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by: Miss Bradly Rodriguez


Miss Bradly Rodriguez
GPA 3.6


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Bradly Rodriguez on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY361 at San Diego State University taught by P.Gilbert in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/225313/psy361-san-diego-state-university in Psychlogy at San Diego State University.




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Date Created: 10/20/15
Quiz 5 Review Sheet PSY 361 Spring 2011 1 What is apraxia lndividual39s inability to perform a task despite the person having the physical ability to do so If give a person a spoon and then ask that person to stir a bowl they won t know or won t do it properly but if place a spoon by them and they want to stir the bowl they canwill The person can t quite show you how to do something if asked 2 Which neurotransmitter is important for muscle contractions Acetylcholine 3 What part of the brain is critical for procedural memory Basal ganglia is very important for motor learning riding a bike playing piano etc such as procedural learning remember patient HM could do these because his basal ganglia was intact 4 Review the major structures involved in motor movements eg premotor cortex primary motor cortex etc Before you ever make a movement your posterior parietal cortex activates This has to do with its importance in Spatial processing You want to know where your body is where things are in space and how to make the appropriate actionmotion Then a signal is sent to your Dorsolateral prefrontal associte cortex which activates and planning starts for the action Dorsolateral prefrontal cortexi sends signals to secondary motor cortexes Secondary Motor Cortexes are parts of the brain involved in the initiation of the movement They include the premotor cortex supplementary cortex and cingulate motor cortex Premotor Cortex involved in initiating externallygenerated motor movements if something is being throw at you and you move out of the way Supplementary Cortex involved in initiating selfgenerated motor movements If you decide on your on volition to do something this actives Primary Motor Cortex Located in the precentral gyrus Makes the motor movement signal amp sends the signal down to the body for movement 5 Review the basic organization of primary motor and somatosensory cortex Primary motor cortex helps us move our bodies and is located on the precentral gyrus NSomatotopic organization the motor cortex is organized the way it is on your body for example the tongue and jaw are near one another remember the map of the brain with body parts NDisproportional representations the larger the picture of the body part on the map the more the motor cortex is dedicated to the function of that body part NPlasticity the brain compensates to changes so to allow better functioning eg prior to brain damage Also the more you use a part of your body the more your brain will dedicate to that area eg blind people hearing better NLateralization certain parts of the brain are dedicated to a particular body partrole eg the right controls the left and vice versa NAstereoagnosia not being able to recognize things by touching them 6 What is the kneej erk reflex monosynaptic stretch reflex The tapping of the knee causes a stretching in the quadriceps muscle which makes a synapse then sends out a message to the muscle to contract Monosynaptic one synapse involved 7 Review the symptoms of Parkinson s disease PD Primary symptoms Tremor at rest sitting still but a part of their body shakes Muscle rigidity muscles are rigid flexed and stiff Bradykinesia slowness in movement brady always means a slowness Posture disturbances hard time maintaining normal posture Extrapyramidal symptoms problems w motor movement Positive symptoms Tremor at rest one or more parts of their body shakes or tremor starts on one side of the body usually a hand or a leg and then spreads to the other side of the body Can also spread from upper limbs to lower limbs When people make a voluntary motor movement the tremor tends to get better in the early stages The tremor also stops during sleep Manifests itself as a pill rolling behaviorlooks like they re rolling a pill between their fingers Muscular rigidity cogwheel rigidity increased tone in their muscle Have them put their arm up and try to move it down if its hard to move down it s a symptom of cogwheel rigidity Involuntary motor movements jerky movements in head back etc Oculogyric crisis eyes will shift to one side and become frozen for a few secondsminute and sometimes this happens to the head too Negative symptoms Disorders of posture fixation hard time maintaining posture Often have drooping of the heads knees are a little bent etc Disorders of locomotion festination Movement tends to be abnormal tend to shuf e their feet Festination can manifest in 2 ways 1 when they start walking they have trouble getting going 2 once they get going they can t control their speed and they go too