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by: Itzel Larson


Itzel Larson
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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Itzel Larson on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELS101 at San Diego State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/225328/rels101-san-diego-state-university in Religious Studies at San Diego State University.

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Date Created: 10/20/15
Leonard 1 Stephanie Leonard Dr Pam Fox RELS 1015 November 22 2010 The Jain Tradition Key Terms Study QuestionsSelf guiz Key Terms Shramanas one who renounces the world and leads an ascetic life of austerity for the purpose of spiritual development and liberation ahimsa Nonviolence a goal pursued t0 remarkable lengths and applications in Jain tradition Chakravaltin protects pious Jain women especially those who undertake voluntary fasts karma the energy of the individual s past thoughts and actions good or bad samsara the cycle of birth life death and rebirth Shakyamuni Sage of the Shakya clan a title used to refer to the historical gure of Siddhartha Gautama the Buddha Siddartha Gautama the sage of the Shakya clan Shakyamuni received instruction from such teachers according to Buddhist accounts of his life Jataka bodhisattva in Theravada a being who is on the way to enlightenment or buddhahood but has not yet achieved it Buddha one who has achieved a state of perfect enlightenment Leonard 2 Samath the Buddha teaches his rst sermon on the Middle Path and the four Noble truths His audience consists of his former companions in the severe fast They become his followers stupa originally a hemispherical mound built to contain cremation ashes or a sacred relic in East Asia the stupa developed into the towerlike pagoda parim39rvana the ultimate perfection of bliss achievable only on departing this life as distinct from the nirvana with the remainder achievable while one is till in the present existence Ambedkar arose in India as a Dalit rejection of caste that coincided with the end of British rule in India duhkha the suffering psychological as well as physical that characterizes human life three gems Buddha Dharma Sangha The rst gem is the story of the Buddha and ow he came to be The second gem is dharma the truth of Buddhism the teachings of the Buddha The Sangha the third gem of Buddhism established by Shakyamuni Buddha as the orders of monks and nuns laymen and laywomen no self there is nothing absolute or unchanging about us Tripitaka Three baskets the collection of early sacred writings whose three sections consist of discourses attributed to the Buddha rules of monastic discipline and treatises on doctrine vinaya the rules of practice and conduct for monks a section of the Pali canon Ashoka a great king of the Mauryan dynasty is understood to have placed important roles in the spread of Buddhism in India He encouraged his followers Leonard 3 to live according to dharma and preferred conquest through righteousness dharma over violent conquest Theravada Teaching of the elders the dominant form of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia Mahayana Greater Vehicle the form of Buddhism that emerged around dthe rst century in India and spread first to China and then to Korea and Japan Avalokiteshvara Pure Land the comfortable realm in the western region of the heavens reserved for those who trust in the merit and grace of its lord the celestial Buddha Amitabha ChanZen a tradition centered on the practice of meditation and the teaching that ultimate reality is not expressible in words or logic but must be grasped through direct intuition Vajrayana the Diamond or Thunderbolt Vehicle Gives Tibetan Buddhism many of its distinctive forms Use sound forms mantras of buddhas and bodhisattvas visualizations of them andor their realms mandalas as tools for meditation for cultivating your own wisdom and compassion Buddha puja offerings of food water owers etc similar to those of Hindu pujas are presented before an image of a Buddha or bodhisattva pagoda a multistorey tower characteristic of Southeast and East Asian Buddhism that developed out of the South Asian mound or stupa Mahabodhi restored Indian pilgrimage sites for the world Yogacara a school focused on the study and control of mind or consciousness Leonard 4 1 1 I I39 an Indian J 39 39 J 39 school Guanyin the bodhisattva associated with compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists usually as a female Amitabha a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahayana school of Buddhism Tantra deals primarily with spiritual practices and ritual forms of worship which aim at liberation from ignorance and rebirth the universe being regarded as the divine play of Shakti and Shiva Dana a giving ritual in which Theravada families present gifs of food at their homes or atemple t0 bhikshus who conduct rituals including chanting and merit transfer Dalai Lama prominent figure in Tibetan Buddhism More precisely he is the leader of the Gelugpad Yellow Hats Study Questions N Historians agree that is would not be accurate to say that Buddhism developed out of Hinduism in the same way that Christianity developed out of Judaism Buddhism represented a continuation of the traditional religion of India and claimed to reach back hundred or even thousands of years before the time of the Buddha himself The ethical values of the masters were rooted in the concept of ahimsa nonharming The Buddhist view is that universes arise and pass away in endless succession Within each universe various eras come and go The law of kalma means that living creatues are reborn again and again for better or worse depending on their E 4 V39 Leonard 5 moral conduct in previous lies Whenever dharma teachings have declines a new Buddha for that era arises No God is needed to mastermind this system He goes through the four sights but even when he achieves the deep tranquility of yoga trance he isn t satis ed so he leaves the teacher and seeks another approach Then he decides to sit and meditate vowing that he will not get up until he has achieved nirvana He defeats Mara and begins to meditate in his own wayithe reverse of the way he has been taught by the yoga masters During the rst watch he remembers his own past lives During the second watch he sees the working of the law of karma observing the past lives of various people and recognizing that evil deeds in one like will have evil consequences in the next one And lastly during the third watch he understands how to put an end to suffering and comes to see the Four Noble Truths The four noble truths are noble truth of suffering noble truth of origin noble truth of cessation and the noble truth of the eightfold path The noble truth of suffering says that no living being can escape suffering duhka The noble truth of origin says that suffering arises from craving trishna from excessive desire The noble truth of cessation states that suffering will cease when desire ceases And the noble truth of the eightfold path says that it s possible to put an end to desire and hence to sufferng by following the eightfold path Practice of the eight folds path can liberate a person from rebirth because it includes the main steps to achieving enlightenment It consists of the right view or understanding right thought right speech right conduct right livelihood right effort right mindfulness and right meditation 6 gt1 9 50 Leonard 6 Mahayana differed from Theravada in everything from the scriptures it emphasized its rituals and meditation practice to its central doctrines Whereas Theravada saw the discipline of the bhikshu as a precondition for enlightenment and liberation Mahayana offered laypeople the opportunity to strive for those goals as well Theravada emphasized that the only way to enlightenment and liberation was through personal eff01t Mahayana populated the heavens with bodhisattvas dedicated to helping all those who prayed to them for assistance In contrast to the Pure Land sect Chan emphasized selfpower and the attainment of personal enlightenment through rigorous practice of meditation Chan tradition traces Bodhidharma s lineage to the Buddha s disciple Kashyapa whose intuitive insight is celebrated in the story of the Flower Sermon The Buddhist concept of the afterlife was adapted to conform to Chinese tradition Chinese Buddhists extended the vague notion of the underworld and a home with their ancestors into a system of manylayered heavens and hells The Buddhist tradition of monasticism was particularly alien to a social system based on kinship and veneration of ancestors Monks were required to shave their hair and the practice of celibacy which put the family lineage in jeopardy Another example is what happened to the doctrine of nosoul or emptiness Easy Asian Mahayana Buddhists equated emptiness with nothingness which in turn was interpreted in terms of fullness or the absolute Buddhism had a mutual respectful relationship with Shinto Shinto shrines were built within Buddhist temples and Buddhist sutras were chanted at Shinto shrines A rationale for this fusion was the concept of honji suijak or original site and Leonard 7 local manifestations referring to the Buddhist deities as original and the Shinto deities as their local forms Self quiz Questions 1 D 2A 10D 11D 12B 13A 14D 15B


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