaker consider Why your audience will come together to hear you Size In general the larger the group the more formally structured you should make your presentation Available Time To be effective speakers must be aware of how long their presentations are supposed to last and they must be realistic about how much material they can cover Competing Demands You probably know from your own experience that it s difficult to give your undivided attention to anyone for very long No matter who s listening to your speech other factors are almost always competing for their attention You can address many of the factors that might be COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 50 competing for your audience s attention if you re aware of what they are v Prior Knowledge of Your Topic Finally it s important to consider what your audience already knows about the topic of your speech Armed with this information you can avoid two mistakes talking down to your listeners and talking over their heads Talking down means telling people what they already know as if they didn t know it Talking over people s heads means assuming they have information or an understanding that they don t have 34 Understand contextual or situational analysis a I m pretty sure that this is just a segment of what is mentioned above because I ve gone through this chapter several times and haven t found those words verbatim Sample Exam Question 1 When you examine your audience s characteristics you think about characteristics like sex and sexual orientation culture and political orientation a demographic b social c psychological d general COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 51 Chapter 12 35 Understand how to craft a thesis statement a Thesis Statement A onesentence version of the message of your speech i Be Concrete a Good thesis statements should be concrete not vague or abstract ii Make a Statement a Frame your thesis statement as a sentence rather than a question iii Tell the Truth a Good speakers communicate ethically with their listeners To speak ethically you must be sure that you believe in the truth of your thesis statement so that you don t knowingly mislead your audience b Crafting an ethical thesis statement doesn t just mean avoiding claims that you know to be false It also means ensuring that you don t exaggerate your claims beyond what your supporting evidence warrants 36 Know the parts of a speech introduction body etc and their functions a Introduction i The Introduction Generates Interest in Your Topic a Present a quotation b Tell a Joke c Pose a Question cl Cite an Opinion e Note the Occasion f COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 52 Identify Something Familiar If your speaking in a small community you might start by saying As l was driving in this morning l was a little unsure of my directions which said to simply turn left at the big red house Once I got to town though it made perfect sense ii The Introduction Previews Your Main Points a b Body Once you have aroused your listeners interest in your topic your second goal is to preview the points you plan to make in your speech A preview will help your listeners pay attention to the body of your speech by identifying ahead of time what they should listen for i The Body Expresses Your Main Points a b c d e A main point is a statement expressing a specific idea or theme related to the speech topic Main points should be related Main points should be distinct Main points should be equally important Main points can be organized into various patterns i Your main points should be organized in a manner that makes sense for your topic Arranging points by topic When you adopt a topic pattern you organize your main points to represent different categories If your topics don t lend c Conclusion lt V COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 53 themselves to already established categories you can create categories of your own Arranging points by time A second option is using a time pattern meaning that you arrange your topics in chronological order This is particularly useful when describing the steps to a process Arranging points by space A space pattern organizes your main points according to areas Such as describing the multiple parts of a topic Arranging points by cause and effect Arranging points by problem and solution i The Conclusion Summarizes Your Message d Transitions a The Conclusion reinforces your central message b The conclusion creates a memorable moment i Transitions Help Your Speech Flow Smoothly a A transition is a statement that logically connects one point in a speech to the next b Some transitions preview and internally summarize COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 54 c Some transitions are signposts single words or phrases used to distinguish one point from another cl Some transitions are nonverbal Body Movement Vocal lnflection inflection refers to variation in the pitch and volume of your speech ii39 Pauses iv Gestures 37 Know the three rules of outlining a The Rule of Subordination Specifies that some concepts in your speech are more important than others As a result you want to make your most important concepts your main points and your least important concepts your subordinate points b The Rule of Division i Specifies that if you divide a point into subpoints you must create at least two subpoints c The Rule of Parallel Wording i States that all points