fast and can fall down Disorders of speech hard time moving their mouth tongue diaphragm etc Akinesia can t initiate voluntary motor movementshypokinesia decreased amplitude of size in motor movements such as shuffling of feet bradykinesia when moving they tend to be pretty slow Masked facial expression don t show a lot of expression in their faces at emotion such as eyebrows not going up 8 What is festination What is cogwheel rigidity Disorders of locomotion festination Movement tends to be abnormal tend to shuf e their feet Festination can manifest in 2 ways 1 when they start walking they have trouble getting going 2 once they get going they can t control their speed and they go too fast and can fall down Cogwheel rigidity when the patient is asked to move their arm down and it moves in quotnotchesquot per se instead of smoothly 9 How do tremors change as the disease progresses Do the tremors stop during some behaviors Tremor at rest one or more parts of their body shake or tremor starts on one side of the body usually a hand or a leg and then spreads to the other side of the body Can also spread from upper limbs to lower limbs When people make a voluntary motor movement the tremor tends to get better in the early stages The tremor also stops during sleep Manifests itself as a pill rolling behavior looks like they re rolling a pill between their fingers 10 What neurotransmitter is depleted in patients with PD How can you get a measure of dopamine levels in a living patient with D Dopamine decreased by about 90 by the time a PD patient dies Homovanillic acid metabolite for dopamine that is excreted in the urine and measured low in PD patients Substantia nigra loss of cells here cell loss for 6 years before it shows anything when these cells die you lose dopamine because they make it Lewy Bodies more found in the brain stemkind of like plaques ll What is the primary drug treatment for patients with PD Why is this drug used rather than dopamine Ldopa is the primary drug treatment Dopamine isn39t given as it doesn t cross through the blood brain barrier you d have to inject it directly into the brain You have to give precusors such as Ldopa that is converted into dopamine in the brain They have to take a lot because its broken down before it gets into the brain It can cause brain problems and other motor problems Most drug treatments trigger dopamine Although there is no cure Examples COMT inhibitors Entcapone Stalevo combination of Ldopa Cardidopa amp Levadopa Levadopa Ldopa see aboveCarbidopa Sinement is brand name protects ldopa from getting broken down helps keep it form being metabolized Dopamine antagonists Ropinorole Requip and primipraxole Mirapex 12 Review PD with dementia When do the symptoms of dementia begin in patients with PD with dementia 1040 of people with Parkinson s develop dementia tends to occur after the age of 70 about 10 15 yr lag from Parkinson s to dementia occurring memory problems executive function problems psychotic symptoms attentional problems 13 Do PD patients who do not show dementia still show some level of cognitive impairment Yes Cognitive Impairment in PD AttentionConcentration trouble paying attention completing tasks can t rem ember Executive dsyfunction planning problem solving abstract thinking comparison of table amp chair rule acquisition set shifting perseverations get stuck in one rule and can t shift to a new one initiatinginhibiting actions hard time inhibiting things they shouldn t do such as being inappropriate uency emory Prospective memory episodic memory STM procedural memory source memory recall remember the words vs retreival was this word on the list People with Parkinson s a lot better w retrievalrecognition than with recall Parkinson s patients have trouble retrieving information AD are not helped with recall or retrieval Visuospatial problems processing visuospatial processing Line orientation 14 Review the model ofPD covered in class 15 Review the basic motor symptoms associated with Huntington disease HD Are motor symptoms typically the first problems observed in HD patients Motor symptoms Early fidgeting and minor hyperkinesia lncreasing hyperkinesia over time lnability to sustain muscle contraction test by tongue protrusion test stick out your tongue amp keep it out HD patients have trouble doing this or grab my hand amp hold onto it Full blown Chorea means the dance in Greek where Huntington s Disease name came from body parts move a lot Dysarthria problems producing speech with motor movements moving tongue mouth etc Dysphasia problems producing speech more general problems producing language andor cognitive Frequent seizures possible 16 Review the genetics ofHD eg which chromosome is affected CAG repeats etc Do 100 ofHD patients show a family history Genetics Huntington s disease is an inherited disease on Chromosome 4 we KNOW the cause Autosomal dominant if one parent has the gene each child from that parent has a 50 chance of having and not having the disease On Chromosome Trinucleoside repeat CAG an inherited mutation