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by: Imelda Dietrich


Imelda Dietrich
GPA 3.81


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Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imelda Dietrich on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ED690 at San Diego State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/225330/ed690-san-diego-state-university in Education and Teacher Studies at San Diego State University.




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Date Created: 10/20/15
Data Analysis and Interpretation Surveys Issues to Consider Reporting Findings When reporting survey results your goals are twofold o to make your data interesting to read and o to make your data easy to understand Tables graphs and charts can help you tell your story and eliminate any ambiguity about what the data mean What you choose to report and how you choose to present it will depend upon a number of factors the types of data you ve collected and analyzed the complexity of the variables you ve studied the complexity of the analyses you ve opted to perform and the audiences to whom you39re writing Example 1 The narrative that follows is but one way you might introduce a table that depicts the frequency distribution for an intensityscaled item on a survey about soda preferences Note that the table is labeledtitled and clearly referenced In terms of soft drink favorites Table 1 respondents reported a preference for Coke but by a relatively slim margin eight of the 18 respondents or 44 Their next most popular choice was Pepsi selected by seven people 39 What s clear however is that cola regardless of the brand was the drink of choice 83 altogether Table 1 Soft Drink Preferences Lag w Percentage CocaCola 8 444 Pepsi 7 389 SevenUp 3 167 Example 2 On occasion you ll generate a table in Word that depicts frequency distributions for a series of related items Here s an example of how you might introduce such an analysis Not included however is an interpretation of what the data mean quot Table 1 below summarizes respondent answers to three items on the survey entitled How was the Training for You Collectively these questions focused on core aspects of facilitation The results indicate that attendees are sawy consumers who are able to distinguish presentation style which received high ratings from the content itself with both breadth and activity time earning far lower ratings Bober 2004 rev 2007 Table 1 quot 39 Perceptions of the Training n 13 Questions Great Good Fair Poor No opinion Quality of instructor s 6 46 4 31 1 8 2 15 00 presentational style Breadth of the information 0 0 3 23 5 39 0 0 5 38 presented Amount of time spent on each 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 62 5 38 activity A question to ponder I opted to center my cell text rather than leftalign it or use decimal tabs In what ways if any did my decision impact reading clarity Example 3 In general you ll report results thematically or you ll link findings to the specific issues or questions that underscored your study Speaking practically then within the Findings section of your paper you ll report results gathered from different instruments eg a survey and followup interview Here s one way you might proceed Of particular interest to the client was the website s userfriendliness Cohen 2004 To that end questions 1 through X of the Website Survey dealt with such issues as navigability general layout consistent use of icons and section organization Each of these items used a fivepoint intensity scale in which 1 represented Highly Effective and 5 represented Ineffective That userfriendliness matters to people across experience levels is substantiated by the high response rates 21 of 23 respondents or 91 for each of five items related to this construct Mean ratings are presented in Table X below Table X UserFriendliness of the Website1 General Layout Use of Icons Navigability M M m m m M m Novice 42 47 42 43 38 37 Veterans 35 32 27 28 36 38 1 Notice that I opted to use decimal tabs within individual cells Again pose the question how did my choice impact reading clarity Bober 2004 rev 2007 3 But it appears that user groups see usability in different ways Veteran web users responding to this survey were more critical of the site s layout they generally criticized how much text was presented on a single web page and the categories into which information was organized Novice users on the other hand were less concerned with layout but far more critical of the icons used to represent the different areas open to exploration Interview responses associated with each of the userfriendliness options confirmed the survey results Said one novice user I guess the developer thinks I like surreal art I had to consult two or three friends before I figured out what actions these icons represent quot A veteran on the other hand commented that the stylized drawings really add to the professionalism of the site too bad they had to ruin a good design with all that meaningless text quot General caveats for reporting survey data 9 Report thematically which usually means by issuequestion 9 When presenting survey data you ll usually report the of respondents per item rarely does each member of a respondent pool actually answer every question on a survey and your reader should know that o Triangulate your data for example qualify or support your numeric data with qualitative data collected via interview or openended survey items 9 Always report items that appear to be flawed not reliable because they re poorly worded ambiguous or inaccurate 9 Remember that a report of findings includes both descriptive or inferential analyses of your raw data AND your interpretation of such analyses A report that lacks an interpretive element is sterile and fairly 39 39 9 Generate recommendations that are databased and describe specific actions to be taken It is often useful to reference the report findings that support a recommendation you make Finally There are standard ways to report data for which inferential analyses have been performed Consult your Ed 690 references for specifics I can also provide you with examples of phraseology that you can adapt for your own