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Date Created: 10/20/15
Lit Review Hints and Samples ED 690 Wang Title Clearly Identified and Includes Specific Descriptors less than 10 words Eg Handheld Computing and New Thinking Strategia Literature Review Date Year Authorship Your Name Contact Email preferred Ster Guide Create a style sheet with recognizable and logical names one in which your different heading levels are easy to distinguish APA style headings are suggested but not required Follow your style sheet and heading structure consistently Please use a 12point Times New Roman font or other Roman font with serifs as close as possible in appearance to Times New Roman in which these guidelines have been set The goal is to have a 12point text as you see here Please use sansserif or nonproportional fonts only for special purposes such as distinguishing source code text Length 15002500 words excluding references Although number of words does not necessarily correlate with the paper quality a longer review normally reflecm more efforts in reading and writing You ll not be penalized for going extra miles However please avoid running things through the uffmachine Hints About Writing Because this is not a technical writing course you are expected to have the prerequisite skills do some selfstudy and develop a writing style by reading quality literature a Write in a straightforward style Use simple sentence structure Try to avoid long sentences and complex sentence structures Use semicolons carefully b se common and basic vocabulary e g use the word unusual rather than the word ar39cane c Briefly define or explain all technical terms d Explain all acronyms the rst time they are used in your text 6 Explain local references e g not everyone knows all city names in a particular country Explain insider comments Ensure iat your whole audience understands any reference whose meaning you do not describe e g do not assume that everyone has used a Macmtosh or a particular application g Ex lain colloquial language and puns Understanding phrases like vred herringquot requues a cultural knowledge of English Humor and irony rue dif cult to translate 1 lse unambiguous forms for culturally localized concepts such as times dates currencies and numbers cg 1599 or 5199 may mean January 5th or May 1st and seven o clock may mean 700 am or 1900 Handheld 2 i Be careful with the use of genderspeci c pronouns he she and other gendered words chairman manpower man7mondrs Use inclusive language eg she or he she they chair staff staffhours personyears that is genderneutral If necessary you may be able to use he and she in alternating sentences so that the two genders occur equally o en See Schwartz et al 1995 for further advice and examples regarding gender and o rer personal attributes Finally in Uquot quot professional noncolloquial Writing style and tone Cites references accurately within the body of the paper in the References cite sewn dulyresources less Segues smoothy from one section to the next Use direct quotes and bulleted lism in moderation Strategies for Success a a Vary the ways you introduce the literature studies or ideas Avoid the words state and say or says eg Jones and Smith 1997 say that reading is very good 7 something that we should do each day Cite online sources consistently 7 page no will be the URL Write strong topic sentences that you then support with evidence Write a cogent narrative that depicm similarities in 7 avoid a long litany of this person believes and then the next person thinks and then yet another person states Use transitions and segues to move the reader from topic to topic or to illustrate diverse thinking in an area Avoid secondhand source information but if you do use secondhand information know how to cite sources that are embedded within an article or text you re referencing Be generous with your citations don t represent the thinking of others as your original Produce original work I do run a randomly selected group of these lit reviews through turnitin org Proofread your work 7 more than one time We ALL make mistakes but I can quickly distinguish between a few errors that slipped through and substantive neglect Following is a sample with annotations Please note that no samples are perfect and don t follow them slavishly Although there is clearly subjectivity in grading the instructor can easily recognize sincere efforts creativity boldness commitment and ingenuity Handheld 3 Introduction The topic is introduced and groundwork is laid as to the direction of the review Problem explored is clearly conceptualized and stated Example as follows Handheld computers which for the purpose of this review includes any portable computing device that has data input and display capabilities have received substantial attention because of their predicted impact on society Pownell and Bailey 2001 predicted that these devices will change our everyday lives They identi ed the potential of these devices