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by: Elinore Kub DDS

IntrotoPlanetarySystems ASTR0002

Marketplace > Sierra College > Astronomy > ASTR0002 > IntrotoPlanetarySystems
Elinore Kub DDS

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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elinore Kub DDS on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR0002 at Sierra College taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/225385/astr0002-sierra-college in Astronomy at Sierra College.


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Date Created: 10/20/15
V39 0 gt1 Review for Astronomy 2 Midterm and Final Midterm covers first 70 questions Final covers all 105 A nger held at arm s length lls an angle of about A 10 degrees B 2 degrees C one tenth of a degree D 40 degrees E 50 degrees The coordinate used in the terrestrial coordinate system to indicate angular distance north or south of the equator is A longitude B declination C altitude D latitude E azimuth The angular distance measured eastward from north around the horizon is A azimuth B right ascension C declination D altitude E longitude The azimuth and altitude of an object located due north and on the horizon are A azimuth 180 degrees altitude 180 degrees B azimuth 0 degrees altitude 0 degrees C azimuth 0 degrees altitude 180 degrees D azimuth 90 degrees altitude 0 degrees E azimuth 90 degrees altitude 90 degrees What are the altitude and azimuth in degrees of a star that is setting in the southwest A altitude 0 azimuth 240 B altitude 30 azimuth 180 C altitude 90 azimuth 90 D altitude 45 azimuth 360 E altitude 315 azimuth 0 The north circumpolar region of the sky is centered approximately on A the horizon B the zenith C the Sun D The Big Dipper E Polaris The angular size of the Moon is about A 12 mile B 12 second of arc C 12 radian D 12 minutes of arc E 12 degree 8 How many seconds of arc are there in a degree A 60 B 3600 C 360 D 90 E 206265 9 The northsouth line that passes directly overhead is the A zenith B ecliptic C azimuth D meridian E horizon 10 Which ofthe following is true A A sidereal day is about 4 minutes longer than a solar day on the Earth B A sidereal day is equal to a solar day on the Earth C A sidereal day is equal to a solar day on Venus D A sidereal day is about 4 minutes shorter than a solar day on the Earth E A sidereal day is the same for all planets 11 Suppose there is a star that rises at 10 pm tonight At what time will it rise one month from now A 9 pm B midnight C 11 pm D 8 pm E 7 pm 12 On the rst day of Spring the Sun is on the A north celestial pole B zenith C meridian D nadir E celestial equator 13 During retrograde motion the motion of a planet relative to the stars is generally A eastward B northward C southward D westward E random 14 Relative to the stars the Moon moves eastward then westward during a month moves westward moves westward then eastward during a month moves eastward remains stationary WUOW 15 At approximately what time does the new Moon set A sunset B it never sets in Rocklin C noon D sunrise E midnight 16 Something that is 1000 km away has an angular size of 2 seconds of arc Approximately how big is it A 10 m B 10 cm C 1 m D 1 km E 100 m 17 An object with an angular size of 1 degree moves 10 times farther away What is its new angular size A 10 minutes of arc B 6 minutes of arc C 33 seconds of arc D 10 degrees E 10 seconds of arc 18 What object was located at the center of Aristarchus s model of the solar system A the Moon B the equant C the central re D the Earth E the Sun 19 How did Eratosthenes determine the circumference of the Earth A by asking Zeus B by assuming that the Earth and Moon are the same size C by noting the size of Earth s umbral shadow D by sailing around it E by comparing the altitude of the Sun at different locations 20 In Ptolemy s model of the solar system the circle on which the center of the epicycle moved about the Earth was called the A focus B deferent C eccentric D capital E equant 21 For what two planets is greatest elongation less than ninety degrees A Jupiter and Saturn B Mercury and Venus C Venus and Jupiter D Mars and Saturn E Saturn and Mercury 22 What is the angular size of a 2 cm diameter coin at a distance of 1 km A 4 B 40 C 4 D 40 E 4 degrees 23 Which of the following is one of Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion A The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at on focus B The planet s distance cubed is proportional to its distance squared C The parabola is a kind of conic section D An object in motion remains in motion E Acceleration is proportional to unbalanced force 24 The point of closest approach ofa planet to the