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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Murphy Mante on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL0001 at Sierra College taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/225366/biol0001-sierra-college in Biological Sciences at Sierra College.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Bio Sci 1 Week4 lectures outline Topic Introduction to cells and membrane processes 1 History Hooke 1665 term quotcellquot A van Leeuwenhoek 7 animalcules 18381839 Schleiden and Schwann Cell Theory 2 Cell Theory 39 All organisms are composed of one or more cells and the life processes of metabolism and heredity occur within these cells 39 Cells are the smallest living things the basic units of organization of all organisms 39 Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell Why cells stay small 3 Multicellular and unicellular organisms Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cell Plant cell vs Animal cell 4 Organelles Importance of the memranous structures Evolution of eukaryotic cell membrane infolding and endosymbiosis 5 Plasma membrane 39 The uidmosaic model history of the idea 39 Phosphilipid bilayer uidity of the membrane 39 Proteins peripheral and integral 39 Functions of plasma proteins structural channels receptors signature enzymes 39 Selective permeability of the membrane 39 Passive and active transport Electrochemical gradient across the membrane 39 Passive transport down concentration gradient does not require energy expenditure Diffusion Osmosis Tonicity isotonic hypertonic and hypotonic solutions Facilitated transport 39 Active transport always against concentration gradient requires energy of ATP Pumps electrogenic pumps cotransport 39 Bulk transport 3 f i and x f i End f i phag f i p receptormediated endocytosis Exocytosis waste removal transport of synthesized substances out of the cell Review questions for week 4 1 Describe the contribution of Robert Hooke Leeuwenhoek and Schleiden and Schwann to our understanding of ne structure of living things and development of the Cell Theory State the Cell Theory Explain why all cells are microscopic in size Compare and contrast multicellular and unicellular organisms eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells plant and animal cells Which structuresorganelles are present in all types of cells Know all the major organelles their structure functions and in what kinds of cellsorganisms are they found Why do eukaryotic cells have endomembranous structures and prokaryotic cells don t Describe the hypotheses of endosymbiosis and membrane infolding Describe molecular structure of the plasma membrane according to the current uidmosaic model List the functions of membrane proteins integral and peripheral What is the role of cholesterol in plasma membrane Which factors can contribute to the uidity of a membrane Explain why plasma membrane is defined as selectively permeable How is passive transport different form active transport Define membrane potential diffusion osmosis tonicity hypertonic hypotonic isotonic How is facilitated transport different from simple diffusion How is facilitated transport different from active transport Give examples of active transport When do cells use endocytosis and exocytosis Describe the 3 different types of endocytosis Bio Sci 1 Week78 lectures outline Topics Chromosomes Cell Cycle Cell Division mitosis and meiosis 1 Cell division Why cells divide 1 Growth regeneration 2 Reproduction 2 In prokaryotes cell division equals asexual reproduction Asexual cell division in bacteria and their relatives is termed binary ssion it involves replication of the bacterial chromosome DNA growth and cytokinesis 3 In multicellular eukaryotes somatic cells body cells all but gametes contain diploid 2n number of chromosomes e g 46 in humans Germ cells gametes contain hapliod n number of chromosomes eg 23 in humans Chromosome is made of DNA and structural proteins condensedcoiled together Chromosomes become condensed and are only Visible during cell division the rest of the time they exist in a form of chromatin uncoiled loose chromosome Prior to cell division each chromosome becomes duplicated consisting of two sister chromatids Sister chromatids result from DNA replication process and are two identical condensed DNA molecules 4 Somatic cell cycle Gl growth 9 S synthesisreplication of DNA 9 G2 more growth 9 M mitotic division GlSG2 aka interphase no Visible division 5 Mitotic division occurs during regular growthdevelopment and or regeneration of tissues Two events 1 division of nuclear material mitosis 2 division of cytoplasm cytokinesis Stages of mitosis 39 Prophase nuclear envelope disappears centrosomes centrioles move to opposite poles spindle bers form duplicated chromosomes become Visible their centromeres constricted parts of duplicated chromosomes attach to spindle bers Metaphase spindle is fully formed chromosomes are lined along cell s equator Anaphase centromeres divide sister chromatids separate and move to the opposite poles Telophase spindle disappears new nuclear envelopes form chromosomes uncoil Cytokinesis starts during late anaphase It happens differently in plants and animals Plants cell plate formation Animals cleavage furrow constriction Mitosis results in two daughter cells with diploid number of nonduplicated chromosomes 6 Regulation of the cell cycle internal and external mechanisms Cancer when regulation does not work Malignant and benign tumors metastasis 7 Importance of meiosis in sexual life cycles Karyotypes Types of life cycles haplontic life cycle diplontic life cycle and alternation of generations 8 Meiotic division occurs when gametes are formed in reproductive tissues Steps 1 Meiosis I and II division of nuclear material 2 cytokinesis division of cytoplasm Major features reduction of the normal somatic diploid number of chromosomes recombination of genetic material due to crossingover and independent assortment of homologous chromosomes Stages of Meiosis I Prophase I nuclear envelope disappears synapsis of homologous chromosomes takes place tetrads aka bivalents form crossing over occurs spindle appears tetrads attach to spindle Metaphase I homologous pairs align along equator orientation of matemalpatemal chromosomes in tetrad is random Anaphase I homologous chromosomes separate centromeres do not split 7 duplicated chromosomes homologues move to the opposite poles 39 Telophase I nuclear envelopes appear may or may not be accompanied by cytokinesis 39 Interkinesis period between M I and M II no DNA replication Meiosis I results in two cells with haploid number of duplicated chromosomes Each of these cells then undergoes second round of division ak a Meiosis II Stages of Meiosis II very similar to mitosis 39 Prophase II nuclear envelopes disappear spindle appears chromosomes attach to spindle 39 Metaphase II chromosomes align along equator 39 Anaphase II sister chromatids split at centromere start moving to opposite poles 39 Telophsase II nuclear envelope forms spindle disappears cytokinesis occurs Overall meiosis results in four daughter cells with haploid number of nonduplicated chromosomes Review questions weeks 7 8 Explain how cell division is related to growth regeneration and reproduction In a multicellular organism what is the difference between somatic cells and gametes De ne haploid cell diploid cell duplicated chromosome sister chromatids daughter chromosomes Describe the process of binary ssion in bacteria Describe is the sequence of events during somatic cell cycle When during the cell cycle does DNA replication take place Why are chromosomes invisible during interphase De ne cytokinesis Name the four steps of mitotic division and describe the events associated with each of them De ne centromere cemtrosome centriole kinetochore microtubules nonkinetochore microtubules daughter cells Name the general mechanisms of regulation of cell cycle De ne malignant tumor metastasis benign tumor Compare sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction Describe the three general types of sexual life cycles Describe the steps of meiotic division How is meiosis I different from meiosis II Describe the stages of meiosis I De ne synapsis tetrad aka bivalent crossing over non sister chromatids independent assortment of chromosomes How are prophase I and anaphase I different from prophase and anaphase of mitosis When during meiosis does the reduction of chromosome number take place during meiosis I or meiosis II Compare and contrast the following meiosis I and meiosis II meiosis I and mitosis meiosis II and mitosis overall outcome of mitosis and overall outcome of meiosis In which three ways do meiosis and sexual reproduction enhance genetic variation
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