and subpoints in your outline should have the same grammatical structure If you write some points as complete sentences you should write them all that way 38 Know the difference between a formal and speaking outline a Create a Formal Outline A formal outline is a structured set of all the points and sub points in your speech Creating a formal outline helps ensure that you re covering all of the points you wish to make Most formal outlines include the following elements 9017 e f COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 55 Title Purpose Statement Thesis Statement Main Points and Subpoints Composing the Body of the Speech Conclusion Bibliography of Sources b Convert You re Formal Outline into Speaking Notes i Speaking notes speaking outline are an abbreviated version of your formal outline Their purpose is to aid in your delivery by reminding you of each of you points and sub points 39 Know the types of support and how to evaluate supporting material a Identify Places Where You Need Support i You need to provide support whenever you make a factual claim b Determine the Type of Support You Require i Definitions ii Examples iii Statistics iv Quotations v Narrative c Know How to Evaluate Supporting Material i Credibility a Information has credibility if it is believable and trustworthy Using credible supporting material helps you make the points in your speech more convincing To be credible supporting material must come from a trustworthy source A source is convincing if its experience training and ii Objectivity a iii Currency a COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 56 expertise give its claims more authority than those of others A source is objective to the extent that it presents its information in an unbiased fashion In contrast sources are subjective when they offer information in a manner that supports only their favored position on an issue That distinction matters because many people will consider data from subjective sources to be untrustworthy Information that was produced or published recently is likely to be more uptodate than older information Using recent supporting material is particularly important when you re speaking about issues that change continually iv As you search for appropriate supporting material remember that credibility objectivity and currency are all important but not equally important Their comparative importance depends on the topic being covered 40 Understand plagiarism a Don t Plagiarize i Plagiarism Can Take Several Forms a 039 Global Plagiarism Stealing your entire speech from another source and presenting it as if it was your own Patchwork Plagiarism Copying words from multiple sources and putting them together to compose your speech COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 57 c Incremental Plagiarism Failing to give credit for small portions of your speech that you did not write Use a verbal footnote a statement giving credit for all of the words to their original source ii Plagiarism is a Serious Offense Sample Exam Question 1 If you steal your entire speech from another source and present it as if it was your own you are committing what kind of plagiarism a b C Q Patchwork Incremental Major Global Chapter 13 41 Know the styles of delivering a speech a Some Speeches are Impromptu i An impromptu speech is a speech that you deliver on the spot with little or know preparation Making an impromptu speech requires you to not only think spontaneously about what you want to say but also to organize your thoughts quickly into a set of speaking points Being asked to speak impromptu can be nervewracking particularly for individuals who are already afraid of public speaking a Don t Panic b Think in Threes Whatever the topic of your speech identify three points you want to make about it COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 58 c Draw From What s Happened Consider what else has been said or done in the context you re in and make reference to it d Be Brief Because impromptu speeches are spontaneous people usually expect them to be short b Some Speeches are Extemporaneous An Extemporaneous speech is one that is carefully prepared to sound as though it is being delivered spontaneously Using your informal speaking notes you can practice making your speech sound off the cuff or not heavily prepared As an extemporaneous speaker your goal is to communicate in a natural conversational manner Analyzing and understanding your audience will help you relate to them as effectively as possible Because extemporaneous speakers use minimal notes they can maintain eye contact with their audience which helps their listeners be attentive and engaged They can also speak with a more relaxed tone of voice than if they were reading from a script The extemporaneous style is not the best choice when you must have a set amount of time to speak c Some Speeches are Scripted A scripted speech is composed word for word on a manuscript and then read aloud exactly as it is written Scripted speeches are particularly common in situations when the exact wording of the speech is crucial or when the speech must fit within a predetermined time frame Many people opt for scripted speeches when they are nervous about speaking Scripted delivery is probably the COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 59 easiest form of speaking because it simply requires the speakers to recite the words from a manuscript