Sun is called the A epicycle B focus C aphelion D inferior conjunction E perihelion 25 What object is located at one focus ofthe orbit of the planet Mars A Saturn B Mars C the Sun D Jupiter E the Earth 26 According to Kepler s laws a planet moves fastest in its orbit when it is A farthest from the ecliptic B nearest the Sun C farthest from Earth D midway between the foci of its orbit E nearest the Earth in the Earth s orbital plane 27 A hypothetical planet orbits the Sun a distance of 4 AU What is its orbital period A 8 years B cannot be determined C 16 years D 64 years E 4 years 28 If the size of the Earth s orbit were doubled its period of revolution about the Sun would decrease about 3 times increase about 8 times increase about 3 times stay the same be impossible to determine WUOW 29 In which models of the solar system does the Earth orbit the Sun A Ptolemy s model and Tycho s model B Tycho s model and Copernicus s model C Ptolemy s model only D Ptolemy s model and Copemicus s model E Copemicus s model only 30 In the heliocentric model of the solar system retrograde motion occurs when A two planets are on opposite sides of the Sun B two planets pass each other in their orbits C two planets are at quadrature D one of the planets is nearest the Sun in its orbit E two planets are farthest apa1t 3 1 Which of the following planets when viewed from the Earth can be seen at crescent phase A Jupiter B Mars C Saturn D Mercury E Pluto 32 What was signi cant about Galileo s discovery of Jupiter s four brightest satellites A It showed that some satellites have atmospheres B It showed that Jupiter is the most massive planet C It showed that there are some objects which do not orbit the earth D It conclusively showed that the Sun was in the center of the solar system E It showed that theories that a planet can only have one satellite are wrong 33 Compared with your mass on Earth your mass on the Moon would be A about 6 times more B about 6 times less C about 36 times more D about 36 times less E you can t fool me 7 exactly the same 34 How will an object move if there are no forces acting on it A on a circle B it can t move at all if no forces are present C on an ellipse D in a straight line at constant speed E with constant acceleration 35 What happens to the angular momentum of a planet as it orbits the Sun A It increases and decreases as the planet changes speed It increases steadily with time It gradually drops to zero It remains constant B C D E It doubles 4 N If the masses of the Sun and Earth each were doubled the force of gravity between them would A double B remain the same C be cut in half D go up by 4 times E go up by 16 times If the distance between two objects is doubled the force of gravity they exert on each other will A decrease by 4 times B double C increase by 4 times D remain the same E decrease by 2 times Suppose the Moon s mass were 4 times larger and it were twice as far from the Earth How would these changes affect the force of gravity between the earth and the Moon A It would increase by a factor of 4 B It would decrease by a factor of 4 C It would be the same D It would decrease by a factor of 8 E It would double During spring tides A there is a good chance of a major earthquake B day and night are the same interval of time C the Moon Earth and Sun are all at right angles D the Earth Moon and Sun are all aligned E only the Earth is deformed not the Moon How does the speed of light in glass compare to the speed of light in a vacuum A It depends on the wavelength of light B It is larger in glass C They are the same D Trick question light can t travel in glass E It is larger in a vacuum A particle of light is a A graviton B photon C spectrum D proton E angstrom Compared with infrared waves radio waves A move faster through a vacuum B have higher energy C take much longer to reach us from celestial objects D are lower frequency E have shorter wavelengths 43 Which of the following kinds of photons are least energetic A Xray B infrared C ultraviolet D gamma ray E visible 44 A telescope that uses a lens to bring radiation to a focus is called a A radio telescope B defractor C re ector D refractor E photometer 45 How does the lightgathering power ofa 40 cm telescope compare to that of a 20 cm telescope A 16 times as great B 2 times as great C they are the same D 8 times as great E 4 times as great 46 Suppose a source of electromagnetic waves is moving away from us at 2 of the speed of light What can be said of the wavelength of the waves we receive from the source A They are redshifted by 4 B They are blueshifted by 4 C The wavelengths remain unchanged D They are blueshifted by 2 E They are redshifted by 2 47 More than 99 