to become the true personal computers These predictions of ubiquitous computing Hasselbring 2001 raise questions concerning current pedagogic methodologies and how these should evolve to address the needs of future generations This review seeks to examine existing reports on the current uses of handheld computers in education and to identify strategies in developing pedagogic methods related to the cultivation of critical thinking skills and the structure of collaborative learning The level of effectiveness by which educators leverage this technology could mean the difference between handheld computers remaining merely an electronic planner and email appliance or becoming the catalyst in an educational revolution It must be noted that the educational use of handhelds is still new and is just now at a transitional point with the advent of true wireless connectivity Further research is needed to address the effect of handheld computing on pedagogies and the needs of future generations e idlimzsi i E s 39a iiil aEtLEv UH The following parts will vary from topic to topic But here are the rules of thumb Handheld 4 Literature cited is current predominantly primary research and related to the topic The appropriate content in consideration is covered in depth without being redundant Sources are cited when specific statements are made Significance of the topic is unquestionable The reviewer summarizes research procedures participants data collection amp analysis reporting strategies used in previous research and analyzes their strengths and weaknesses Su btopic 1 Present Us and Limitations of Handhelds The use of handheld technology in education today can take many forms What has before been relegated to pencil and paper can now be assigned to the handheld computer Educators have quickly adopted the handheld as a digital alternative to the gradebook taking notes and entering grades on a handheld device and hotsyncing the device for transferring this data has been a common use Stover 2001 These devices have added a new dimension to note by allowing studenm to collaborate with others by beaming data with builtin infrared communication capabilities Teachers can take advantage of this capability by beaming instructional information directly to the students Curtis 2002b Studenm then keep this information stored on their device until needed The convenience of a portable storage for data collection is one of the primary advantages of handheld computers Curtis Reports on handheld computers are limited to describe them as the modern digital journal and organizer which can be used to digitize old processes and increase convenience However exisitng research does not identify innovative ways that handheld computers can be used in teaching and learning In addition increasing convenience alone without rethinking the rational in data collection and analysis may actually have the undesired effect of reinforcing a pencil and paper epistemology a phrase coined by Papert nd referring to the development of new pedagogic methods without modifying the foundational structures Handheld 5 The initial iterations of handheld computing devices manifested the same limitations of the first personal computers weak processing power limited storage capability restricted communication ability and as in the earliest personal computers a very clumsy and tedious data input interface Stover 2001 However as will be demonstrated below these are temporary obstacles that will soon be removed Subtopic 2 Scaffolding with Handheld Computers Much of the research on the use of handheld computers in education has been anecdotal Existing research have focused on the handhelds ability to mobilize the data input and communication processes Bauer amp Ulrich 200239 Hasselbring 200139 Hudgins 200139 Green 2001 Early examples of how this technology could enhance thinking processes reside primarily in uses of handheld devices with the learning disabled LD These studies identified the advantages of the handheld computer as a scaffold to the thinking process One such implementation entitled VICAID is a system that enables a person with a developmental disability to access pictorial instructions designed to help him or her in the accurate completion of tasks It also provides reminders to access the instructions andor alerts a job coach or supervisor should the worker s interaction with the system suggest that they are having dif culty with a task Furniss et al 2001 p 277 The study conducted by Furniss and his colleagues revealed handheld device s unique ability to create an external thinkingstructure for a mind de cient in this ability It is not difficult to extrapolate this into a future where such devices will guide a learner in the investigative process or in the scientific method a future where memorizing facts and figures are irrelevant to the learning process These facm and figures encompassing the breadth and depth of human Handheld 6 knowledge will be available ondemand