expansion of CAG lt 28 repeats of CAG no HD 2934 repeats of CAG no HD increased risk in offspring 3539 repeats of CAG possible HD increased risk in offspring 40 repeats of CAG HD if you have this many you WILL get huntingtons in reality its 39 but for the quiz we ll use 40 Gene codes hungintin protein39 possible involvement in cell trafficking keeping things moving around in the cell to become function imparied by this protein 100 penetrance Huntingtin protein and HAP1 13 of HD patients with no family history 17 Review the model of HD covered in class 18 Review the basic differences between focal and generalized seizures Focal seizures aka partial seizures which occur in one specific part of the brain This makes up about 60 of all seizures Auras 7 indicator letting someone know they are about to experience a seizure ie dizzy smelling owers deja vu loud buzzing Generalized seizures occur on both sides of the brain and often result in loss of consciousness 19 What is the difference between a simple focal seizure and a complex focal seizure Simple focal seizure the person remains conscious abnormal sensations such as dreaming falling can experience anger nausea may see hear or smell things on their body Complex focal seizure there is a change of loss of consciousness dreamlike state may show automatisms may move mouth blink their eyes twitch their bodies walk in a circle These are pretty short just last a few seconds 20 What technique is used to measure seizure activity in the brain EEG measure electrical activity in the brain postsynaptic activity Abnormal activity is looked for such as a spike during wakefulness etc Sharp waves repetitive spike and wave etc Experts can detect abnormal activity 21 What is a febrile seizure What is status epilepticus Febrile seizure seizures that take place in children who have had a high fever fairly benign so it is not necessarily epilepsy Status epilepticus A condition where the seizure lasts for more than 5 minutes or someone goes in and out of a seizure for more than 5 minutes This is possibly life threatening shallow breathing heart problems etc 22 What drugs are used to treat seizures and how do they work Do the drugs work for all patients What can be done if the drugs do not work Medication can sometimes manage epilepsy with drugs Antiepileptic drugs 80 respond to medication all affect GABA in some way Phenobarbital increases GABA makes it more efficient Dilantin Tegretol Neurotonin Surgery Removal of seizure focus remove part of brain causing seizures 5075 respond Multiple subpial transaction make cuts in brain to prevent seizure from spreading pretty good outcome 5075 Corpus callosotomy cut corpus callosum keeps seizures from spreading from one hemisphere to the other usually done in kids who don t respond to meds still have seizures but only in one hemisphere Hemispherectomy remove half of cortex last resort done in kids under age 13 much therapy after and some recovery after 23 What do you do if you see someone having a seizure what should you not do Roll the person on his or her side to prevent choking on any uids or vomit Cushion the person39s head If possible don t hold their head down Loosen any tight clothing around the neck Such as if they re wearing a tie scarf etc Keep the person39s airway open If necessary grip the person39s jaw gently and tilt his or her head back Do NOT restrict the person from moving unless he or she is in danger Do NOT put anything into the person39s mouth not even medicine or liquid These can cause choking or damage to the person39s jaw tongue or teeth Contrary to widespread belief people cannot swallow their tongues during a seizure or any other time Remove any sharp or solid objects that the person might hit during the seizure Note how long the seizure lasts and what symptoms occurred so you can tell a doctor or emergency personnel if necessary Stay with the person until the seizure ends 24 Do seizures cause significant brain damage Most people with epilepsy have fairly normal brains However very severe frequent and long lasting seizures can cause brain damage 25 Review the differences between absence clonic tonic atonic and clonictonic seizures These are types of generalized seizures loss of consciousness the person may fall Absence seizures the person may stare off into space minor muscle twitching after the seizure is over the come back and finish what they were doing adults are aware of it but children may not be aware used to be referred to as Petit mal seizures Tonic seizures increase in muscle tonestiffening of muscles arch their back clench their teeth flex their arms Don t twitch amp jerk Clonic seizures repeated jerking of the muscles in the body that most people associate with seizures occurs on both sides of the body Atonic seizures lose muscle tone muscle atonia if standing up will fall to the ground if sitting up will droop over Tonicclonic seizures a combination of tonic amp clonic seizures Increase in muscle tone along with the jerking of muscles also referred to as Grand mal seizures