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Foundations of Earth

by: Melyna Mayert

Foundations of Earth PSC 152

Melyna Mayert
GPA 3.99


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Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melyna Mayert on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 152 at South Carolina State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/225409/psc-152-south-carolina-state-university in Physical Science at South Carolina State University.


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Date Created: 10/20/15
The Outer Planets PSC 152 Review I Which planets are the outer planets I ih the correct order I Which ones are the outer Jovian planets Jupiter I Largest planet I Vivid cloud bands I fast rotation every 10 hours I Composition mainly H He and H compounds I Faint rings I Many many moons Overview I In this section I What are the characteristics of each piahet i I What are the simiiarities ahd differehces i I How do they compare to the ihher piahets i Major Characteristics I What are the major characteristics of each of the outer planets I Reviewfrom last lecture Saturn I Bright rings I Faint cloud bands I Ammonia ice in clouds I Main composition H He H compounds I Structure similar to Jupiter I Many moons Uranus Neptune I Blue methane rich atmosphere I Blue methane rich atmosphere I No cloud bands visible I Cloud bands visible I Rotates on its side I Fast rotation and axis is upright I Large mantle of liquidice slush I Structurally similar to Uranus 39 Ammonia methane Water and hydrogen I extremely fast winds up to 2200 kmhr 39 Faint rings and mUItiple moons I Faint rings and multiple moons Their Structure Which one is which LL LaJnl ml 0 km 50000 Molecular hydrogen Metallic hydrogen Ices c w W Norton and Company Common characteristics Reasons I Your thoughts I Understanding the characteristics of the outer Size planets is important Structure I Understanding what causes those characteristics is better I Composition H and H compounds I High pressure and temperature in core I Rings and many moons covered later Size I Why do they have a larger size I Here gases were not driven off by Sun I Gravity pulled both solids and gases together I More material gt larger size Structure I What causes this structure I Mostly composed of gas I gravity compresses gases as you move inward I When gases are compressed enough they form liquids Weather patterns I What causes the weather we see on the planets I Large atmosphere and fluid layers I Fast rotation I Uneven heating I Large scale convection and Coriolis I Wind bands develop I Storms form at the boundaries Coloration I What cause them to be different colors I Composition of the upper atmosphere llMGNlUM HYDRDSULFlDE CLOUDS EGFWSTAL CLOUDS WATEF DROPLETS TRACE COMPOUNDS Saturn ammonia ice FLUID MOLECULAR39 annoe EN rRANsmoN ZONE Uranus methane POSSIBLE CORE T 39 Structure I What would happen if a space ship went to the Jovian planets I There is no surface to land on I Probably wouldn t get to the core Gaseous hydrogen 1 Density uboul 4 l gramcmJ Metallic hydrogen 39 Density oboul gramscm3 7 Com oi iron lock and wuler Densin at center about is 3 Earth or comparison 8 Compressed by n a I No gravin Grovlly overhung 9 gramscm A lb North pole North pole 50 0 50 100 O 200 400 Velucity mls Velocity rns c W W Norton and Company Uranus weather and seasons Inclass activity I in groups of 2 I List 4 ways the Jovian planets are different than the inner planets I For one of the differences above explain why they have this difference I List 1 similarity between the outer and inner planets Pluto planet or small body Rings and Moons I All have rings and many moons I We will discuss why in the next lecture Pluto Pluto planet or small body I By our definition of a planet I Large enough for gravity to form it into a sphere I lt a planet Pluto not like the others I What is different I Smallest planet I Composition Ice rock slight atmosphere I eccentric orbit crosses Neptune s I Orbit is inclined I Spin axis is tilted Pluto not like the others I Similar to asteroid or comet I Other asteroidscomets found at a similar distance to the Sun animation I Theories I Pluto is really large asteroidcomet pulled in by Neptune s graVity I Pluto is first discovered at a class of obiects beyond epturie The Inner Planets PSC 152 Major