of the mass of the solar system is contained in A the Earth B all the planets C Jupiter D the Jovian planets E the Sun 48 The orbits of the major planets are all A prograde counterclockwise motion as viewed from the north B perpendicular to the orbit of the Earth C larger than the orbit of the Earth D circular E randomly oriented in space 49 Which of the following is not a terrestrial planet A Earth B Neptune C Mercury D Venus E Mars 50 The halflife ofa particular isotope ofpotassium is 13 billion years After 26 billion years how much of the original amount of that isotope remains A B C D E oneeighth half none onefourth all of it 51 If an object emits thermal blackbody radiation there is a unique correspondence between B C D E 52 Thermal emitt the mass of the object and its surface temperature the temperature of the object and the wavelength at which it is brightest the color of the body and its surface area the temperature of an object and its surface area the radius of the object and its surface area ers ie blackbodies A and B have the same size A is 4 times hotter than B What is the ratio of the rate of energy emitted by A to the rate of energy emitted by B A B C D E l 256 16 64 4 53 If a thermal emitter blackbody temperature were tripled the amount of energy emitted per square meter would WUOW remain about the same increase 81 times increase 12 times increase 16 times increase 27 times 54 What were planetesimals D interstellar bodies captured by the Sun soon after it formed dust particles that formed between Earth and Mars bodies as massive as the Earth that formed the cores of the giant planets interplanetary grains intermediate size bodies that combined with others to form planets 55 What happened to the gas that was left over in the solar nebula after the planets formed B C D E 56 The solar syst WUOW It formed into a black hole It condensed to form the zodiacal light It fell back into the Sun It was swept away by a passing star It was blown away by a strong wind em is the only one we know of in our galaxy underwent several intervals of planet formation separated by billions of years reached more or less its present form in less than a billion years formed about 5 million years ago took several billion years to form UI ON C o N O L Which of the following descriptions of the Earth s core is true A made of metal less dense than the mantle B made of ice denser than the mantle C made of metal denser than the mantle D made of ice less dense than the mantle E made of silicate rock denser than the mantle What kind of eclipse do we see when the Moon is partly within the Earth s umbral shadow A total lunar eclipse B total solar eclipse C partial lunar eclipse D partial solar eclipse E annular solar eclipse At what phase ofthe Moon can a lunar eclipse occur A first quarter B new C gibbous D full E third quarter The Moon keeps the same face turned toward the Earth because it A rotates once per year B rotates in a retrograde direction C rotates once per day D rotates once per revolution about the Earth E does not rotate The analysis of samples returned from the Moon provided a means to estimate the ages of the surfaces of various planets and satellites because the samples made it possible to determine the relationship between age and A amount of carbon in the soil B density of craters C distance from the Sun D temperature E amount of atmosphere retained Which ofthe following is now thought to be the most likely way in which the Moon formed A fission model B giant impact model C capture model D fusion model E binary accretion model Which of the following is unaffected by the tidal interaction between the Earth and the Moon A the distance between the Earth and the Moon B the length of the solar day C the length of the sidereal day D the length of the month E the length of the year 64 On which planets would an explorer see the Sun rise in the west A Mercury B Mars C Venus D Mercury and Venus E Venus and Mars 65 Which of the following explanations best accounts for the high density of the planet Mercury A It has a large range of surface temperatures B Its material is compressed by high internal pressures C It contains a large fraction of iron and other metal D It has no appreciable atmosphere E It has a large gravity which compresses its surface layers 66 In which of the following circumstances can Mercury be observed A near the horizon at noon B setting at sunset C rising at sunset D setting at sunrise E high in the sky at midnight 67 What evidence is there that the surface of Venus was covered by giant ows of lava a few hundred million years ago A The cracks where lava reached the surface can be seen in radio maps B Radioactive dating