Compared to impromptu and extemporaneous speeches scripted speeches often take much more time and energy to prepare Unless you are using a teleprompter delivering a scripted speech requires you to maneuver a manuscript d Some Speeches are Memorized A memorized speech is a speech that you compose word for word and then deliver from memory Like scripted speeches memorized speeches are useful when individuals must speak within a specific time frame One disadvantage is that like scripted speeches memorized speeches take a good deal of time and energy to prepare iv Another drawback of memorized speeches is that they can come across as excessively prepared and overly formal v A third disadvantage is that the speaker s memory can fail in the middle of their speech 42 Understand what stage fright is and ways to manage it a Stage fright Anxiety or fear that is brought on by performing in front of an audience b Stage Fright is a Common Form of Stress i Stress is the body s reaction to any type of perceived threat ii Psychological Effects of Stage Fright a Anxiety a psychological state of worry and unease 039 Anticipatory Anxiety the worry a person may feel when looking ahead to the speech iii Physical Effects of Stage Fright a Fight or flight response a reaction that helps to prepare the body to either confront the iv COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 60 stressor or to avoid it Your heart and breathing rates will increase and you will perspire more to keep from overheating Your pupils may also dilate Behavioral Effects of Stage Fright a Voice Stage fright often causes the voice to quiver or sound tense It can also cause the voice to sound monotone and lifeless b Mouth and Throat People may swallow or clear their throat more frequently 0 Facial Expression Muscle tension in the face causes a lack of expression and eye contact 0 General Movement People may fidget or engage in random movement e Verbal Behavior People often stammer or stutter more than usual c Stage Fright can be Debilitating Stage fright can overwhelm people and prevent them from speaking or performing effectively Deliberating stage fright often causes two sensations a The mind seems to go blank b The urge to escape the situation cl Making Stage Fright an Advantage Accept Stage Fright as a Normal Response Focus the Nervous Energy Visualize a Successful Performance Desensitize Yourself Stay Positive COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 61 43 Understand how visual elements affect delivery a Facial Expression The face communicates more information than any other nonverbal channel For that reason you can use your facial expressions during your speech to add impact to your words and credibility to your message Research indicates that two aspects of your facial expression are particularly important for an effective speech a Facial expressions should match the tone of your words 0quot Facial expressions should vary over the course of your speech b Eye Contact lnexperienced presenters often stare at the floor or the ceiling and if they do look at their audience it is only briefly Avoiding eye contact is a response to fear that makes one feel hidden and protected Effective speakers know that maintaining eye contact with their audience is extremely important You should make eye contact with one person in the audience hold it for a moment and then move to another person c Posture and Body Position Whether you re sitting or standing during your speech its important to adopt a posture that is relaxed but confident Keep your back straight your shoulders square and your head up Make sure that you stand facing your audience duh Moving around while you speak can make your presentation more visually interesting to your audience than standing in one spot That visual variety encourages your listeners to COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 62 pay attention to your speech If you choose to move make sure your movement appears casual but deliberate cl Gestures i Most of us gesture naturally as we converse with other people Studies indicate that the use of gestures also enhances the effectiveness of a speech a Gestures should look spontaneous b Gestures should be appropriate in number c Gestures should be appropriate for the proximity of your audience e Personal Appearance i A final visual element of an effective delivery is personal appearance The more your personal appearance reflects your audience the more they will perceive you as similar to them and that enhances your perceived credibility Jewelry and accessories should complement your clothing but should not attract attention An exception is if you are using your appearance as a visual aid 44 Understand how vocal elements affect delivery a Rate i One vocal factor in effective delivery is your speech rate or the speed with which you speak In normal conversation the average adult speaks around 150 words per minute Studies have found that speaking at a faster rate can make a speaker more persuasive and more credible Speakers who speak at a faster rate appear to be in command of what they re saying whereas slower speakers sound less sure of themselves a It is possible to speak too fast COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 63 b You should adapt your speaking rate to your audience b Volume c Pitch Vocal volume is the loudness or softness of the voice The appropriate volume for your speech depends on several