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by: Josh Gislason


Josh Gislason
GPA 3.55


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Josh Gislason on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY211 at San Diego State University taught by B.Tatum in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/225311/psy211-san-diego-state-university in Psychlogy at San Diego State University.


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Date Created: 10/20/15
Study Guide Psychology of Learning PSY211 Exam 2 Operant and Instrumental Conditioning Reinforcement Key terms Operant emitted behavior form of learning which organism is free to respond to the environment and changes in behavior occur in response voluntary think boot camp Re exive elicited behavior form of learning where organism involuntarily changes behavior classical conditioning Trial and errorsuccess9 process of teaching something to do an action over a training period Law of effect Positive reinforcement presence of increases likelihood of the preceding response reward Negative reinforcement removal of a stimulus increases likelihood of a behavior improve grades to lift restriction remove hand from hot stove Primary reinforce naturally reinforcing stimuli food water sex Secondary conditioned reinforce reinforcers that depend on their association with other reinforcers praise recognition money Generalized reinforce secondary reinforcers paired with many primary reinforcers money praise Superstitious conditioning superstitious behavior reinforced reinforcer not contingent on behavior crap shooter calls for 7 and rolls seven the roll of seven doesn t necessarily come with playing craps and calling 7 Successive approximation shaping9 Chaining performing behaviors in sequence forward and backward training Acquisition Gradual increase in response when reinforcing stimulus follows behavior Extinction reduced responding when reinforcing stimulus is removed Spontaneous recovery return of extinguished behavior following a time out Resurgence return behavior following extinction of another behavior Primary drives motivational force necessary to live Secondary drives motivational force that you simply want Escape conditioning noxious stimuli that produces unpleasant reaction Avoidance conditioning some signal that precedes a noxious stimuli Key issuesdistinctionsguestions What is the key condition for effective reinforcement 9happens after the stimulus leads to increased likelihood of behavior Identify the sequence of events that leads to reinforcement or punishment rst there s a stimulus eventonset then to increase future responses you use a reinforcer to decrease future responses use a punishment Why is classical conditioning termed SS and operant conditioning termed R S Generate examples of the following Positive reinforcement9 earn 300 for helping a friend move Negative reinforcement9 doing menu tours to not get red Primary reinforcer9food Secondary reinforcer9 praise Positive punishment 9 getting hit with the belt for not brushing teeth Negative punishment9 losing your xbox for not doing chores Shaping9 Chaining9 ordering take out Superstitious conditioning9wearing your lucky underwear for a date because you got laid before Extinction9 ignoring sons bedtime tantrums Spontaneous recovery9 child staying with grandma for a week Escape conditioning9hot water touches you it hurts you turn off nozzle then remove hot water Avoidance conditioning9you here the toilet ush then turn the nozzle and savoid hot water What effect do the following have on the acquisition of operant behaviors ie on the speed of conditioning or the strength of the response Amount of reward9 greater the number of awards greater the acquisition Type of reward9 get better reward get faster results better cookie than celery Delay of reward9 reward gets delayed so the acquisition takes longer Conditioning somatic voluntary behavior versus autonomic involuntary behaviors 9 much easier to condition voluntary than involuntary behaviors Deprivation level 9 learner is fasterstronger when deprived of rewards Competing rewards9conditioning is slowweak if other behaviors awarded Awareness of rewardbehavior contingency9 not necessary but makes conditioning faster What effect do the following have on the extinction of operant behaviors Reinforcement variability9 Stimulus variability9 removal of stimulus from life stop smoking Response variability9removal of involuntary stimulus loss of athletic ability How do the following theories of reinforcement differ What are the basic problems with each theory Drive reduction9Using a reinforcer any stimulus to suppress a drive your motivation 9Problems some reinforcers don t reduce drives some motivations don t create a tension needed to be reduced Relative value premack9 Reinforcers viewed as behaviors High probability behaviors preferred over low probability behaviors premack principle partying v studying 9Problems How to explain secondary enforcers Sometimes low prob behavior reinforces high prob behavior if less likely behavior has been prevented eg deprivation of study time 0 Response deprivation Relative value of responses depends on deprivation during prohibition booze drinking a much stronger reward What are the two processes in the twoprocess theory of avoidance Why is there a problem with using these two processes to explain avoidance 9Escape conditioning make contact then get away and end it and Avoidance conditioning get forewarning and avoid contact all together 9Problem Avoidance continues after it loses aversive qualities doesn t extinguish even when paired with UCS Operant and Instrumental Conditioning Punishment Key terms Positive punishment Behavior leads to onset of aversive slap muggin event that will decrease in future response Negative punishment Behavior leads to removal of something pleasant tv xbox etc decreases future response likelihood Displaced aggression caused by aversive stimuli sabotagevandalism Elicited aggression caused by aversive stimuli Learned helplessness DRL reinforce lower levels of activity ie aggression DR09 reinforce not responding for a period of time ie 5 minutes DR19 reinforce sitting at desk don t reinforce moving around DRA9 reinforce nice things to say over negative things Punishment as retribution Punish someone because they deserve it Punishment as deterrence punish someone as preemptive measure Key issuesdistinctionsguestions What are the three necessary characteristics for punishment 9Behavior has consequence crime leads to prison 9Behavior decreases in strengthfrequency crime declines 9Reduction in behavior is result of its consequence criminals go straight because of prison How are punishment and negative reinforcement different 9Neg reinforcement says behavior leads to an offset of aversive responses to increase likelihood of future behaviors How are negative punishment and extinction