Characteristics I What are the major characteristics of each of the inner planets I Review from last lecture Mercury I smallest inner planet I looks like Moon gray bare cratered I essentially no atmosphere Overview I In this section I What are the charcteristics of each planet I What are the common characteristics I How do these properties relate to each other Mercury Venus Venus I a dense CO2 atmosphere I covered with deep sulfuric acid clouds I hottest planet I immense volcanic peaks tower over desolate plains Eanh I Great variety I blue seas white clouds and ice caps red deserts green jungles mountains I Lifell Mars I Thin CO2 atmosphere I vast red deserts with craters and dunes I polar caps of ice and 002 I canyons and dry river beds I ancient volcanoes Commonalties I What do they all have in common I What caused these characteristics Commonalities I have similar sizes and structure I lronmckelcore Rockymanlle and crust Commonalties I What caused this common structure I They are formed in the inner part of the solarsystem from the same material I Solid material formed clumps I Gases pushed away bythe Sun I Differentiation I Cooling and craterlhg quotWhyquot is most important I Memorizing differences is hard and meaningless I Understanding the reasons gives meaning to the facts and makes it easier to remember them Earth formation I How did Earth s structure form I Video review I From Nova Origins humseries Differences I What makes each planet unique I See fact sheet I What caused these differences in the characteristics of each inner planet OVerview Role of Mass and Radius Role of Internal Activity I Mass and radlus allecl lnlerlorlerrlperalure lnlernal aollvlly allecls lne sunaoe rrlallergt nol as nol lnlernall l y gt more lava on me surlace I Thls ln lurn delerrrllnes lhe level Ol leclonlc aCllllll More lava gt lealures are erased more ollen I Smallergt nol as aollve Examples lnlernal aollvlly also allecls a planel s almospnere I Mercurylne leasl acllvel volcanlo gases are me rrlosl llkely source ol gases lnen arsl Less aollvlly gt less gas I lnen Venus and Ea h I w I 9 Role of Mass and Radius Role of Sunlight I Mass and radlus allecl almospnere I Heallng depends on planel s dlslance lrorrl Sun I Low rrlass Mercury and Mars Wlll have a srrlallersource ol gas lnan ll I closer gt warrrler lunner gt cooler VenusEa me lowsurlace gravlly ol lnese srrlall planels also rrleans lney Wlll Example have trouble relalnlnglne gases lnel generale Mercury dawme Side is very m 39 Examp es I lvlars dayllrrle slde ls much colder Mercurylne leasl almosphelel l en arsl Then VenusEann Role of Sunlight Role of Atmosphere I Heal and nlgn energy llgrll lrorn Sun can aller almospnere I Break aparl molecu es Drlve ell llgnl gases wmle lerrlperalure allecls me almosprlerel me opposlle ls also lrue Almospnere alleolslnelemperalure I warrrlln b reennouse ellecl I Example g M Meroqu losl rrlosl ol me llule almosphere ll nad Examples Venusl UV breaks H20 apan Wlln lne H escaplng lnlo space Venus ls nollesl Earln ls warrrlerlnan Moon Role of Atmosphere I Atmosphere can affect surface Protects against impacts I Wind erosion covers impact craters Examples Mercury Mars and Moon many impacts craters Earihi Venus not as many not as VlSl e Role of Biological Processes I photosynthesis plants convert H20 and 002 gt 02 I Earth s atmosphere has oxygen I Planets cover and break down rocky surface I Animals People shape surface I sea creatures turn CU2 into rock Combined Effects I Nlars Venus and Earth started With similar atmospheres cog with traces of N2 and H20 I but were then modified by I sunlight tectonic actiVity and in the case of the Earth life Role of Water Content I The water near Earth s surface makes possible many chemica reactions not found elsewhere I Examples Biological processes lll Ci2 removed from atmosphere by dissolving ln water I Wateralso causes large scale erosion Combined Effects I Surfaces all started outsmooth I then shaped by I cooling tectonics impacts and erosion I they ended up with different surfaces Differences I Two main factors can be usedto explain all of these differences I Planetary size I Distance from Sun Inclass actin I Discuss your answers in groups em I How would Mercury be differem if ir was larger I How would Mars be differem if ir was closer 0 me Sun


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