factors such as the size of the room in which you re speaking and whether you re using a microphone Effective speakers also vary their volume during their speech to create certain effects Vocal pitch is a measure of how high or low the voice is Every voice has a range of pitches that it can produce When speakers are nervous their vocal pitch becomes higher than normal If you focus on relaxing while you speak your voice may also relax allowing you to speak at a deeper pitch Speakers who vary their pitch sound energetic and dynamic and are judged to be more friendly and caring cl Articulation Articulation is the extent to which the speaker pronounces words clearly A speaker with good articulation enunciates each word correctly and clearly Avoid the 5 common errors a Addition caused by adding unnecessary sounds or words 0quot Deletion occurs when a speaker omits part of a word sound usually at the beginning or end c Transposition means reversing two sounds within a word 0 Substitution caused by replacing one part of a word with an incorrect sound COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 64 e Slurring occurs when a speaker combines two or more words into one e Fluency i Fluency refers to the smoothness of a speaker s delivery Speeches that are fluent have an uninterrupted flow of words and phrases Speaking with fluency is a particular challenge for individuals who stutter Stuttering is a speech disorder that disrupts the flow of words with repeated or prolonged sounds and involuntary pauses 45 Know why presentation aids enhance your speech different types of presentation aids and how to use them in a speech a Presentation Aids Can Enhance Your Speech i Presentation Aids Improve Attention ii Presentation Aids Improve Learning iii Presentation Aids Improve Recall b Electronic Presentation Aids i Text Slides a One form of electronic presentation aid is a text slide an electronic display of text used to accompany a speech Effective text slides are clear and brief The slide itself should only give enough information to introduce each new point ii Graphic Slides a Graphic slide the electronic display of information in a visually compelling format can enhance listeners attention Graphic Slides include COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 65 Tables the display of words or numbers in a format of columns and rows It is a particularly effective option when you want to compare the same information for two or more groups Charts a graphic display of numeric information 1 Pie charts 2 Line Charts 3 Bar Charts Pictures Visual images can be very provocative so many speakers use pictures as presentation aids Video and Audio a There may be occasions when you want your audience to listen to or see an audio or video recording c Nonelectronic Presentation Aids Objects n 0quot O Almost any physical object can be made into a presentation aid if it is relevant to your topic and can be incorporated safely and easily If it isn t feasible to bring the actual object you want to show your listeners you may be able to bring a model which is a representation of the object You can also use objects to demonstrate processes Before incorporating any object into your speech consider whether it will be feasible for iii Handouts a iv People a COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 66 the space in which you re speaking Make sure it is large enough to be seen by everyone but not so large that it dominates your presentation Flavors Textures and Odors a You can use presentation aids to appeal to your listeners sense of taste touch and smell Most handouts are copies of written material that listeners keep after the speech is over Using a handout can be particularly effective when you want your listeners to have more information than you can reasonably address during your presentation Finally you can use people including yourself as presentation aids Using a person as a presentation aid is more engaging than showing your audience photographs or visual recordings because your demonstration is live cl Choosing and Using Presentation Aids V Remember the Goal Consider the Context a b c Be Ethical The size and arrangement of the room The time available for the speech The resources available Strive for Simplicity Practice with your Presentation Aids Have a Backup Plan COMM 103 Study Guide Floyd 67 Sample Exam Question 3 If you perceive that you must use a potentially harmful or offensive aid in your speech and you explicitly warn your audience at the start of your speech and again before your introduce it you are following what guideline for presentation aids a Remember your goal b Have a backup plan 0 Practice with your presentation aids Q Be ethical Hey guys I know that this study guide is really long but I wanted to make sure that I could incorporate all of the information that we could be tested on into one document Just so you know if you were to read all of these chapters out of the book you would need to read 206 pages so I think that this is at least a little better I did spend about 25 hours working on it so I hope it helps you out I d appreciate it if you could forward this to everyone you know in the class Since I spent so long on it lthought it would be nice to hear some feedback from anyone who uses it You can email me at Papenhausenhotmailcom or text me at 5599775886 Thanks and best of luck on the exam


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