with the assistance of handheld computing a reservoir of information John amp Tucker 2003 A handheld device could scaffold the learning process and give feedback not only to the student but also to the teacher on the efficacy of the student s learning strategies Tinker 2001 This would create an asynchronous learning space improving teacherstudent communication Glahn 2002 In concert with input from teaching professionals the future devices could include arti cial intelligence that would stream data in context with a task with which the student is confronted This would enable the learner to receive information when it is needed rather than trying to store data by rote for possible later use This justin time learning is foundational to new educational strategies such as projectbased learning as described by Papert nd Longitudinal educational strategies such as problembased learning Stover 2001 would also benefit from the utilization of handheld computers as an immediate reservoir for data and experiences Bauer amp Ulrich 200239 Staudt 2001 Students could enter information and data as they experience or observe it This immediacy would increase the validity of the data and improve the learner s emotional connection to the data as they will become a rsthand observer Anderson 2002 Subtopic 3 Identifying Needed Skills Understanding the capabilities of handheld computers also identifies deficiencies in our present Kl2 pedagogy Speci c skills are needed if the learners of tomorrow are to be successful These are a media literacy and message evaluation skills b note taking and organization skills c collaborative learning skills In addition to these skills educators must devote effort in developing character and defining ethical behavior in studenm Handheld 7 The first of these skills media literacy is defined as the ability to think critically about the behaviors andvalues communicated by various media sources Anderson 2002 p 31 Anderson observes an ability in studenm today that manifesm in a learning style created by the studenm information rich multimedia environment This learning style is unique to this generation The ability to multitask This increases the amount of contentrich data the learner receives and decreases the time in which a learner can analyze and assimilate it He argues that the environment within which our students operate is media saturated Multiple sources of ambient data flood the learning space cell phones video television instant messages and chats Studenm today show little bias toward data sources they use print online or video sources equally and commonly multitask various sources simultaneously Anderson 2002 Clearly the volume of data is increasing and the time allowed for analysis is declining Can studenm analyze this data critically or will they give all sources equal authority As information retrieval becomes ubiquitous for future learners it is crucial that these learners can think critically to distinguish good information from bad Kubey 2002 Anderson goes on to emphasize that media literacy 7 the ability to analyze and create messages as well as analyze the media themselves 7 is the most crucial skill because it underpins all other learning p 31 Once data are selected learners must have notetaking and organization skills to effectively store and retrieve information These skills are not something inherent in a learner but must be taught systematically if the information gathered is to be retrieved and used to develop more elaborative concepts This process involves discriminating between general principles and subordinate details Bakunas amp Holley 2001 categorizing information identifying when more information is needed Ellis 1997 and finally filtering out noise distracting out of context andor invalid data from incoming information Handheld 8 The collaborative component in which students of various performance levels work together in small groups toward a common goal where the students are responsible for each other s learning as well as their own Rajala 2002 p would benefit signi cantly in two ways over traditional collaborative learning strategies The primary benefit will be the diminishing effect of social blocks which often occur in faceto face collaborative groups and may be contributed to member biases The electronic nature of the handheld environment in certain situations could lter out these biases Secondly the increased ease of communication and enhanced file sharing capabilities would be a signi cant strength of the handheld computer in collaborative projecm Curtis 2002a 2002b Finally the idea of ethics and character education must accompany this information revolution As learners move from the memorization of fairly neutral facts and gures to the highly subjective areas of opinion and intent they must effectively construct knowledge on the implicit as well as the explicit messages in the information they are examining AS Kubey 2002 aruged learners must develop intemal