circumstancessituation Graphic Support Graphical displays many choices Excel is one of many analytical tools for creating graphs and charts Examples in this handout are drawn from a variety of data analyses I ve performed in Excel including endof workshopreaction surveys selfreported skillproficiency with different software applications and instructor comparisons n Example 1 my task was to examine student reactions to a guest speaker One set of items focused on general parameters of the event Bober 2004 rev 2007 4 The presentation was wellorganized it flowed well The materialshandouts will be useful resources in the future Each question in this set including the two shown here used a standard Likert scale In this example I ve reported results by percentage although number and percentage would be optimal and displayed them in a table 91a Organization 91b Materials Strongly agree 9 33 Agree 0 11 No real opinion 9 11 Disagree 45 22 Strongly disagree 36 22 But I soon realized that a histogram or bar chart might actually be more useful and eye catching especially if accompanied by solid introductory text The group was fairly negative about the presentation as the chart entitled Organization and Materials indicates more than 80 felt it was disorganized and more than 40 felt the handouts wouldn t be useful for future reference Organization and Materials DQla Organization Ile Materials 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly agree Agree No real opinion Disagree Strongly disagree Still the histogram isn t perfect it s not really legible onscreen and the reader must continually scan between the axis labels and the bars which aren t labeled Can you think of ways I might improve readability Even with its flaws the chart is definitely a better display choice than two pie charts a common graphical misstep of the novice data analyst Pie charts are best used with status variables gender ethnicity grade levels job categories where you re providing holistic information Bober 2004 rev 2007 5 I Declined to a Hispanic report 1 0 20 I African U Hispanic American 14 IAfrican American U Caucasian 39DCaucasian DMixed 12 I Declined to report Mixed 44 So while people recognize and are comfortable with pie charts they re not really the right choice for depicting comparisons among variables or values across a continuum Several other types of graphs and charts available in Excel are useful for portraying comparisons relationships How does the line chart differ interpretively from the histogram on pg 1 How might it change what the client infers Organization a nd Materials Q1a organization Q1b Materials Ol NUJAU39IO VOJ Strongly agree Agree No real opinion Disagree Strongly disagree Bober 2004 rev 2007 I ve found the crosstabulation to be extremely useful for displaying frequency distributions across two or more levels of multiple variables In the example below I opted to build a matrix featuring two sets of ratings SelfReported Skill and Importance of the Skill Table X Basic Computer Functions Skill LevelSkill Importance Not important Somewhat important Very important Totals Novice 5 3 1 1 Limitedly proficient 3 2 3 8 Somewhat proficient 9 2 I 12 Higth proficient 3 2 2 7 Totals 20 9 9 38 The crosstabulation can be graphically depicted in several ways embellishing a textual explanation that otherwise might seem wordy and convoluted As Table X indicates the 38 respondents gave themselves high marks in terms of skill with basic computer functions However they don t appear to think that these proficiencies are particularly important Of the 19 people who rated themselves Somewhat or Highly Proficient only seven 37 felt the skills were Somewhat or Very Important to learn or know Chart X Basic Computer Functions Skill LevelSkill Importance 14 Very important SomeWnat important Not important Novice Limitedly Somevrnat Higth proficient proficient proficient Bober 2004 rev 2007 Chart X Basic Computer Functions Skill LevelSkill Importance 14 UVery important ISomevxnat important 3 6 7 7 U Not important 5 2 7 7 7 3 3 0 r Novice Limitedly Somevxnat Higth proficient proficient proficient Graphical displays moving images into Word Unfortunately we all don t use the same platform or word processing program we don t even all use the same version of a single program But regardless of application a word processed document is easier to edit if we treat graphics as fixed rather than floating objects There are two ways to figure out with which type you re dealing First an object is fixed if you can see it when the document is viewed in both Normal and Page Layout views Second the border of a fixed graphic when selected has solid black handles as the following examples depict El El El Ernsstahulztinn IJInIity nf Presenhtinn Instruclnr Ham 2an McEahe Har kness Tutsi 2 2 I Crosstabulation Quality of Presentation Instructor Name Totals n S I 6 3 18 Fixed Moveable While there are no clearcut right or wrong data displays I urge you to think of Tufte and others when generating them Bober 2004 rev 2007 I strongly urge students to adhere to the 2dimensional flat display rule Experience has taught us that charts presented in three dimensions as shown immediately below are misleading especially when labeling is minimal Put these caveats to the test by looking carefully at the two charts below seeing them through the eyes of your client Which is clearer to understand and less ambiguous especially if the bars themselves aren t labeled Distribution of Students According to Units Number of Students 3 Units 6 Units 9 Units 12 Units Distribution of Students According to Units N Number of Students 3 Units 6 Units 9 Units 12 Units Bober 2004 rev 2007 Finally it s easy to become overly enamored of the software and lose sight of what s effective graphically What are just SOME of the problems here Group Means Level 1 Elements Mean Rating to A N Ages 42 and over Ages 2128 Ages 2934 Ages 3542 IZe Record student progress EIZOaWordProcessingProf EIZSa EmaiIProf E27a DisplayProf I24a InternetlnstructionaIProf D19a LoadSoftwareProf IZZa 1a DesktopPublishingProf D2g Comm w colleagues I23a InternetPersonalProf I25a GradingProf Bober 2004 rev 2007


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