related 9Extinction is removal of prior enforcerso does neg reinforcement What effect do the following conditions have on punishment 0 RS contingency Dependency of punishing event on behavior response must lead to punishing event RS delay delay between event and punishment loss of effectiveness Intensity of punisher strong punishers work better than weak punishers Progressive punishment less effective if you go from weak to strong Behaviors that are both reinforced and punished become resistant to punishment children who get attention by being punished misbehave more 0 Presence of alternative behaviors works well when enforced community service over jail time o Behaviors that are strongly reinforced punishment is less effective What are the three primary theories of punishment Which theory is the most limited 9disruption theory punishment suppresses response because it leads to disruption of activity 9twoprocess theory stimuli associated with punisher becomes CS for reaxns to punisher avoid CS and decrease response oneprocess punishment suppresses behavior just like reinforcement strengthens low pref behavior punished by high pref behavior How do the oneprocess and twoprocess theories of punishment differ 9two process theory involves classical and operant conditioning while one process only involves operant conditioning What are six major problems with using punishment for behavioral control 9Effects are temporary Causes Escape or Avoidance Leads to aggression Apathy suppresses other behaviorsCauses xation limiting range of behaviors Progressive punish can go too far spousal abuse Imitation of punisher can go on for generations What are five alternatives to aversive control 9PreventionExtinctionReinforcement of zero responding DROReinforcement of low rate behavior DRLReinforcement of other behaviors DRUDRA Why has incarceration imprisonment been used as a form of punishment over the years Has incarceration been successful Operant and Instrumental Conditioning Schedules Key terms C 39 AI r uuiuiJUi of r Response rate high responses in short time high and opposite Continuous reinforcement correct response reinforced every time it occurs Intermittent partial reinforcement reinforcement occurs for some not all responses Ratio schedule 9 reinforcement based on number of responses Interval schedule reinforcement based on time since last enforced Fixed ratio FR 9reinforced responses is a fixed number VRlOevery 10111 response Variable ratio VR9reinforced responses vary VRlOon avg every 10111 response Postreinforcement pause in FR time between run rate period after reinforcement before new responses Run rate9 of responses before enforcement Fixed interval FI9reinforced responses happen at regular time intervals FI 10 every 10m scalloped function Variable interval VI9 time between reinforced responses vary low steadyrate function Fixed time F T9Reinforcer delivered after period of time without regard to behavior establishes superstitious behavior food in 10 min no matter what your doing Variable time VT9Reinforcers delivered at irregular intervals regardless of behavior also leads to superstitious behavior food on avg in 10 min sometimes more less Fixed duration FD9Reinforcer delivered if a behavior occurs continuously over a period of time every time you play violin 30 min get ice cream cone Variable duration VD9Required period of performance varies around avg Differential reinforcement of low rates DRL9reinforce animal for responding slow to calm hyperactivity Differential reinforcement of high rates DRH9reinforce animal for responding fast to help people speed up Ratio stretch start animal on low ratio and gradually increase said ratio Ratio strain stretching too far or too fast responding is disrupted Partial reinforcement effect Resistance to extinction intermittent reinforcement schedules make animals reluctant to give up responding when reinforcers stop Key issuesdistinctionsguestions What behavioral pattern on a cumulative record do the following schedules produce Give examples of each 0 Fixed ratio every 10th caller gets a prize 0 Variable ratio Slot machines 0 Fixed interval Studying for exams 0 Variable interval management by walking around Give examples of the following timerelated schedules 0 Fixed time waiting for a bus looking up when its almost time for bus arrival 0 Variable time someone who is bipolar o Fixed duration practice for 30 min get a reward 0 Variable duration practice for 30ish minutes get a water break Give examples of the following raterelated schedules 0 DRL kiss from hot girl when you slow down with o DRH kiss from hot girl when you respond quickly to her question 0 Ratio stretch FRl FR2 FR3 FR4 Describe the four theories of the partial reinforcement effect How are they different Discrimination harder for an animal to discriminate between an intermittent schedule extinction than between a continuous scheduleextinction Frustration greater frustration when animals switch from continuous to extinction than intermittent to extinction frustrated animals stop sooner Sequential sequence between nonreinforced responses are cues for future responding Animal perform longer wo reinforcement following intermittent rewards because nonreinforced trials are cue to keep trying Response Unit Response not a single behavior but whatever complex actions lead to reinforcement 3 bar presses v 1 extinction closer to partial reinforcement than continuous over time animal burned out and doesn t care about CR Operant and Instrumental Conditioning Gum quot quot Dixu39 39 quot amp Transfer Key terms Stimulus generalization Response generalization Stimulus discrimination Response discrimination Stimulus control Discriminative stimuli S Successive discrimination Simultaneous discrimination Matching to sample Errorless discrimination Excitatory gradient Inhibitory gradient Peak shift Basic transfer design Positive transfer Negative transfer Warmup effects Learning to learn Key issuesdistinctionsguestions Provide examples of the following o Stimulus generalization 0 Response generalization o Stimulus discrimination 0 Response discrimination What are the essential elements of Pavlov s Physiological Theory of discrimination What are the essential elements of Spence s Gradient Theory of discrimination How does it differ from the LashleyWade theory Using the basic transfer design how does a researcher know when positive transfer has occurred Why Using the basic transfer design how does a researcher know when negative transfer has occurred Why In a transfer task what do the letters AB stand for when applied to the rst task What do the letters CD refer to when applied to the second task Which of the following conditions usually lead to positive transfer and which usually lead to negative transfer 0 Response generalization o Stimulus generalization 0 Response facilitationmediation


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