structures of ethics and character before they can safely and successful analyze information from diverse sources Subtopic 4 The Fourth Wave Pownell and Bailey 2001 described four waves in the evoluiton of technology The first wave consisted of large and expensive mainframes in engineering and business the second wave witnessed the revolution of the desktop computing environment the third wave was the inception of the World Wide Web39 the fourth wave consists of small wireless devices such as handheld computers that will usher in anyoneanytimeanywhere learning Pownell amp Bailey 2001 It is in anticipation of this fourth wave that the effecm of true ubiquitous computing offered by handheld computers should be studied Handheld 9 Although existing literature has not clearly identi ed the effecm of the fourth wave on education researchers have commonly predicted that it will bring significant changes pedagogy Papert nd challenged Give up the idea of curriculum Curriculum meaning you have to learn this on a given day Replace it by a system where you learn this where you needi URL 7 with no page numbers This curriculum change will occur when there is a synchronicity and convergence of certain technologies Anderson 2002 not distant sciencefiction technologies but technologies available today Kurzweil 1999 predicted that by 2010 the computing power of supercomputers will equal that of the human brain about 20 million billion calculations per second This powerful computing capacity will soon intersect with advances in heuristic problem solving and wireless connection technology such as mobility in ection points a concept defined under the Occasionally Connected Computing Model Fineberg 2003 It will be a truly educational revolution when all these pieces come together The predominant computer in education s future will be an affordable under 50 handheld device sans stylus voice directed using natural language wirelessly connecting learners to a powerful mainframe McLester 200139 Tinker 2001 Not only will this mainframe contain reference materials and store files created by the learner but utilizing artificial intelligence it will know the learner s specific learning style Tinker It will be aware of current proj ecm being undertaken by the learner suggest strategies for completing projecm in light of time remaining until their due date and will be ready to instantly relay any information to the learner that it feels is needed in any given learning environment Through artificial intelligence it will know the best opportunity to remove the thinking scaffold it offers to the learner so as to create the optimal amount of cognitive dissonance to enhance the learning process Precisely Handheld 10 placed success evens could also be programmatically created for the learner to enhance his or her emotional well being and confidence Conclusion The lit review concludes with a strong sum it upquot or closing statement Clearly state what needs to be further explored The author was able to make succinct and precise conclusions based on the review Insights into the problem are appropriate Conclusions are strongly supported in the report Broad research questions should be included if appropriate Specific research questions however belong to the research plan The true revolution of education is emerging When technology reaches the above described synchronicity the true nature of ubiquitous computing will be seen As is the historical pattern detractors are vocal if not numerous Armstrong and Casement 2002 cautioned that computers cannot match a good teacher s ability to inspire interest and excitement in learning p 12 From our perspective why isn t learning an exciting endeavor on the face of it Could it be that the standard educational methods we have employed have diminished the joy of learning Are they contrary to the natural processes of learning Armstrong and Casement went on to argue that computer could inhibit children s ability to write because of their possible lack of keyboarding skills and knowledge of software commands However this argument seems to indicate an unwareness of the trends in educational computing As Tinker 2001 noted it is well known that the keyboard can be an archaic device This is the primary reason that the keyboard will be a fixture in computer museums next to the punch cards not in future classrooms Clearly since the rote memorization of facts a primafacie waste of educational time and effort will no longer be needed because of the ubiquity of handheld informational devices educators must begin to develop the thinking and reasoning abilities of their studenm Digesting the voluminous amount of information available to learners will be daunting to the unprepared Handheld ll learner The learner s ability to collaborate with others in information gathering to discern relevance and veracity of information and to input store categorize and retrieve information will be the predominant skill needed in the next