AMERICAN HIST SINCE 1877
AMERICAN HIST SINCE 1877 HIST 202
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robert Fay on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Lori Ostarly-Ulfers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/225413/hist-202-southeastern-louisiana-university in History at Southeastern Louisiana University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
The Age of Containment 19461954 Yalta conferencei helped set the stage for the Cold War It was the last meeting between Stalin Churchill and FDR about post war Europe Stalin would get Poland for two years and then have to hold free elections of which were never held Germany would be split into four occupation zones The Soviets would control the side containing Berlin and then Berlin would be divided into four occupation zones The occupiers to help with rebuilding and aid would be the US Soviet Union Great Britain and France The years following the Second World War found for the first time ever the United States assuming a role of military and political leadership in international affairs This was most evident in USSoviet relations The end of the war also brought with it the end of the tenuous cooperative alliance between these two great nations In 1945 President Truman added to these deterioration of relations by suddenly suspending financial assistance to the Soviet Union By 1946 the chill transformed into the Cold War At this point the only advantage the US had over the Soviet Union was the atomic bomb In 1947 George Kennan our first expert on Communist Russia urged the United States to adopt a policy of containing Soviet expansionism Under the Truman Doctrine financial and military aid was provided to Greece and Turkey to fight communism From 19461951 the United States gave financial assistance to seventeen nations in Western Europe under the Marshall Plan In 1948 the CIA played an active but covert role in fighting communism in Italy and France by preventing the Communist parties in those countries from scoring election victories America s containment policy was repeatedly tested in the late 1940s The first major challenge occurred in 1948 when the Soviets in East Germany blockaded all roads leading into Berlin The United States responded by airlifting supplies into the city for nearly a year until Soviet leader Joseph Stalin reopened the highways This unsuccessful attempt to secure control of Berlin prompted the United States to help organize the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO with eleven other nations in 1949 It was an entangling alliance where nations would prevent war and contain communism Ifone were attacked it would be treated as if all twelve were attacked The next great challenge to the containment policy came in China when Communist leader Mao Zedong successfully toppled the Americansupported forces of J iang Jieshi in 1949 J iang s supporters ed to the island of Formosa Taiwan and China came under the control of Communism The fall of China the Soviet Union s successful test of an atomic weapon in 1949 and the tense situation in Germany and Eastern Europe led the United States to reconsider its Cold War foreign policy The National Security Council issued document number 68 NSC68 which called for a huge military buildup and the increased use of covert action propaganda and economic pressure as defensive measures against communism We redefined the meaning of a free nation as being an anticommunist nation The United States took a military stand against communism during the Truman years in Korea North Korean forces crossed the 38th parallel into South Korea in 1950 prompting the United States to send assistance to South Korea and its leader Synghmann Rhee under the heading of United Nations Within three months of their opening attack however North Korean forces had taken Seoul and reached the southern tip of the peninsula at Pusan United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur countered the North Korean offensive under North Korea s leader Kim Il Sung by landing at Inchon and quickly retaking Seoul MacArthur then forced the North Koreans back toward the Yalu River the North KoreanChina border Feeling threatened Chinese communist forces joined North Korea and pushed the UN forces south of the 38th parallel MacAIthur told Truman he wanted more troops to move back up above the 38th parallel Truman told him to stay at the 38th MacArthur started to take issue publicly with Truman and Truman fired him A stalemate then existed until 1953 when an armistice was finally arranged by the new President Eisenhower He implied that he may bomb North and South Korea if they didn t come to an agreement They agreed to stay split
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