shows that the surface is a few hundred million years old C There are relatively few impact craters on Venus D The surface is still hot E The strong greenhouse effect in the present day 68 Where is most of Mars s water likely to be located A there is no water or ice on Mars B in the polar caps C in the atmosphere in the form of ice crystals D in underground lakes of liquid water E in ice layers beneath the visible surface 69 A major reason for the size of volcanoes on Mars is A the large number of subsurface lakes B the lack of an intense magnetic dynamo C the rapid rotation rate 245 hours D high winds E the lack of tectonic activity 70 What evidence of water on ancient Mars was discovered by the Opportunity rover A small pools of water on the surface B fossils of marine organisms C disturbed terrain caused by tidal waves D hematite and jarosite deposits E ancient coral reefs Note Review rst 70 for midterm and all 105 for the nal 1 ON 1 l Aurorae are produced when the Earth s atmosphere is bombarded by a blast of A asteroidal debris B a ash of gamma rays C energetic protons and electrons from the Sun D small meteorites E cometary dust How does the atmosphere of Mars compare to that of the Earth A Mars s atmosphere is colder drier and higher in pressure B Mars s atmosphere is colder wetter and higher in pressure C Mars s atmosphere is colder wetter and lower in pressure D Mars s atmosphere is warmer drier and lower in pressure E Mars s atmosphere is colder drier and lower in pressure The equatorial diameter of Jupiter is about 6 larger than the polar diameter of Jupiter Why A Beneath the clouds Jupiter has many equatorial mountain ranges B Jupiter rotates rapidly C Jupiter is distorted by tides due to its satellites D Jupiter s ring system is pulling on the equator E Solar tides have distorted Jupiter How do we know that the light colored regions in the atmosphere of Jupiter are generally cooler than the dark colored regions A They re ect more light than the dark regions B They emit less infrared radiation than the dark regions C They emit more ultraViolet radiation than the dark regions D They are observed to lie lower in the atmosphere E They rotate counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere How do we know that the Red Spot of Jupiter is not a hurricane like storm A It rotates in the wrong direction B Its winds are too gentle C No lightning has been detected within it D It has been observed to cross the equator of Jupiter E It is too far north of Jupiter s equator The particles in Satum s rings are made of or covered with A water ice B a dark tar like substance C dry ice frozen carbon dioxide D metallic hydrogen E iron and iron compounds The distance from a planet within which tides would tear a satellite apart is called the A Chandrasekhar limit Coriolis distance Schwarzschild radius Newton distance B C D E Roche limit l O B C D E B C D E images A B C D E planets A B C D E B C D E B C D E How does Saturn compare with Jupiter It is less massive but larger in diameter It is smaller in diameter but more dense It is less massive and smaller in diameter It is more massive but smaller in diameter It is more massive and larger in diameter Which of the following planets sometimes has its poles pointed almost directly at the Sun Mars S atum Earth Uranus Jupiter Which of the following statements is a good description of the appearance of Neptune in the Voyager distinctly nonspherical in shape nearly featureless greenish ball highly cratered many conspicuous zones and belts in its cloud layer deep blue color with a few prominent cloud features Which of the following planets was discovered because of its gravitational effect on the orbits of other Venus Uranus Neptune S atum Jupiter How was the mass of Pluto determined by observing its effect on the motion of an unmanned yby of Pluto by measuring how it bends light rays passing near it by determining the orbit of its satellite Charon by comparing it to the Moon by measuring the effect of its gravity on the terrestrial planets How do we know that the surface of 10 was formed very recently It is still hot from radioactive decays It has no impact craters Io is larger than it would be if it were very old Its surface has a low albedo No rocks have yet had a chance to form Suppose a planet is orbited by a number of satellites Which of the satellites will feel the weakest tidal forces due to the planet WUOW a small satellite in a close orbit They all feel the same tidal forces a large satellite in a close orbit a large satellite in a distant orbit a small satellite in a distant orbit 85 Which of the following is the best description of Jupiter s outermost Galilean satellite