an older term gt1 9 PSY 361 Review for Quiz 1 Review the meaning of dorsal ventral rostral anterior caudal posterior medial and lateral a Dorsal top of the brain Ventral bottom of the brain Anterior rostral toward the front Posterior caudal toward the back Medial toward the middle f Lateral toward the sides Be able to recognize a coronal sagital and horizontal View of the brain What two structures are included in the central nervous system CNS What are the divisions of the peripheral nervous system PNS and what are their functions a Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord b Peripheral Nervous System PNS i Somatic Nervous System controls voluntary muscle movement ii Autonomic Nervous System controls involuntary functions 1 Sympathetic ght or ight 2 Parasympathetic rest and digest What is the function of the occipital lobe and what might you see if there is damage ie disorders a The occipital lobe controls vision b Scotoma blind spots achromotopsia loss of color vision akinetopsia can t see moving objects agnosia difficulty recognizing objects using vision What are the major functions of the hippocampus and the amygdala a Hippocampus memory formation b Amygdala regulation of emotion especially fear Which area is for speech production and which is for speech comprehension In which lobes are these areas located a Broca s Area speech production frontal lobe b Wernike s Area speech comprehension temporal lobe What is neglect and what area of the brain is damaged to cause this disorder Which structures are found in the frontal lobe and what are their basic functions a Precentral Gyrus motor function b Broca s Area speech production Orbital Frontal Cortex personality regulation helps select appropriate behavior for a given situation Phinneas Gage Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex regulates executive function logic abstract thought problem solving etc What is the function of the basal ganglia a Motor function 0305 0 3 1 10 Which area controls heart rate and respiration a Brain stem i Pons respiration ii Medulla heart rate 11 Where is the reticular formation and what is its function a Brain stem b Activating system sends excitatory signals to the cortex 12 What are the functions of the cerebellum and the pons a Cerebellum balance and coordination b Pons respiration some aspects of dreaming paralysis 13 What structure in the diencephalon is a relay station for sensory and motor information and what structure controls eating drinking ght ight and sexual behavior a Thalmus relay station for sensory and motor information b Hypothalmus controls eating drinking fight ight and sexual behavior 14 What is CSF where is it produced and what is its function a Cerebral Spinal Fluid b Produced in the Coraid Plexus c Flows from ventricle to ventricle and encases the brain and spinal cord 15 What are the layers of the meninges a Dura mater b Arachnoid membrane c Pia mater 16 Review the how blood enters the brain What is the Circle of Willis 17 What are the general functions of astrocytes ependymal cells oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells Astrocytes starshaped nutritive and supp01t function imp01tant for bloodbrain barrier connect blood vessels to neurons and toxins will kill the astrocytes which can be regenerated instead of the neuron which cannot be regenerated Ependymal Cells secrete CSF in the coraid plexus Olgiodendrocytes provie myelin to axons in the brain fatty in nature Schwann Cells provide myelin to axons in the peripheral nervous system 18 Review the neurotransmitters discussed in class and which basic classes of drugs affect these neurotransmitters e g antidepressants or antiepileptic Hint in class we only talked about a few drugs in particular so focus on these there is only one question so don t stress too much E Fquot 99 a Acetylcholine b Glutamate c GABA d Dopamine e Norepinephrine f Serotonin 19 Review the basic use of each neuroirnaging technique discussed in class Think about how each one could be used to aid in the diagnosis of a particular disease or condition Think about which ones are invasive e g injection of a dye and which have limitations for use in some individuals eg metal in the body 20 Review which neuroimaging techniques have goodspatial resolution and which have good temporal resolution Summary of Structural Techniques Technique Resolution Invasiveness Limitations Cost CT Fair Minimal Few Low Metal MRI Good Mm1mal claustrophobia Moderate Summary of Functional Techniques Technique Temporal Res Spatial Res Invasiveness Cost EEG Excellent Poor Minimal Minimal PET Poor Fair High High fMRI Fair Good Minimal Moderate 21 Review the neuropsychological tests discussed in class Focus on which aspect of cognition or function is assessed by each test e g executive function memory language etc 22 Why is a battery of tests given during a neuropsychological examination and why is the interview an important part of testing 23 What is malingering and how can it be detected


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