generations Further study should aim at identifying the implications of redesigning not only the traditional curriculum but also reassessing our educational goals as a society When education advances beyond a 203911 century view of education it will be the result of a paradigm shift in pedagogic theory as in uenced by ubiquitous computing Separate studies should focus on possible improvements in electronic collaborative learning improving learner abilities to assess and process information and methods of incorporating media literacy throughout the curriculum As Papert n d has emphasized effort needs to be invested to create a vision of the educational methods of the notsodistant future We ll never produce real change unless we put considerable effort into what isn t being done To creating visions ivisions of what it could be in 10 years time things that cannot be done today As long as we re restricted in our thinking to what is being done we re like a boat without a rudder p 6 Not a good idea to use direct quotes in a conclusion How will the above described revolution occur where many previous fanciful predictions for the future of education have failed to be realized We believe that the technology of handheld computing will not create a new pedagogy by being a topdown arti ce imposed by educational designers but a bottomup social change Look into your studenm backpacks The technology is there Handheld 12 References not a bibliography All needed citations were included in the report but includes all cited authors and publications only References matched the citations and all were encoded in APA format I hate to give you a definite number of references needed because the number varies from one review to another Rule of thumb A passing paper needs to have at least 5 trustworthy resources An A paper definitely needs more entries to exceed the course requirement The references in this paper is obviously an Aquot Anderson N 2002 New media and new media literacy ln Thinking critically about media Schools and famil ies in partnership chap 6 Retrieved from m nuu httpwwwcicnnline mu x A 39 Uquot f7hia2yw6yuuhgq djhxfeeqsliloxrj 77ug4nqqpexv 261pi2uvlcnnzu7 fdv7XbC1CMLAnders en pdf Armstrong A Casement C 2000 The child and the machine How computers put our children s education at risk Belstville Maryland Robins Lane Press Bakunas B Holley W 2001 Teaching organizational skills Electronic version Clearing House 743 151 1 55 Retrieved March 8 2003 from the EBSCO Host Research database Bauer A M Ulrich M E 2002 I ve got a palm in my pocket Using handheld computers in an inclusive classroom TEACHINGExceptional Children 352 1822 Retrieved February 22 2003 from the HW WilsonEducation Full Text database ED 690 Haride Wang Descriptive Statistics Test Reference n 11 Eamems ndexl End ack Enni Descriptive statistics see len oineiiesis Summary statistics aie pvesemed iai numem evaiuaiian Wiin enans iai easwsuai assessment es amples is scale Used iii iiniiniiiiiisiieseiigiiiies e i vauah e nmpme 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measmanem mots ED 690 Handout Aglzsl I News ndex F d B ck Frequency histogram P W Ahequenm hwsmgvam shuws the msmbuhuh unhs Ubservatmnsmasamp e ns usuaHy used 0 AsuaHy assess he sca evand whe henhe Ubservatmns ave nmmaHy msmbmad mhs Ubservatmns ave nmmaHy msmbmad the hewgms unhs cmumhs shuuld he mugth sha ed likelhe Nurmal dlslnhullun curve the supenmpused mushhs The Examme Shaw 3 s Emmy nDYma mp e mums u 15 2m 25 an 35 on as su ss an 55 m 75 igm 5 Himmm ED 690 Handout Meme Mex ormallty test w Nymmn ng Vavmus methuds ave pyamaea as pan DHHE cummuuus descngnves esua detevmme Whethenhe nbservatmns m a samp e ave nmmaHy msmbMea The methuds ave usEM m paw2M3 mmumstances bunhe ShaplerIlk w 1251 s genevaHythe mustpnwem Fawn deta s 522012 ve evences be uw AH methuds eampme ap va ue aw p axues mamae samp e s nunrnuvmally msmbMea Implememauan and lelevence ShaplerIlkW UsemHmsamp erswzes uptu 5me w AndevsunrDavllng Uses he Andesnera ng gnndnessrnHm pvucedme maamea my use W unknuwn a amquot mean and vanance 2 KalmagaywSmunav Uses the A nnmgmm 5mmm gnndnessrnHm pvucedme maamea my use W unknuwn pupma un mean and vanance 2 AW and mm ave a sn Shawn sa nmmahly can be AsuaHy assessea Relevances I Appmxwma mgthe ShapwurWHkWtesHmNnnermahly Raystnn P Stansncs and Cnmpmmg waz 2 mma vens MA D A as ma 2 GnndnessanTechmques s e RE May22 Dekkev NEWmG w as ignre 4 Nnrmality Test Hereis an Example ED 690 Handout Wang 5 20 18 16 14 5 12 5 3 10 3 m 8 6 4 2 0 Coefficient p ShapiroWlk 08502 lt00001 Skweness 14745 00002 Kurtosis 21866 00209 Interpretation the higher the p the more normal the distribution is P here means the probability of being normal Here the p value for S W normality test is less than 00001 So I assume normality test also use a005 in this case The distribution does not have to be a perfect normal one Consider it normal when p is larger than a Means chance plays an imp01tant role for the skewed distribution