Callisto A criss crossed with many cracks and mountain ridges B dotted with volcanoes C heavily cratered D smooth nearly featureless E highly nonspherical 86 Which of the following is true of the orbit of Triton A it is direct prograde and getting larger B it is retrograde and getting smaller C it is direct prograde and getting smaller D it is retrograde and getting larger E it is not changing 87 Why did William Herschel have to observe Uranus on more than one night before he could be sure it was a planet and not a star A He had to see if it showed a full range of phases from new to full B He had to see if it moved among the stars from night to night C He had to see if it varied in brightness from night to night D He had to see if it had satellites E He had to see ifhad rings 88 A comet s nucleus is about in diameter A about 100000 km B a few kilometers C a few meters D a few hundred km E up to 1 AU 89 Which of the following best describes the material that makes up the nucleus of a comet A dirty ice B metallic crystals C gaseous D aluminum oxide E rocky 90 What eventually happens to most shortperiod comets A They collide with the Sun B They become asteroids C They are captured by Jupiter D The ice in their nuclei completely evaporates E They coalesce into planets 91 Why do meteors seem to come from the same point in the sky the radiant during a meteor shower They are following similar orbits through space They hit Earth after being ejected from the Moon by impacts They are fragments of an explosion in the atmosphere They are formed from the same star in the sky They only become visible when they reach altitudes of a few hundred km F1190 92 The Sun is A an average size star but with much larger than average mass B a much smaller then average star but with an average mass C a much larger than average star but with an average mass D an average size star but with much smaller than average mass E an average star in mass and radius 93 What would be the approximate luminous lifetime of the Sun if it derived its energy entirely from gravitational contraction A a million years B a century C 100 million years D 10 billion years E 100 billion years 94 Approximately how long does it take the energy produced in the Sun s core to reach the Sun s surface A a year B 1000 years C a second D a minute E 100000 years 95 In the outer 20 of the Sun s atmosphere energy is transported by what means A conduction B winds C convection D magnetic elds E radiation 96 Why do sunspots appear dark A They are objects transiting in front of the Sun B They emit no light C They are cooler than their surroundings D They are transparent and let us see deeper darker layers E They are shadows 97 What is the interval of time between one sunspot maximum and the next A 11 years B 11 weeks C 11 centuries D 11 months E 11 days 98 Which of the following worlds is not currently likely to have life A Io B Mars C Europa D Venus E Ganymede 99 The equation which tries to predict the number of civilizations which we may be able to contact is called A The Drake Equation B Emc2 C Kepler s Third Law D Newton39s Second Law E The Big Bang Equation 100 The planets discovered to be orbiting other solartype stars have masses that are similar to that of A Jupiter B Earth C the Moon D the Sun E Pluto 101 The oldest fossils date from about how long after Earth formed A 30 billion years B 10 million years C 10 billion years D 1 billion years E 3 billion years 102 Suppose a number of planets all have the same mass but different sizes and temperatures Which of the following planets is most likely to retain a thick atmosphere A small cool B cannot be predicted C small hot D large cool E large hot 103 An organism s characteristics are encoded in its A carbon atoms B DNA C proteins D amino acids E RNA 104 Possible evidence that life once existed on Mars has been discovered The evidence A was discovered in a meteorite that originated on Mars B consisted of chlorophyll lines found in spectra of Mars C was seen in images of the surface of Mars taken by Global Surveyor D consisted of fossils photographed during the Viking mission E was discovered in samples of Mars returned to Earth by a spacecraft 105 About how long does it take radio signals to travel from the Earth to the nearest stars a few millennia a few minutes a few years a few centuries a few weeks F1190 90899 9 memgtwgtow UmgtmmmUwam00gtUUUmOme0gtw0mgt0wwmmwgtgtUUmUU 51 52 54 55 57 58 60 61 63 64 66 67 69 70 72 73 75 76 78 79 81 82 84 85 87 88 90 91 93 94 96 97 tgtUgt00mmmgtogt030worn000moomgtgtwwmoommowoomwwooooommwww 99 100 A Astro 2 m CreaIed 4 54 03 PM PST 101 102 103 104 105 0gtWgtU


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